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Scientific Articles

Transdermal Immunization of Elastic Liposome-Laden Recombinant Chimeric Fusion Protein of P. falciparum (PfMSP-Fu(24)) Mounts Protective Immune Response

February 11, 2021 - 09:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chaudhari R, Tandel N, Sahu K, Negi S, Bashir H, Rupareliya A, Mishra RP, Dalai SK, Tyagi RK
Reference: 
Nanomaterials (Basel). 2021 Feb 5;11(2):406

Transdermal immunization exhibits poor immunogenic responses due to poor permeability of antigens through the skin. Elastic liposomes, the ultradeformable nanoscale lipid vesicles, overcome the permeability issues and prove a versatile nanocarrier for transcutaneous delivery of protein, peptide, and nucleic acid antigens. Elastic liposome-mediated subcutaneous delivery of chimeric fusion protein (PfMSP-Fu24) of Plasmodium falciparum exhibited improved immunogenic responses. Elastic liposomes-mediated immunization of PfMSP-Fu24 conferred immunity to the asexual blood-stage infection. Present study is an attempt to compare the protective immune response mounted by the PfMSP-Fu24 upon administered through transdermal and intramuscular routes.

Transmission-blocking compound candidates against Plasmodium vivax using P. berghei as an initial screening

February 11, 2021 - 09:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fabbri C, Trindade AO, Andrade FS, Souza MF, Ríos-Velásquez CM, Lacerda MVG, Monteiro WM, Costa FTM, Amino R, Lopes SCP
Reference: 
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2021 Feb 8;116:e200513

Different strategies for improvement of malaria control and elimination are based on the blockage of malaria parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. These strategies include the drugs that target the plasmodial sexual stages in humans and the early developmental stages inside mosquitoes.

A comparative analysis of the outcome of malaria case surveillance strategies in Sri Lanka in the prevention of re‐establishment phase

February 10, 2021 - 10:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
W. M. Kumudunayana T. de A. W. Gunasekera, Risintha Premaratne, Deepika Fernando, Muzrif Munaz, M. G. Y. Piyasena, Devika Perera, Rajitha Wickremasinghe, K. D. N. Prasad Ranaweera and Kamini Mendis
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:80, 9 February 2021

Sri Lanka sustained its malaria-free status by implementing, among other interventions, three core case detection strategies namely Passive Case Detection (PCD), Reactive Case Detection (RACD) and Proactive Case Detection (PACD). The outcomes of these strategies were analysed in terms of their effectiveness in detecting malaria infections for the period from 2017 to 2019.

NOT Open Access | Phage Display Screening for Alba Superfamily Proteins from the Human Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium falciparum Reveals a High Level of Association with Protein Modification Pathways and Hints at New Drug Targets

February 10, 2021 - 10:06 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Tajiri M
Reference: 
Acta Parasitol. 2021 Feb 8

A 2016 study estimated that over 3 billion people are currently at risk of contracting malaria. Although a wide variety of medications are available to treat malaria, the parasites have started to exhibit resistance to many commonly used therapeutics necessitating a push for new investigations to identify novel drug targets.

Pfs230 yields higher malaria transmission-blocking vaccine activity than Pfs25 in humans but not mice

February 10, 2021 - 10:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Healy SA, Anderson CF, Duffy PE, et al.
Reference: 
J Clin Invest. 2021 Feb 9:146221

Vaccines that block human-to-mosquito Plasmodium transmission are needed for malaria eradication and clinical trials have targeted zygote antigen Pfs25 for decades. We reported that a Pfs25 protein-protein conjugate vaccine formulated in alum adjuvant induced significant serum functional activity in both US and Malian adults. However, antibody titers declined rapidly, and transmission-reducing activity required four vaccine doses. Functional immunogenicity and durability must be improved before advancing TBV further in clinical development. We hypothesized that the pre-fertilization protein Pfs230 alone or in combination with Pfs25 would improve functional activity.

Efficient treatment of experimental cerebral malaria by an artemisone-SMEDDS system: impact of application route and dosing frequency

February 10, 2021 - 10:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zech J, Salaymeh N, Hunt NH, Mäder K, Golenser J
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Feb 8:AAC.02106-20

Artemisone (ART) has been successfully tested in vitro and in animal models against several diseases. However, its poor aqueous solubility and limited chemical stability are serious challenges. We developed a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) that overcomes these limitations. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of this formulation against experimental cerebral malaria in mice and the impact of its administration using different routes (gavage, intranasal delivery and parenteral injections) and frequency on the efficacy of the treatment.

Optimizing Myanmar’s community-delivered malaria volunteer model: a qualitative study of stakeholders’ perspectives

February 10, 2021 - 09:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Win Han Oo, Elizabeth Hoban, Lisa Gold, Kyu Kyu Than, Thazin La, Aung Thi and Freya J. I. Fowkes
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:79, 8 February 2021

In parallel with the change of malaria policy from control to elimination and declines in the malaria burden in Greater Mekong Sub-region, the motivation and social role of malaria volunteers has declined. To address this public health problem, in Myanmar, the role and responsibilities of malaria volunteers have been transformed into integrated community malaria volunteers (ICMV), that includes the integration of activities for five additional diseases (dengue, lymphatic filariasis, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and leprosy) into their current activities. However, this transformation was not evidence-based and did not consider inputs of different stakeholders. Therefore, qualitative stakeholder consultations were performed to optimize future malaria volunteer models in Myanmar.

Assessment of ASHA for knowledge, diagnosis and treatment on malaria in Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh as part of the malaria elimination demonstration project

February 10, 2021 - 09:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Harsh Rajvanshi, Kalyan B. Saha, Altaf A. Lal, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:78, 8 February 2021

The role of Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) in the health care delivery services at the periphery level is crucial for achieving disease prevention, control and elimination goals. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, practices, priorities and capability of ASHA related to malaria diagnosis and treatment as part of the Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in 1233 villages of district Mandla, Madhya Pradesh.

Rapid ethnographic assessment for potential anti-malarial mass drug administration in an outbreak area of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

February 10, 2021 - 09:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hunter Keys, Keyla Ureña, Jhefres Reyes, Kevin Bardosh, Christopher Pell, Jose Puello, Stephen Blount and Gregory S. Noland
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:76, 8 February 2021

In the Dominican Republic, a recent outbreak of malaria in the capital, Santo Domingo, threatens efforts to eliminate the disease. Mass drug administration (MDA) has been proposed as one strategy to reduce transmission. The success of MDA is contingent upon high levels of acceptance among the target population. To inform the design of future MDA campaigns, this rapid ethnographic assessment examined malaria-related knowledge and attitudes toward malaria MDA among residents of a transmission focus in Santo Domingo.

NOT Open Access | A novel antiplasmodial compound: integration of in silico and in vitro assays

February 10, 2021 - 09:51 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Costa Júnior DB, Araújo JSC, Oliveira LM, Neri FSM, Moreira POL, Taranto AG, Fonseca AL, Varotti FP, Leite FHA
Reference: 
J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2021 Feb 8:1-13

Malaria is a disease caused by Plasmodium genus. which P. falciparum is responsible for the most severe form of the disease, cerebral malaria. In 2018, 405,000 people died of malaria. Antimalarial drugs have serious adverse effects and limited efficacy due to multidrug-resistant strains. One way to overcome these limitations is the use of computational approaches for prioritizing candidates to phenotypic assays and/or in vitro assays against validated targets. Plasmodium falciparum Enoyl-ACP reductase (PfENR) is noteworthy because it catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the biosynthetic pathway of fatty acid.

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