Transdermal immunization exhibits poor immunogenic responses due to poor permeability of antigens through the skin. Elastic liposomes, the ultradeformable nanoscale lipid vesicles, overcome the permeability issues and prove a versatile nanocarrier for transcutaneous delivery of protein, peptide, and nucleic acid antigens. Elastic liposome-mediated subcutaneous delivery of chimeric fusion protein (PfMSP-Fu24) of Plasmodium falciparum exhibited improved immunogenic responses. Elastic liposomes-mediated immunization of PfMSP-Fu24 conferred immunity to the asexual blood-stage infection. Present study is an attempt to compare the protective immune response mounted by the PfMSP-Fu24 upon administered through transdermal and intramuscular routes.
Different strategies for improvement of malaria control and elimination are based on the blockage of malaria parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. These strategies include the drugs that target the plasmodial sexual stages in humans and the early developmental stages inside mosquitoes.
Sri Lanka sustained its malaria-free status by implementing, among other interventions, three core case detection strategies namely Passive Case Detection (PCD), Reactive Case Detection (RACD) and Proactive Case Detection (PACD). The outcomes of these strategies were analysed in terms of their effectiveness in detecting malaria infections for the period from 2017 to 2019.
A 2016 study estimated that over 3 billion people are currently at risk of contracting malaria. Although a wide variety of medications are available to treat malaria, the parasites have started to exhibit resistance to many commonly used therapeutics necessitating a push for new investigations to identify novel drug targets.
Vaccines that block human-to-mosquito Plasmodium transmission are needed for malaria eradication and clinical trials have targeted zygote antigen Pfs25 for decades. We reported that a Pfs25 protein-protein conjugate vaccine formulated in alum adjuvant induced significant serum functional activity in both US and Malian adults. However, antibody titers declined rapidly, and transmission-reducing activity required four vaccine doses. Functional immunogenicity and durability must be improved before advancing TBV further in clinical development. We hypothesized that the pre-fertilization protein Pfs230 alone or in combination with Pfs25 would improve functional activity.
Artemisone (ART) has been successfully tested in vitro and in animal models against several diseases. However, its poor aqueous solubility and limited chemical stability are serious challenges. We developed a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) that overcomes these limitations. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of this formulation against experimental cerebral malaria in mice and the impact of its administration using different routes (gavage, intranasal delivery and parenteral injections) and frequency on the efficacy of the treatment.
In parallel with the change of malaria policy from control to elimination and declines in the malaria burden in Greater Mekong Sub-region, the motivation and social role of malaria volunteers has declined. To address this public health problem, in Myanmar, the role and responsibilities of malaria volunteers have been transformed into integrated community malaria volunteers (ICMV), that includes the integration of activities for five additional diseases (dengue, lymphatic filariasis, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and leprosy) into their current activities. However, this transformation was not evidence-based and did not consider inputs of different stakeholders. Therefore, qualitative stakeholder consultations were performed to optimize future malaria volunteer models in Myanmar.
The role of Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) in the health care delivery services at the periphery level is crucial for achieving disease prevention, control and elimination goals. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, practices, priorities and capability of ASHA related to malaria diagnosis and treatment as part of the Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in 1233 villages of district Mandla, Madhya Pradesh.
In the Dominican Republic, a recent outbreak of malaria in the capital, Santo Domingo, threatens efforts to eliminate the disease. Mass drug administration (MDA) has been proposed as one strategy to reduce transmission. The success of MDA is contingent upon high levels of acceptance among the target population. To inform the design of future MDA campaigns, this rapid ethnographic assessment examined malaria-related knowledge and attitudes toward malaria MDA among residents of a transmission focus in Santo Domingo.
Malaria is a disease caused by Plasmodium genus. which P. falciparum is responsible for the most severe form of the disease, cerebral malaria. In 2018, 405,000 people died of malaria. Antimalarial drugs have serious adverse effects and limited efficacy due to multidrug-resistant strains. One way to overcome these limitations is the use of computational approaches for prioritizing candidates to phenotypic assays and/or in vitro assays against validated targets. Plasmodium falciparum Enoyl-ACP reductase (PfENR) is noteworthy because it catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the biosynthetic pathway of fatty acid.