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Scientific Articles

Targeted deep amplicon sequencing of kelch 13 and cytochrome b in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from an endemic African country using the Malaria Resistance Surveillance (MaRS) protocol

March 19, 2020 - 08:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
L'Episcopia M, Kelley J, Patel D, Schmedes S, Ravishankar S, Menegon M, Perrotti E, Nurahmed AM, Talha AA, Nour BY, Lucchi N, Severini C, Talundzic E
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Mar 14; 13(1):137

Routine molecular surveillance for imported drug-resistant malaria parasites to the USA and European Union is an important public health activity. The obtained molecular data are used to help keep chemoprophylaxis and treatment guidelines up to date for persons traveling to malaria endemic countries. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide a new and effective way of tracking malaria drug-resistant parasites.

Triple artemisinin-based combination therapies versus artemisinin-based combination therapies for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a multicentre, open-label, randomised clinical trial

March 19, 2020 - 08:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
van der Pluijm RW, Tripura R, Dondorp AM, et al.
Reference: 
Lancet. 2020 Mar 11. pii: S0140-6736(20)30552-3

Artemisinin and partner-drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum are major threats to malaria control and elimination. Triple artemisinin-based combination therapies (TACTs), which combine existing co-formulated ACTs with a second partner drug that is slowly eliminated, might provide effective treatment and delay emergence of antimalarial drug resistance.

Updated list of Anopheles species (Diptera: Culicidae) by country in the Afrotropical Region and associated islands

March 18, 2020 - 15:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Seth R. Irish, David Kyalo, Robert W. Snow & Maureen Coetzee
Reference: 
Zootaxa 4747 (3): 401–449

The distributions of the Afrotropical Anopheles mosquitoes were first summarized in 1938. In 2017, an extensive geo-coded inventory was published for 48 sub-Saharan African countries, including information such as sampling methods, collection dates, geographic co-ordinates and the literature consulted to produce the database.

NOT Open Access | Antimalarial activity of the aqueous extract of the latex of Aloe pirottae Berger. (Aloaceae) against Plasmodium berghei in mice

March 18, 2020 - 14:57 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Dibessa TT, Engidawork E, Nedi T, Teklehaymanot T
Reference: 
J Ethnopharmacol. 2020 Mar 10:112763

In spite of worldwide efforts, malaria remains one of the most devastating illnesses in the world. The huge number of lives it takes and the resistance of malaria parasites to current drugs necessitate the search for new effective antimalarial drugs. Medicinal plants have been the major source of such drugs and A. pirottae is one of these plants used traditionally for treatment of malaria in Ethiopia.

Neurological and psychiatric safety of tafenoquine in Plasmodium vivax relapse prevention: a review

March 18, 2020 - 14:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Stephan Duparc, Stephan Chalon, Scott Miller, Naomi Richardson and Stephen Toovey
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:111, 14 March 2020

Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline anti-malarial drug recently approved as a single-dose (300 mg) therapy for Plasmodium vivax relapse prevention, when co-administered with 3-days of chloroquine or other blood schizonticide. Tafenoquine 200 mg weekly after a loading dose is also approved as travellers’ prophylaxis. The development of tafenoquine has been conducted over many years, using various dosing regimens in diverse populations.

Long-lasting insecticidal nets retain bio-efficacy after 5 years of storage: implications for malaria control programmes

March 18, 2020 - 14:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jeremiah J. Musa, Sarah J. Moore, Jason Moore, Emmanuel Mbuba, Edgar Mbeyela, Dickson Kobe, Johnson K. Swai and Olukayode G. Odufuwa
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:110, 14 March 2020

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the most sustainable and effective malaria control tool currently available. Global targets are for 80% of the population living in malaria endemic areas to have access to (own) and use a LLIN. However, current access to LLINs in endemic areas is 56% due to system inefficiencies and budget limitations. Thus, cost-effective approaches to maximize access to effective LLINs in endemic areas are required. This study evaluated whether LLINs that had been stored for 5 years under manufacturer’s recommended conditions may be optimally effective against Anopheles mosquitoes, to inform malaria control programmes and governments on the periods over which LLINs may be stored between distributions, in an effort to maximize use of available LLINs.

Creating mosquito-free outdoor spaces using transfluthrin-treated chairs and ribbons

March 18, 2020 - 14:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
John P. Masalu, Marceline Finda, Gerry F. Killeen, Halfan S. Ngowo, Polius G. Pinda and Fredros O. Okumu
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:109, 10 March 2020

Residents of malaria-endemic communities spend several hours outdoors performing different activities, e.g. cooking, story-telling or eating, thereby exposing themselves to potentially-infectious mosquitoes. This compromises effectiveness of indoor interventions, notably long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). This study characterized common peri-domestic spaces in rural south-eastern Tanzania, and assessed protective efficacy against mosquitoes of hessian fabric mats and ribbons treated with the spatial repellent, transfluthrin, and fitted to chairs and outdoor kitchens, respectively.

Effectiveness of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine for Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Pregnant Women

March 18, 2020 - 14:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mlugu EM, Minzi O, Asghar M, Färnert A, Kamuhabwa AAR, Aklillu E
Reference: 
Pathogens. 2020 Mar 11;9(3). pii: E207

Effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) for prevention of malaria and adverse birth outcomes can be compromised by parasites-resistance to sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine. This study prospectively evaluated the effectiveness of IPTp-SP in Southeast Tanzania. From January 2017 to May 2019, HIV-negative and malaria-negative (mRDT) pregnant women attending their first antenatal-care visit in the second or third trimester (n = 500) were enrolled to receive monthly IPTp-SP and followed the protocol till delivery.

Modelling the epidemiology of residual Plasmodium vivax malaria in a heterogeneous host population: A case study in the Amazon Basin

March 18, 2020 - 14:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Corder RM, Ferreira MU, Gomes MGM
Reference: 
PLoS Comput Biol. 2020 Mar 13;16(3):e1007377

The overall malaria burden in the Americas has decreased dramatically over the past two decades, but residual transmission pockets persist across the Amazon Basin, where Plasmodium vivax is the predominant infecting species. Current elimination efforts require a better quantitative understanding of malaria transmission dynamics for planning, monitoring, and evaluating interventions at the community level.

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