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Scientific Articles

Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Co-administered Ruxolitinib and Artemether-Lumefantrine in Healthy Adults

November 3, 2021 - 20:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chughlay MF, Barnes KI, Chalon S, et al.
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Oct 25:AAC0158421

Despite repeated malaria infection, individuals living in malaria endemic areas remain vulnerable to re-infection. The Janus kinase (JAK1/2) inhibitor ruxolitinib could potentially disrupt the parasite-induced dysfunctional immune response when administered with anti-malarial therapy. This randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, single center phase 1 trial investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of ruxolitinib and the approved antimalarial artemether-lumefantrine in combination.

Overabundance of Asaia and Serratia Bacteria Is Associated with Deltamethrin Insecticide Susceptibility in Anopheles coluzzii from Agboville, Côte d'Ivoire

November 3, 2021 - 20:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pelloquin B, Kristan M, Edi C, Meiwald A, Clark E, Jeffries CL, Walker T, Dada N, Messenger LA
Reference: 
Microbiol Spectr. 2021 Oct 31;9(2):e0015721

Insecticide resistance among mosquito species is now a pervasive phenomenon that threatens to jeopardize global malaria vector control efforts. Evidence of links between the mosquito microbiota and insecticide resistance is emerging, with significant enrichment of insecticide degrading bacteria and enzymes in resistant populations. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, we characterized and compared the microbiota of Anopheles coluzzii in relation to their deltamethrin resistance and exposure profiles.

Aetiology and outcome of non-traumatic coma in African children: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

November 3, 2021 - 20:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ray STJ, Fuller C, Boubour A, Bonnett LJ, Lalloo DG, Seydel KB, Griffiths MJ
Reference: 
Syst Rev. 2021 Oct 29;10(1):282

Non-traumatic coma is a common acute childhood presentation to healthcare facilities in Africa and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Historically, the majority of cases were attributed to cerebral malaria (CM). With the recent drastic reduction in malaria incidence, non-malarial coma is becoming a larger proportion of cases and determining the aetiology is diagnostically challenging, particularly in resource-limited settings. The purpose of this study will be to evaluate the aetiology and prognosis of non-traumatic coma in African children.

Epidemiologic Analysis of Efforts to Achieve and Sustain Malaria Elimination along the China-Myanmar Border

November 3, 2021 - 20:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Huang F, Zhang L, Tu H, Cui YW, Zhou SS, Xia ZG, Zhou HN
Reference: 
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2869-2873

Malaria cases have dramatically declined in China along the Myanmar border, attributed mainly to adoption of the 1-3-7 surveillance and response approach. No indigenous cases have been reported in China since 2017.

Comprehensive characterization of internal and cuticle surface microbiota of laboratory-reared F1 Anopheles albimanus originating from different sites

October 30, 2021 - 14:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nsa Dada, Ana Cristina Benedict, Francisco López, Juan C. Lol, Mili Sheth, Nicole Dzuris, Norma Padilla and Audrey Lenhart
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:414, 23 October 2021

Research on mosquito-microbe interactions may lead to new tools for mosquito and mosquito-borne disease control. To date, such research has largely utilized laboratory-reared mosquitoes that typically lack the microbial diversity of wild populations. A logical progression in this area involves working under controlled settings using field-collected mosquitoes or, in most cases, their progeny. Thus, an understanding of how laboratory colonization affects the assemblage of mosquito microbiota would aid in advancing mosquito microbiome studies and their applications beyond laboratory settings.

Estimating intervention effectiveness in trials of malaria interventions with contamination

October 30, 2021 - 14:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lea Multerer, Fiona Vanobberghen, Tracy R. Glass, Alexandra Hiscox, Steven W. Lindsay, Willem Takken, Alfred Tiono and Thomas Smith
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:413, 20 October 2021

In cluster randomized trials (CRTs) or stepped wedge cluster randomized trials (SWCRTs) of malaria interventions, mosquito movement leads to contamination between trial arms unless buffer zones separate the clusters. Contamination can be accounted for in the analysis, yielding an estimate of the contamination range, the distance over which contamination measurably biases the effectiveness.

The impact of mosquito proof lids of underground tanks “tanka” on the breeding of Anopheles stephensi in a village in western Rajasthan, India

October 30, 2021 - 14:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Himmat Singh, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Kumar Vikram, Rekha Saxena and Amit Sharma
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:412, 19 October 2021

Western Rajasthan in India has a typical desert climate. Until the introduction of the canal water irrigation system, malaria was an unstable and seasonal occurrence. Due to the scarcity of water, the community practised having one large underground tank (locally known as the tanka) in their house to collect rainwater for long-term household use. Anopheles stephensi, one of the major malaria vectors, breeds in improperly covered "tankas” if not properly covered and harbours a vector population throughout the year.

Malaria diagnosis in a malaria non-endemic high-resource country: high variation of diagnostic strategy in clinical laboratories in the Netherlands

October 30, 2021 - 14:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Marrit B. Boonstra, Rob Koelewijn, Eric A. T. Brienen, Welmoed Silvis, Foekje F. Stelma, Theo G. Mank, Bert Mulder, Lisette van Lieshout and Jaap J. van Hellemond
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:411, 19 October 2021

Microscopic examination of thick and thin blood films is the gold standard in current guidelines for the diagnosis of malaria, but guidelines do not uniformly agree on which combination of other methods should be used and when.

Increase in the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum with kelch13 C580Y mutation and decline in pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutant alleles in Papua New Guinea

October 30, 2021 - 14:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Naoko Yoshida, Masato Yamauchi, Ryosuke Morikawa, Francis Hombhanje and Toshihiro Mita
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:410, 19 October 2021

The C580Y mutation in the Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 gene is the most commonly observed variant in artemisinin-resistant isolates in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Until 2017, it had not been identified outside the GMS, except for Guyana/Amazonia. In 2017, three parasites carrying the C580Y mutation were identified in Papua New Guinea (PNG). As the C580Y allele rapidly spread in the GMS, there is concern that this mutant is now spreading in PNG.

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