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Scientific Articles

NPC1161B, an 8-Aminoquinoline Analog, Is Metabolized in the Mosquito and Inhibits Plasmodium falciparum Oocyst Maturation

November 19, 2019 - 15:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hamerly T, Tweedell RE, Hritzo B, Nyasembe VO, Tekwani BL, Nanayakkara NP, Walker LA, Dinglasan R
Reference: 
Front Pharmacol. 2019 Oct 25;10:1265.

We performed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS analysis of methanol extracts from the midguts of mosquitoes fed on an NPC1161B (434.15 m/z)-treated blood meal and identified a compound with a mass of 520.2 m/z, likely a conjugate of NPC1161B or an oxidized metabolite. These findings establish NPC1161B, and potentially its metabolites, as transmission-blocking candidates for the treatment of P. falciparum.

Not Open Access | Outcomes measures in children after acute central nervous system infections and malaria

November 19, 2019 - 15:19 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Postels, Douglas G; Soldatos, Ariane; LaRovere, Kerri L
Reference: 
Current Opinion in Pediatrics: December 2019 - Volume 31 - Issue 6 - p 756–762

Standardized documentation and coding of clinically important outcomes is needed. Further research to evaluate effective practices using acute adjunctive and rehabilitation therapies will be aided by outcome measure standardization.

Singultus as an Unusual Debut of Plasmodium vivax Malaria

November 19, 2019 - 15:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Guadarrama-Conzuelo F, Saad Manzanera AD.
Reference: 
Cureus. 2019 Sep 1;11(9):e5548.

We describe this previously unreported association, hypothesize on the potential mechanism and review the literature on singultus and unusual presentations of Plasmodium infections.

Not Open Access | Cyclooxygenase-2 haplotypes influence the longitudinal risk of malaria and severe malarial anemia in Kenyan children from a holoendemic transmission region

November 19, 2019 - 15:08 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Samuel B. Anyona, Nicolas W. Hengartner, Douglas J. Perkins, et al.
Reference: 
Journal of Human Genetics (2019)

The investigation was carried out in children (n = 1081, age; 2–70 months) residing in a holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission region of western Kenya. At enrollment, genotypes/haplotypes (controlling for anemia-promoting covariates) did not reveal any strong effects on susceptibility to either malaria or SMA. 

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Antibodies to Cryptic Epitopes in Distant Homologues Underpin a Mechanism of Heterologous Immunity between Plasmodium vivax PvDBP and Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA

November 19, 2019 - 15:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Catherine J. Mitran, Angie Mena, Stephanie K. Yanow, et al.
Reference: 
American Society For Microbiology Volume 10 Issue 5 e02343-19

Here, we describe the molecular mechanism underlying this cross-species immunity. We identified an epitope in subdomain 1 (SD1) within the Duffy binding-like (DBL) domain of PvDBP that gives rise to cross-reactive antibodies to VAR2CSA and show that human antibodies affinity purified against a synthetic SD1 peptide block parasite adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) in vitro. 

Protective mechanism of artemisinin on rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells against apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide via activation of c-Raf-Erk1/2-p90rsk-CREB pathway

November 19, 2019 - 14:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jiankang Fang, Xia Zhao, Shuai Li, Xingan Xing, Haitao Wang, Philip Lazarovici & Wenhua Zheng
Reference: 
Stem Cell Research & Therapy volume 10, Article number: 312 (2019)

These studies demonstrate the proof of concept of artemisinin therapeutic potential to improve survival in vitro of BMSCs exposed to ROS-induced apoptosis and suggest that artemisinin-mediated protection occurs via the activation of c-Raf-Erk1/2-p90rsk-CREB signaling pathway.

Not Open Access | Adherence and population pharmacokinetic properties of amodiaquine when used for seasonal malaria chemoprevention in African children

November 19, 2019 - 14:56 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Junjie Ding, Matthew E. Coldiron, Joel Tarning, et al.
Reference: 
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 106, Issue 6

The developed methodology to evaluate adherence showed a sensitivity of 65‐71% when the first dose of SMC was directly observed and 71‐73% when no doses were observed in a routine programmatic setting. Adherence simulations and measured desethylamodiaquine concentrations in the case‐control children showed complete adherence (all doses taken) in less than 20% of children. 

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The burden of submicroscopic and asymptomatic malaria in India revealed from epidemiology studies at three varied transmission sites in India

November 19, 2019 - 14:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Anna Maria van Eijk, Patrick L. Sutton, Alex Eapen, et al.
Reference: 
Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 17095 (2019)

Exploratory spatial analysis identified a number of potential malaria hotspots at all three sites. There is a considerable burden of submicroscopic and asymptomatic malaria in malarious regions in India, which may act as a reservoir with implications for malaria elimination strategies.

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Controlled Human Malaria Infection in Semi-Immune Kenyan Adults (CHMI-SIKA): a study protocol to investigate in vivo Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite growth in the context of pre-existing immunity

November 19, 2019 - 14:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Melissa C. Kapulu , Patricia Njuguna, Mainga M. Hamaluba
Reference: 
Wellcome Open Research 2019, 3:155

We aim to recruit up to 200 healthy adult volunteers from areas of differing malaria transmission in Kenya, and after confirming their health status through clinical examination and routine haematology and biochemistry, we will comprehensively characterize immunity to malaria using >100 blood-stage antigens. 

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VAR2CSA binding phenotype has ancient origin and arose before Plasmodium falciparum crossed to humans: implications in placental malaria vaccine design

November 19, 2019 - 14:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Stéphane Gangnard, Arnaud Chêne, Sébastien Dechavanne, Anand Srivastava, Marion Avril, Joseph D. Smith & Benoît Gamain
Reference: 
Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 16978 (2019)

We explored the possibility that conserved epitopes could exist between VAR2CSA from the chimpanzee parasite Plasmodium reichenowi and Plasmodium falciparum sequences. Making use of VAR2CSA recombinant proteins originating from both species, we showed that VAR2CSA from P. reichenowi (Pr-VAR2CSA) binds to the placental receptor CSA with high specificity and affinity.

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