We performed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS analysis of methanol extracts from the midguts of mosquitoes fed on an NPC1161B (434.15 m/z)-treated blood meal and identified a compound with a mass of 520.2 m/z, likely a conjugate of NPC1161B or an oxidized metabolite. These findings establish NPC1161B, and potentially its metabolites, as transmission-blocking candidates for the treatment of P. falciparum.
Standardized documentation and coding of clinically important outcomes is needed. Further research to evaluate effective practices using acute adjunctive and rehabilitation therapies will be aided by outcome measure standardization.
We describe this previously unreported association, hypothesize on the potential mechanism and review the literature on singultus and unusual presentations of Plasmodium infections.
The investigation was carried out in children (n = 1081, age; 2–70 months) residing in a holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission region of western Kenya. At enrollment, genotypes/haplotypes (controlling for anemia-promoting covariates) did not reveal any strong effects on susceptibility to either malaria or SMA.
Here, we describe the molecular mechanism underlying this cross-species immunity. We identified an epitope in subdomain 1 (SD1) within the Duffy binding-like (DBL) domain of PvDBP that gives rise to cross-reactive antibodies to VAR2CSA and show that human antibodies affinity purified against a synthetic SD1 peptide block parasite adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) in vitro.
These studies demonstrate the proof of concept of artemisinin therapeutic potential to improve survival in vitro of BMSCs exposed to ROS-induced apoptosis and suggest that artemisinin-mediated protection occurs via the activation of c-Raf-Erk1/2-p90rsk-CREB signaling pathway.
The developed methodology to evaluate adherence showed a sensitivity of 65‐71% when the first dose of SMC was directly observed and 71‐73% when no doses were observed in a routine programmatic setting. Adherence simulations and measured desethylamodiaquine concentrations in the case‐control children showed complete adherence (all doses taken) in less than 20% of children.
Exploratory spatial analysis identified a number of potential malaria hotspots at all three sites. There is a considerable burden of submicroscopic and asymptomatic malaria in malarious regions in India, which may act as a reservoir with implications for malaria elimination strategies.
We aim to recruit up to 200 healthy adult volunteers from areas of differing malaria transmission in Kenya, and after confirming their health status through clinical examination and routine haematology and biochemistry, we will comprehensively characterize immunity to malaria using >100 blood-stage antigens.
We explored the possibility that conserved epitopes could exist between VAR2CSA from the chimpanzee parasite Plasmodium reichenowi and Plasmodium falciparum sequences. Making use of VAR2CSA recombinant proteins originating from both species, we showed that VAR2CSA from P. reichenowi (Pr-VAR2CSA) binds to the placental receptor CSA with high specificity and affinity.