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Scientific Articles

Dynamics of anti-malarial antibodies in non-immune patients during and after a first and unique Plasmodium falciparum malaria episode

June 30, 2020 - 14:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zeno Bisoffi, Marco Bertoldi, Ronaldo Silva, Giulia Bertoli, Tamara Ursini, Stefania Marocco, Chiara Piubelli, Elena Pomari, Dora Buonfrate and Federico Gobbi
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:228, 26 June 2020

Malaria is a major travel medicine issue. Retrospective confirmation of a malaria episode diagnosed in an endemic area can have relevant implications in transfusional medicine in Europe, where blood donors are excluded from donation on the basis of positive malaria serology. However, there is scarce evidence on the dynamics of anti-malarial antibodies after a first malaria episode in non-immune individuals. The first aim of this study was to describe the dynamics of anti-malarial antibodies in a first malaria episode in non-immune travellers. Secondary objectives were to assess the sensitivity of serology for a retrospective diagnosis in non-immune travellers diagnosed while abroad and to discuss the implications in transfusional medicine.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium falciparum sexual parasites develop in human erythroblasts and affect erythropoiesis

June 29, 2020 - 16:31 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Neveu G, Richard C, Lavazec C, et al.
Reference: 
Blood. 2020 Jun 26:blood.2019004746

Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes, the sexual stages responsible for malaria parasites transmission from humans to mosquitoes, are key targets for malaria elimination. Immature gametocytes develop in the human bone marrow parenchyma, where they accumulate around erythroblastic islands.

System-wide biochemical analysis reveals ozonide antimalarials initially act by disrupting Plasmodium falciparum haemoglobin digestion

June 29, 2020 - 16:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Giannangelo C, Siddiqui G, De Paoli A, Anderson BM, Edgington-Mitchell LE, Charman SA, Creek DJ
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog. 2020 Jun 26;16(6):e1008485

Ozonide antimalarials, OZ277 (arterolane) and OZ439 (artefenomel), are synthetic peroxide-based antimalarials with potent activity against the deadliest malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Here we used a “multi-omics” workflow, in combination with activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), to demonstrate that peroxide antimalarials initially target the haemoglobin (Hb) digestion pathway to kill malaria parasites. Time-dependent metabolomic profiling of ozonide-treated P. falciparum infected red blood cells revealed a rapid depletion of short Hb-derived peptides followed by subsequent alterations in lipid and nucleotide metabolism, while untargeted peptidomics showed accumulation of longer Hb-derived peptides.

NOT Open Access | Altered Drug Transport by Plasmodium Falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter Isoforms Harboring Mutations Associated with Piperaquine Resistance

June 29, 2020 - 16:27 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Riegel BE, Roepe PD
Reference: 
Biochemistry. 2020 Jun 26

Patterns of multiple amino acid substitutions in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT; UniProtKB - Q8IBZ9) have previously been shown to mediate chloroquine resistance (CQR) in P. falciparum malarial parasites. Recent reports suggest that novel mutations in PfCRT may mediate resistance to piperaquine (PPQ), which is used extensively as a partner drug in one prominent artemisinin combination therapy (ACT).

Haematological Parameters and Spleen Rate of Asymptomatic and Malaria Negative Children in Edo South District, Nigeria

June 29, 2020 - 16:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nwaneri D, Oladipo O, Ifebi E, Oviawe O, Asemota O, Ogboghodo B, Israel-Aina Y, Sadoh A
Reference: 
Ann Glob Health. 2020 Jun 17; 86(1):62

Malaria is commonly associated with alteration in haematologic cells of infected individuals in both the acute uncomplicated and severe phases. Whether this alteration occurs in the asymptomatic phase of the disease is still being investigated.

A Japanese man with malaria tests negative for fever after spending 6 months in rural Kenya

June 29, 2020 - 16:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sugimoto T, Takahashi K, Matsui K, Asada M, Kaneko O, Ariyoshi K
Reference: 
Trop Med Health. 2020 Jun 24; 48:52

A previously healthy Japanese man in his fifties was admitted to our hospital because of a recurrent fever after returning from Kenya and Madagascar. He was ambulant with a body temperature of 36.6 °C. His physical examination revealed normal except for tender hepatomegaly.

Leveraging risk maps of malaria vector abundance to guide control efforts reduces malaria incidence in Eastern Province, Zambia

June 29, 2020 - 16:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Larsen DA, Martin A, Pollard D, Nielsen CF, Hamainza B, Burns M, Stevenson J, Winters A
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Jun 25; 10(1):10307

Although transmission of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases is geographically heterogeneous, in sub-Saharan Africa risk maps are rarely used to determine which communities receive vector control interventions. We compared outcomes in areas receiving different indoor residual spray (IRS) strategies in Eastern Province, Zambia: (1) concentrating IRS interventions within a geographical area, (2) prioritizing communities to receive IRS based on predicted probabilities of Anopheles funestus, and (3) prioritizing communities to receive IRS based on observed malaria incidence at nearby health centers.

NOT Open Access | 'Artemisinin Resistance': Something New or Old? Something of a Misnomer

June 29, 2020 - 16:18 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Wellems TE, Sá JM, Su XZ, Connelly SV, Ellis AC
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2020 Jun 22:S1471-4922(20)30158-6

Artemisinin and its derivatives (ART) are crucial first-line antimalarial drugs that rapidly clear parasitemia, but recrudescences of the infection frequently follow ART monotherapy. For this reason, ART must be used in combination with one or more partner drugs that ensure complete cure.

Bacterial diversity associated with the abdomens of naturally Plasmodium-infected and non-infected Nyssorhynchus darlingi

June 29, 2020 - 16:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Oliveira TMP, Sanabani SS, Sallum MAM
Reference: 
BMC Microbiol. 2020 Jun 25;20(1):180

The bacterial community present in the abdomen in Anophelinae mosquitoes can influence mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium infection. Little is known about the bacteria associated with Nyssorhynchus darlingi, a primary malaria vector in the Amazon basin. We investigated the abdominal bacterial community compositions of naturally Plasmodium-infected (P-positive, n = 9) and non-infected (P-negative, n = 7) Ny. darlingi from the Brazilian Amazon region through massive parallel sequencing of the bacterial V4 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene.

School-based social and behavior change communication (SBCC) advances community exposure to malaria messages, acceptance, and preventive practices in Ethiopia: A pre-posttest study

June 29, 2020 - 16:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kebede Y, Abebe L, Alemayehu G, Sudhakar M, Birhanu Z
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Jun 25; 15(6):e0235189

Ethiopia has shown incredible success in malaria morbidity, mortality, and control. Community empowerment is a milestone to meet the ambitious plans of eliminating malaria by 2030.

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