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Scientific Articles

Does subsidizing the private for-profit sector benefit the poor? Evidence from national antimalarial subsidies in Nigeria and Uganda

July 28, 2021 - 12:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tougher S, Hanson K, Goodman CA
Reference: 
Health Econ. 2021 Jul 22

Subsidising quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (QAACTs) for distribution in the for-profit sector is a controversial strategy for improving access. The Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) was the largest initiative of this kind. We assessed the equity of AMFm in two ways using nationally representative household survey data on care seeking for children from Nigeria and Uganda.

Evaluation of the Antimalarial Activity of Ethanol Extracts of the Leaves of Three Plant Species Collected from Yayu Coffee Forest Biosphere Reserve, Southwest Ethiopia

July 21, 2021 - 18:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yeshanew S, Gete W, Chilo D
Reference: 
J Exp Pharmacol. 2021 Jul 14;13:661-668

In the attempt of searching for potential plant derived antimalarial medicines, the aim of the present study was to examine In vivo antimalarial efficacy of crude ethanol extracts of the leaves of Croton macrostachyus, Ruta chalepensis and Vernonia amygdalina using chloroquine (CQ) sensitive strains of Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice.

Root exudate chemical cues of an invasive plant modulate oviposition behavior and survivorship of a malaria mosquito vector

July 21, 2021 - 18:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Milugo TK, Tchouassi DP, Kavishe RA, Dinglasan RR, Torto B
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Jul 20;11(1):14785

Gravid female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes identify suitable oviposition sites through a repertoire of cues, but the influence of allelochemicals, especially root phytochemicals in modulating this behavior and impacting subsequent progeny bionomics remains unexplored. We addressed these questions in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and its invasive host plant Parthenium hysterophorus. Using chemical analysis combined with laboratory behavioral assays, we demonstrate that a blend of terpenes, namely α-pinene, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, 3-carene and (E)-caryophyllene emitted from P. hysterophorus root exudate treated-water attracted gravid females.

Effect of malaria parasite shape on its alignment at erythrocyte membrane

July 21, 2021 - 18:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dasanna AK, Hillringhaus S, Gompper G, Fedosov DA
Reference: 
Elife. 2021 Jul 21;10:e68818

During the blood stage of malaria pathogenesis, parasites invade healthy red blood cells (RBC) to multiply inside the host and evade the immune response. When attached to RBC, the parasite first has to align its apex with the membrane for a successful invasion. Since the parasite's apex sits at the pointed end of an oval (egg-like) shape with a large local curvature, apical alignment is in general an energetically un-favorable process.

Associations Between Malaria in Pregnancy and Neonatal Neurological Outcomes: Malaria in Pregnancy and Neonatal Neurological Outcomes

July 21, 2021 - 18:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lawford HLS, Nuamah MA, Bora S, et al.
Reference: 
Int J Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 17:S1201-9712(21)00593-2

To compare neurological functioning of neonates born to mothers with and without malaria in pregnancy.

Impact of IgG response to malaria-specific antigens and immunity against malaria in pre-school children in Ghana. A cluster randomized, placebo-controlled trial

July 21, 2021 - 18:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tchum SK, Sakyi SA, Adu B, Arthur F, Oppong FB, Dzabeng F, Amoani B, Gyan T, Poku-Asante K
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Jul 20;16(7):e0253544

Iron fortification and micronutrient initiatives, specifically, vitamin A, and zinc supplementation are the most cost-effective developmental strategies against malnutrition and health emergencies in pre-school children. Iron-deficiency among pre-school children have been documented, however, studies evaluating the impact of immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotype responses among iron-fortified pre-school children in malaria endemic communities has not been assessed. We evaluated the impact of iron fortification on the IgG responses to GLURP R0, GLURP R2 and MSP3 FVO malaria-specific antigens among pre-school children in malaria endemic areas.

NOT Open Access | Evaluation of the usefulness of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in a context with increased resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in Kingasani Hospital, Kinshasa in the Democratic Re

July 21, 2021 - 18:04 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kalenda NK, Yobi DM, Speybroeck N, et al.
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2021 Jul 17:105009

Increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) threatens its usefulness for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp-SP). The prophylactic effects of IPTp-SP on maternal malaria and adverse pregnancy outcomes were evaluated in Kingasani Hospital, Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

A Genotyping Study in Benin Comparing the Carriage of Plasmodium falciparum Infections Before Pregnancy and in Early Pregnancy: Story of a Persistent Infection

July 21, 2021 - 18:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jafari-Guemouri S, Courtois L, Mama A, Rouas B, Neto Braga G, Accrombessi M, Massougbodji A, Ding XC, Tuikue Ndam N, Fievet N, Briand V
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 15;73(2):e355-e361

Malaria infections in the first trimester of pregnancy are frequent and deleterious for both mother and child health. To investigate if these early infections are newly acquired or already present in the host, we assessed whether parasites detected before pregnancy and those detected in early pregnancy are the same infection.

Incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in 6-month to 45-year-olds on selected areas of Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

July 21, 2021 - 18:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Vicente Urbano Nsue Ndong Nchama, Ali Hamad Said, Salim Abdulla, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:322, 20 July 2021

Extensive malaria control measures have been implemented on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea over the past 16 years, reducing parasite prevalence and malaria-related morbidity and mortality, but without achieving elimination. Malaria vaccines offer hope for reducing the burden to zero. Three phase 1/2 studies have been conducted successfully on Bioko Island to evaluate the safety and efficacy of whole Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoite (SPZ) malaria vaccines. A large, pivotal trial of the safety and efficacy of the radiation-attenuated Sanaria® PfSPZ Vaccine against P. falciparum is planned for 2022. This study assessed the incidence of malaria at the phase 3 study site and characterized the influence of socio-demographic factors on the burden of malaria to guide trial design.

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