Malaria is a major travel medicine issue. Retrospective confirmation of a malaria episode diagnosed in an endemic area can have relevant implications in transfusional medicine in Europe, where blood donors are excluded from donation on the basis of positive malaria serology. However, there is scarce evidence on the dynamics of anti-malarial antibodies after a first malaria episode in non-immune individuals. The first aim of this study was to describe the dynamics of anti-malarial antibodies in a first malaria episode in non-immune travellers. Secondary objectives were to assess the sensitivity of serology for a retrospective diagnosis in non-immune travellers diagnosed while abroad and to discuss the implications in transfusional medicine.
Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes, the sexual stages responsible for malaria parasites transmission from humans to mosquitoes, are key targets for malaria elimination. Immature gametocytes develop in the human bone marrow parenchyma, where they accumulate around erythroblastic islands.
Ozonide antimalarials, OZ277 (arterolane) and OZ439 (artefenomel), are synthetic peroxide-based antimalarials with potent activity against the deadliest malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Here we used a “multi-omics” workflow, in combination with activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), to demonstrate that peroxide antimalarials initially target the haemoglobin (Hb) digestion pathway to kill malaria parasites. Time-dependent metabolomic profiling of ozonide-treated P. falciparum infected red blood cells revealed a rapid depletion of short Hb-derived peptides followed by subsequent alterations in lipid and nucleotide metabolism, while untargeted peptidomics showed accumulation of longer Hb-derived peptides.
Patterns of multiple amino acid substitutions in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT; UniProtKB - Q8IBZ9) have previously been shown to mediate chloroquine resistance (CQR) in P. falciparum malarial parasites. Recent reports suggest that novel mutations in PfCRT may mediate resistance to piperaquine (PPQ), which is used extensively as a partner drug in one prominent artemisinin combination therapy (ACT).
Malaria is commonly associated with alteration in haematologic cells of infected individuals in both the acute uncomplicated and severe phases. Whether this alteration occurs in the asymptomatic phase of the disease is still being investigated.
A previously healthy Japanese man in his fifties was admitted to our hospital because of a recurrent fever after returning from Kenya and Madagascar. He was ambulant with a body temperature of 36.6 °C. His physical examination revealed normal except for tender hepatomegaly.
Although transmission of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases is geographically heterogeneous, in sub-Saharan Africa risk maps are rarely used to determine which communities receive vector control interventions. We compared outcomes in areas receiving different indoor residual spray (IRS) strategies in Eastern Province, Zambia: (1) concentrating IRS interventions within a geographical area, (2) prioritizing communities to receive IRS based on predicted probabilities of Anopheles funestus, and (3) prioritizing communities to receive IRS based on observed malaria incidence at nearby health centers.
Artemisinin and its derivatives (ART) are crucial first-line antimalarial drugs that rapidly clear parasitemia, but recrudescences of the infection frequently follow ART monotherapy. For this reason, ART must be used in combination with one or more partner drugs that ensure complete cure.
The bacterial community present in the abdomen in Anophelinae mosquitoes can influence mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium infection. Little is known about the bacteria associated with Nyssorhynchus darlingi, a primary malaria vector in the Amazon basin. We investigated the abdominal bacterial community compositions of naturally Plasmodium-infected (P-positive, n = 9) and non-infected (P-negative, n = 7) Ny. darlingi from the Brazilian Amazon region through massive parallel sequencing of the bacterial V4 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene.