Eliciting reliable and effective immunity against Plasmodium falciparum parasites remains an elusive goal in malaria control.
Malaria transmission blocking vaccines (TBV) target the sexual stage of the parasite and have been pursued as a stand-alone vaccine or for combination with pre-erythrocytic or blood stage vaccines. Our efforts to develop TBV focus primarily on two antigens, Pfs25 and Pfs230. Chemical conjugation of these poorly immunogenic antigens to carrier proteins enhances their immunogenicity, and conjugates of these antigens to Exoprotein A (EPA) are currently under evaluation in clinical trials.
Malaria and HIV are common infections in Africa and cause substantial morbidity and mortality in pregnant women. We aimed to assess the association of malaria with anemia in pregnant women and to explore the joint effects of malaria and HIV infection on anemia in pregnant women.
Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) relies solely on the salvage pathway for its purine nucleotide requirements, making this pathway indispensable to the parasite. Purine nucleotide levels are regulated by anabolic processes and by nucleotidases that hydrolyse these metabolites into nucleosides. Certain apicomplexan parasites, including Pf, have an IMP-specific-nucleotidase 1 (ISN1).
Liver resident-memory CD8+ T cells (TRM cells) can kill liver-stage Plasmodium-infected cells and prevent malaria, but simple vaccines for generating this important immune population are lacking. Here, we report the development of a fully synthetic self-adjuvanting glycolipid-peptide conjugate vaccine designed to efficiently induce liver TRM cells.
Submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections are widespread in many areas. However, the contribution of these infections to symptomatic malaria is not well understood. This study evaluated whether participants with submicroscopic P. falciparum infections have higher prevalence of fever than uninfected participants in southern Malawi.
About one quarter of pregnant women in the population of Pakistan are using long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) for prevention of malaria. Past research reported that adequate information and education would act as mediator to change behaviour among patients for prevention of malaria infection. The effective use of LLINs would contribute to reduction of disease burden caused by malaria. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of health education on the adoption of LLINs among pregnant women living in Tharparkar, a remote district in Sindh Province, Pakistan.
Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against common anti-malarial drugs emphasizes the need of alternative and more effective drugs. Synthetic derivatives of 1-(heteroaryl)-2-((5-nitroheteroaryl)methylene) hydrazine have showed in vitro anti-plasmodial activities. The present study aimed to evaluate the molecular binding and anti-plasmodial activity of synthetic compounds in vivo.
In Dielmo, Senegal, the widespread use of long-lasting insecticidal nets has decreased both the incidence of malaria and the density of the Anopheles population. However, persistent low-level malaria transmission may hamper efforts to eliminate the disease. Therefore, continuous monitoring of the vector population is needed in order to improve knowledge of Anopheles biting behaviour and to readjust control interventions.
Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) is thought to be mostly caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Recently, growing reports of cases due to Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium vivax have been increasingly observed to play a role in malaria epidemiology in sSA. This in fact is due to the usage of very sensitive diagnostic tools (e.g. PCR), which have highlighted the underestimation of non-falciparum malaria in this sub-region. Plasmodium vivax was historically thought to be absent in sSA due to the high prevalence of the Duffy negativity in individuals residing in this sub-continent. Recent studies reporting detection of vivax malaria in Duffy-negative individuals from Mali, Mauritania, Cameroon challenge this notion.