Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread causative agent of human malaria in the world. Despite the ongoing implementation of malaria control programs, the rate of case reduction has declined over the last 5 years. Hence, surveillance of malaria transmission should be in place to identify and monitor areas that require intensified malaria control interventions.
Encouraged by the previous success in malaria control and prevention strategies, the Ethiopian ministry of health launched malaria elimination with a stepwise approach by primarily targeting the low-transmission Districts and their adjacent areas/zones in order to shrink the country’s malaria map progressively. Hence, this community survey was conducted to establish baseline malaria information at the preliminary phase of elimination at targeted settings.
Individuals with asymptomatic infection due to Plasmodium vivax are posited to be important reservoirs of malaria transmission in endemic regions. Here we studied a cohort of P. vivax malaria patients in a suburban area in the Brazilian Amazon. Overall 1,120 individuals were screened for P. vivax infection and 108 (9.6%) had parasitemia detected by qPCR but not by microscopy. Asymptomatic individuals had higher levels of antibodies against P. vivax and similar hematological and biochemical parameters compared to uninfected controls.
Gametocytes of the malaria parasite Plasmodium are taken up by the mosquito vector with an infectious blood meal, representing a critical stage for parasite transmission. Calcium-independent protein kinases (CDPKs) play key roles in calcium-mediated signaling across the complex life cycle of the parasite. We sought to understand their role in human parasite transmission from the host to the mosquito vector and thus investigated the role of the human-infective parasite Plasmodium falciparum CDPK4 in the parasite life cycle.
Homeostatic perturbation caused by infection fosters two major defense strategies, resistance and tolerance, which promote the host's survival. Resistance relates to the ability of the host to restrict the pathogen load.
Early transcribed membrane proteins (ETRAMPs) form a unique protein family in malaria parasites. These molecules are expressed during Plasmodium intracellular phases and inserted at the parasite parasitophorus vacuole membrane (PVM), which constitutes the host-parasite interface. Upregulated in infectious sporozoites 4 (UIS4) is an essential ETRAMP of liver stages of the murine malaria model parasite Plasmodium berghei. Despite its relevance for liver stage maturation, the molecular functions of UIS4 remain elusive, and UIS4 orthologs in human malaria parasites have not yet been identified.
Travelers are recommended to take antimalarial chemoprophylaxis (AMC) when traveling to endemic areas.
Understanding the ecology and behaviour of disease vectors, including the olfactory cues used to orient and select hosts and egg-laying sites, are essential for the development of novel, insecticide-free control tools. Selected graminoid plants have been shown to release volatile chemicals attracting malaria vectors; however, whether the attraction is selective to individual plants or more general across genera and families is still unclear.
Eritrea was the first African country to complete a nationwide switch in 2016 away from HRP2-based RDTs due to high rates of false-negative RDT results caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites lacking hrp2/hrp3 genes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2019 enrolling symptomatic malaria patients from nine health facilities across three zones consecutively to investigate the epidemiology of P. falciparum lacking hrp2/3 after the RDT switch. Molecular analyses of 715 samples revealed the overall prevalence of hrp2-, hrp3-, and dual hrp2/3-deleted parasites as 9.4% (95%CI 7.4-11.7%), 41.7% (95% CI 38.1-45.3%) and 7.6% (95% CI 5.8-9.7%), respectively.
Antibiotics are growth promotors used in animal farming. Doxycycline (DOXY) is a tetracycline antibiotic taken daily and continued 1 month after return to protect against malaria during travel and deployment in endemic areas. We evaluated DOXY impact on body weight in military international travelers.