The wide distribution of malaria mosquito breeding sites within tropical environments limits the mosquito larval source management efforts to control malaria. Rice farming contributes substantially in supporting malaria mosquito productivity in tropical countries. To overcome this challenge, this study was carried out to determine the effect of applying a mixture of biolarvicide and fertilizer on mosquito larvae density in rice farms under semi-field conditions in Tanzania.
Therapeutic efficacy studies in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria are confounded by new infections, which constitute competing risk events since they can potentially preclude/pre-empt the detection of subsequent recrudescence of persistent, sub-microscopic primary infections.
PermaNet® 3.0 is a deltamethrin-treated combination long-lasting insecticidal net with the addition of synergist piperonylbutoxide (PBO) on its roof section. It is designed to overcome the challenge posed by pyrethroid resistant vector populations against mainstream long-lasting insecticidal nets impregnated with pyrethroids only. The objective of this study was to determine insecticide resistance status of Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes, to evaluate the bio-efficacy of PermaNet® 3.0 nets and to assess household factors affecting the physical integrity of PermaNet® 3.0 after 3 years of use.
Brazil has considerably reduced the number of cases of malaria in recent years and aims to eradicate the disease completely, however, vivax malaria continues to be a major challenge for the health system. In this context, the key to building a successful elimination programme may lie in the knowledge and the perceptions of the health agents, the patients affected by the disease and the personnel responsible for malaria diagnosis, treatment and control at the local level.
The ability of malaria (Plasmodium) parasites to adjust investment into sexual transmission stages versus asexually replicating stages is well known, but plasticity in other traits underpinning the replication rate of asexual stages in the blood has received less attention. Such traits include burst size (the number of merozoites produced per schizont), the duration of the asexual cycle, and invasion preference for different ages of red blood cell (RBC).
A mixed methods study was conducted to look at the magnitude of residual malaria transmission (RMT) and factors contributing to low (< 1% prevalence), but sustained transmission in rural communities on the Thai–Myanmar border.
Zanzibar has maintained malaria prevalence below 1% for the past decade, yet elimination remains elusive despite high coverage of core vector control interventions. As part of a study investigating the magnitude and drivers of residual transmission in Zanzibar, qualitative methods were utilized to better understand night time activities and sleeping patterns, individual and community-level risk perceptions, and malaria prevention practices.
Deep sequencing of targeted genomic regions is becoming a common tool for understanding the dynamics and complexity of Plasmodium infections, but its lower limit of detection is currently unknown. Here, a new amplicon analysis tool, the Parallel Amplicon Sequencing Error Correction (PASEC) pipeline, is used to evaluate the performance of amplicon sequencing on low-density Plasmodium DNA samples. Illumina-based sequencing of two Plasmodium falciparum genomic regions (CSP and SERA2) was performed on two types of samples: in vitro DNA mixtures mimicking low-density infections (1–200 genomes/μl) and extracted blood spots from a combination of symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals (44–653,080 parasites/μl). Three additional analysis tools—DADA2, HaplotypR, and SeekDeep—were applied to both datasets and the precision and sensitivity of each tool were evaluated.
Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed of several plasmodial species that cause human malaria, a disease associated with blood-stage parasite replication. About 2.5 billion people are at risk of P. vivax infection; they live mainly in Southeast Asia and the Americas, where P. vivax accounts for approximately 72% of malaria cases.
Malaria eradication globally is yet to be achieved and transmission is sustained in many endemic countries. Plasmodium falciparum continues to develop resistance to currently available anti-malarial drugs, posing great problems for malaria elimination. This study evaluates the frequencies of asymptomatic infection and multidrug resistance-1 (mdr-1) gene mutations in parasite isolates, which form the basis for understanding persistently high incidence in South West, Nigeria.