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Scientific Articles

NOT Open Access | Discovery of Potent and Fast-Acting Antimalarial Bis-1,2,4-triazines

March 26, 2021 - 16:11 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Priebbenow DL, Mathiew M, Baell JB, et al.
Reference: 
J Med Chem. 2021 Mar 24

Novel 3,3'-disubstituted-5,5'-bi(1,2,4-triazine) compounds with potent in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum parasites were recently discovered. To improve the pharmacokinetic properties of the triazine derivatives, a new structure-activity relationship (SAR) investigation was initiated with a focus on enhancing the metabolic stability of lead compounds.

Adipose tissue parasite sequestration drives leptin production in mice and correlates with human cerebral malaria

March 26, 2021 - 16:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mejia P, Treviño-Villarreal JH, Mitchell JR, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Adv. 2021 Mar 24;7(13):eabe2484

Circulating levels of the adipokine leptin are linked to neuropathology in experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), but its source and regulation mechanism remain unknown. Here, we show that sequestration of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) in white adipose tissue (WAT) microvasculature increased local vascular permeability and leptin production. Mice infected with parasite strains that fail to sequester in WAT displayed reduced leptin production and protection from ECM.

Ca(2+) signals critical for egress and gametogenesis in malaria parasites depend on a multipass membrane protein that interacts with PKG

March 26, 2021 - 16:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Balestra AC, Koussis K, Brochet M, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Adv. 2021 Mar 24;7(13):eabe5396

Calcium signaling regulated by the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) controls key life cycle transitions in the malaria parasite. However, how calcium is mobilized from intracellular stores in the absence of canonical calcium channels in Plasmodium is unknown. Here, we identify a multipass membrane protein, ICM1, with homology to transporters and calcium channels that is tightly associated with PKG in both asexual blood stages and transmission stages.

NOT Open Access | A Near-Infrared "Matchbox Size" Spectrometer to Detect and Quantify Malaria Parasitemia

March 26, 2021 - 16:02 -- NOT Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Adegoke JA, Kochan K, Heraud P, Wood BR
Reference: 
Anal Chem. 2021 Mar 24

New point-of-care diagnostic approaches for malaria that are sensitive to low parasitemia, easy to use in a field setting, and affordable are urgently required to meet the World Health Organization's objective of reducing malaria cases and related life losses by 90% globally on or before 2030. In this study, an inexpensive "matchbox size" near-infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer was used for the first time to detect and quantify malaria infection in vitro from isolated dried red blood cells using a fingerpick volume of blood. This the first study to apply a miniaturized NIR device to diagnose a parasitic infection and identify marker bands indicative of malaria infection in the NIR region.

A novel fungal metabolite inhibits Plasmodium falciparum transmission and infection

March 26, 2021 - 15:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Niu G, Wang X, Hao Y, Kandel S, Niu G, Raptis RG, Li J
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Mar 24;14(1):177

Malaria transmission depends on infected mosquitoes and can be controlled by transmission-blocking drugs. The recently discovered FREP1-mediated malaria transmission pathway is an excellent target to screen drugs for limiting transmission.

NOT Open Access | Bioactivity-directed evaluation of fruit of Kigelia africana (Lam.) benth. Used in treatment of malaria in Iwo, Nigeria

March 26, 2021 - 15:56 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Imran IZ, Elusiyan CA, Agbedahunsi JM, Omisore NO
Reference: 
J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Mar 25;268:113680

The ancient people of Iwo communities consisting of Ile-Ogbo, Olupona, Iwo and Ogbagba continue to engage in the traditional use of medicinal plants for the treatment and management of common diseases especially malaria.

Role of vector control in fighting against malaria: Evidence from Ethiopian health-related indicators

March 24, 2021 - 15:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mohammed MA, Hong T
Reference: 
J Infect Public Health. 2021 Mar 17;14(4):527-532

Due to a high burden imposed on public health from malaria disease in Sub-Saharan Africa, the vector control strategy is a significant concern. Despite the implementation of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia, it remains a major public health problem. Moreover, none of the prior researches was conducted in this title specifically. Therefore, this study investigates the impact of vector control interventions on malaria based on panel data of 10 malaria endemic-regions from 2000 to 2018.

NOT Open Access | Evaluation of the effects of atazanavir-ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of lumefantrine in patients living with HIV in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, South-Western Nigeria

March 24, 2021 - 15:10 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Usman SO, Oreagba IA, Akanmu AS, et al.
Reference: 
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2021 Mar 23

Atazanavir-ritonavir (ATVr)-based antiretroviral therapy and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) are commonly used drugs for the treatment of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection and malaria respectively. However, interaction of both drugs, with Cytochrome P 3A4 (CYP 3A4) isoenzyme, may spawn clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions. This study evaluated the effects of atazanavir-ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of lumefantrine.

Analysis of false-negative rapid diagnostic tests for symptomatic malaria in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

March 24, 2021 - 15:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Parr JB, Kieto E, Kalonji A, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 22;11(1):6495

The majority of Plasmodium falciparum malaria diagnoses in Africa are made using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) that detect histidine-rich protein 2. Increasing reports of false-negative RDT results due to parasites with deletions of the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes (pfhrp2/3) raise concern about existing malaria diagnostic strategies. We previously identified pfhrp2-negative parasites among asymptomatic children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but their impact on diagnosis of symptomatic malaria is unknown.

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