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Scientific Articles

A cost analysis to address issues of budget constraints on the implementation of the indoor residual spray programme in two districts of Maputo Province, Mozambique

January 7, 2021 - 11:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Neide Canana
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:8, 6 January 2021

It is frequently said that funding is essential to ensure optimal results from a malaria intervention control. However, in recent years, the capacity of the government of Mozambique to sustain the operational cost of indoor residual spraying (IRS) is facing numerous challenges due to restrictions of the Official Development Assistance. The purpose of the study was to estimate the cost of IRS operationalization in two districts of Maputo Province (Matutuíne and Namaacha) in Mozambique. The evidence produced in this study intends to provide decision-makers with insight into where they need to pay close attention in future planning in order to operationalize IRS with the existent budget in the actual context of budget restrictions.

Socio-economic determinants of malaria in tribal dominated Mandla district enrolled in Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in Madhya Pradesh

January 7, 2021 - 11:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ravendra K. Sharma, Harsh Rajvanshi, Praveen K. Bharti, Sekh Nisar, Himanshu Jayswar, Ashok K. Mishra, Kalyan B. Saha, Man Mohan Shukla, Aparup Das, Harpreet Kaur, Suman L. Wattal and Altaf A. Lal
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:7, 5 January 2021

Malaria is known as a disease of poverty because of its dominance in poverty-stricken areas. Madhya Pradesh state in central India is one of the most vulnerable states for malaria morbidity and mortality. Socio-economic, environmental and demographic factors present challenges in malaria control and elimination. As part of the Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in the tribal district of Mandla in Madhya Pradesh, this study was undertaken to assess the role of different social-economic factors contributing to malaria incidence.

A timed tally counter for microscopic examination of thick blood smears in malaria studies

January 7, 2021 - 11:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Grégory Nuel and André Garcia
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:6, 5 January 2021

Despite many technological advances for malaria parasite detection (e.g. high resolution image acquisition), microscopic reading of thick blood smear (TBS) remains the gold standard. Even though available in low technology environment, the microscopy of TBS is slow and time consuming. Moreover microscopy may induce errors at many levels and has no quality control.

Synthesis and Antiplasmodial Activity of Novel Bioinspired Imidazolidinedione Derivatives

January 7, 2021 - 10:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jaromin A, Czopek A, Parapini S, Basilico N, Misiak E, Gubernator J, Zagórska A
Reference: 
Biomolecules. 2020 Dec 29;11(1):E33

Malaria is an enormous threat to public health, due to the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to widely-used antimalarials, such as chloroquine (CQ). Current antimalarial drugs are aromatic heterocyclic derivatives, most often containing a basic component with an added alkyl chain in their chemical structure. While these drugs are effective, they have many side effects. This paper presents the synthesis and preliminary physicochemical characterisation of novel bioinspired imidazolidinedione derivatives, where the imidazolidinedione core was linked via the alkylene chain and the basic piperazine component to the bicyclic system.

NOT Open Access | Pharmacoinformatics based elucidation and designing of potential inhibitors against Plasmodium falciparum to target importin alpha/beta mediated nuclear importation

January 7, 2021 - 10:39 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Oany AR, Pervin T, Moni MA
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2020 Dec 29:104699

Plasmodium falciparum, the prime causative agent of malaria, is responsible for 4, 05,000 deaths per year and fatality rates are higher among the children aged below 5 years. The emerging distribution of the multi-drug resistant P. falciparum becomes a worldwide concern, so the identification of unique targets and novel inhibitors is a prime need now. In the present study, we have employed pharmacoinformatics approaches to analyze 265 lead-like compounds from PubChem databases for virtual screening. Thereafter, 15 lead-like compounds were docked within the active side pocket of importin alpha.

Plasmodium vivax Cysteine-Rich Protective Antigen Polymorphism at Exon-1 Shows Recombination and Signatures of Balancing Selection

January 7, 2021 - 10:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
González-Cerón L, Cebrián-Carmona J, Mesa-Valle CM, García-Maroto F, Santillán-Valenzuela F, Garrido-Cardenas JA
Reference: 
Genes (Basel). 2020 Dec 28;12(1):E29

Plasmodium vivax Cysteine-Rich Protective Antigen (CyRPA) is a merozoite protein participating in the parasite invasion of human reticulocytes. During natural P. vivax infection, antibody responses against PvCyRPA have been detected. In children, low anti-CyRPA antibody titers correlated with clinical protection, which suggests this protein as a potential vaccine candidate. This work analyzed the genetic and amino acid diversity of pvcyrpa in Mexican and global parasites. Consensus coding sequences of pvcyrpa were obtained from seven isolates.

NOT Open Access | Phylogenetic analysis suggests single and multiple origins of dihydrofolate reductase mutations in Plasmodium vivax

January 7, 2021 - 10:30 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Shaukat A, Ali Q, Raud L, Wahab A, Khan TA, Rashid I, Rashid M, Hussain M, Saleem MA, Sargison ND, Chaudhry U
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2021 Jan 3:105821

Pyrimethamine was first introduced for the treatment of malaria in Asia and Africa during the early 1980s, replacing chloroquine, and has become the first line of drugs in many countries. In recent years, development of pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium vivax has become a barrier to effective malaria control strategies. Here, we describe the use of meta-barcoded deep amplicon sequencing technology to assess the evolutionary origin of pyrimethamine resistance by analysing the flanking region of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) locus.

NOT Open Access | High Prevalence of Molecular Markers of Plasmodium falciparum Resistance to Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine in Parts of Ghana: A Threat to ITPTp-SP

January 7, 2021 - 10:28 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Afutu LL, Boampong JN, Quashie NB
Reference: 
J Trop Pediatr. 2021 Jan 6:fmaa120

Malaria in pregnancy is a huge public health problem as it is the cause of maternal anaemia, still birth, premature delivery, low birth weight among others. To tackle this problem, WHO recommended the administration, during pregnancy, of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine–pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). The introduction of this policy is likely to create SP drug pressure which may lead to the emergence of parasite strains resistant to the drug.

Not Open Access | Screening Malaria-box compounds to identify potential inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 M(pro), using molecular docking and dynamics simulation studies

January 7, 2021 - 10:07 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ahamad S, Kanipakam H, Birla S, Ali MS, Gupta D
Reference: 
Eur J Pharmacol. 2021 Jan 5;890:173664

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Main protease (Mpro) is one of the vital drug targets amongst all the coronaviruses, as the protein is indispensable for virus replication. The study aimed to identify promising lead molecules against Mpro enzyme through virtual screening of Malaria Venture (MMV) Malaria Box (MB) comprising of 400 experimentally proven compounds.

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