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Scientific Articles

NOT Open Access | In vivo antimalarial activity of a probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus sakei isolated from traditionally fermented milk in BALB/c mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA

July 28, 2021 - 13:55 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Toukam LL, Tatsinkou Fossi B, Taiwe GS, Bila RB, Feugaing Sofeu DD, Ivo EP, Achidi EA
Reference: 
J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Jul 22:114448

Milk production, processing and consumption are integral part of traditional practices in Fulani tribe of Cameroon. It has been observed that Fulani are resistant to malaria. Dairy products traditionally processed by Fulani are intensively used in the ritual treatment of malarial, inflammations and behavioural disorders. Many studies have demonstrated that fermented milk is a rich source of probiotic bacteria. However, the antimalarial activity of probiotics isolated from this natural source has not been experimentally tested.

NOT Open Access | Study towards improving artemisinin-based combination therapies

July 28, 2021 - 13:53 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Lyu HN, Ma N, Meng Y, Zhang X, Wong YK, Xu C, Liao F, Jiang T, Tu Y, Wang J
Reference: 
Nat Prod Rep. 2021 Jul 21;38(7):1243-1250

Artemisinin has made a significant contribution towards global malaria control since its initial discovery. Countless lives have been saved by this unique and miraculous molecule. In 2006, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) were recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria infection and have since remained as the mainstays of the antimalarial treatment.

Role of Plasmodium berghei ookinete surface and oocyst capsule protein, a novel oocyst capsule-associated protein, in ookinete motility

July 28, 2021 - 13:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nakayama K, Kimura Y, Kitahara Y, Soga A, Haraguchi A, Hakozaki J, Sugiyama M, Kusakisako K, Fukumoto S, Ikadai H
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jul 21;14(1):373

Plasmodium sp., which causes malaria, must first develop in mosquitoes before being transmitted. Upon ingesting infected blood, gametes form in the mosquito lumen, followed by fertilization and differentiation of the resulting zygotes into motile ookinetes. Within 24 h of blood ingestion, these ookinetes traverse mosquito epithelial cells and lodge below the midgut basal lamina, where they differentiate into sessile oocysts that are protected by a capsule.

An SR protein is essential for activating DNA repair in malaria parasites

July 28, 2021 - 13:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Goyal M, Singh BK, Simantov K, Kaufman Y, Eshar S, Ron D
Reference: 
J Cell Sci. 2021 Jul 22:jcs.258572

Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the deadliest form of human malaria, replicates within the erythrocytes of its host where it encounters numerous pressures that cause extensive DNA damage, which must be repaired efficiently to ensure parasite survival. Malaria parasites, which lost the NHEJ pathway for repairing DNA double strand breaks, have evolved unique mechanisms that enable them to robustly maintain genome integrity under such harsh conditions. However, the nature of these adaptations is unknown.

NOT Open Access | Evaluation of Mongolian compound library for potential antimalarial and anti-Toxoplasma agents

July 28, 2021 - 13:25 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Banzragchgarav O, Ariefta NR, Murata T, Myagmarsuren P, Battsetseg B, Battur B, Batkhuu J, Yoshifumi N
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2021 Jul 22:102424

179 compounds in a Mongolian compound library were investigated for their inhibitory effect on the in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Among these compounds, brachangobinan A at a half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) of 2.62 μM and a selectivity index (SI) of 27.91; 2-(2'-hydroxy-5'-O-methylphenyl)-5-(2″,5″-dihydroxyphenyl)oxazole (IC50 3.58 μM and SI 24.66); chrysosplenetin (IC50 3.78 μM and SI 15.26); 4,11-di-O-galloylbergenin (IC50 3.87 μM and SI 13.38); and 2-(2',5'-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-(2″-hydroxyphenyl)oxazole (IC50 6.94 μM and SI 11.48) were identified as potential inhibitors of P. falciparum multiplication.

Immune system challenge improves recognition memory and reverses malaria-induced cognitive impairment in mice

July 28, 2021 - 13:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
de Sousa LP, Ribeiro-Gomes FL, de Almeida RF, Souza TME, Werneck GL, Souza DO, Daniel-Ribeiro CT
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Jul 21;11(1):14857

The immune system plays a role in the maintenance of healthy neurocognitive function. Different patterns of immune response triggered by distinct stimuli may affect nervous functions through regulatory or deregulatory signals, depending on the properties of the exogenous immunogens. Here, we investigate the effect of immune stimulation on cognitive-behavioural parameters in healthy mice and its impact on cognitive sequelae resulting from non-severe experimental malaria.

NOT Open Access | Genome-environment Association Methods Comparison Supports Omnigenic Adaptation to Ecological Niche in Malaria Vector Mosquitoes

July 28, 2021 - 12:58 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
DeRaad DA, Cobos ME, Alkishe A, Ashraf U, Mensah AK, Nuñez-Penichet C, Peterson AT
Reference: 
Mol Ecol. 2021 Jul 26. doi: 10.1111/mec.16094

The concept of a fundamental ecological niche is central to questions of geographic distribution, population demography, species conservation, and evolutionary potential. But robust inference of genomic regions associated with evolutionary adaptation to particular environmental conditions remains difficult due to the myriad of potential confounding processes that can generate heterogeneous patterns of variation across the genome.

Cuticular hydrocarbons are associated with mating success and insecticide resistance in malaria vectors

July 28, 2021 - 12:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Adams KL, Sawadogo SP, Catteruccia F, et al.
Reference: 
Commun Biol. 2021 Jul 26;4(1):911

Anopheles coluzzii females, important malaria vectors in Africa, mate only once in their lifetime. Mating occurs in aerial swarms with a high male-to-female ratio, where traits underlying male mating success are largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) influence mating success in natural mating swarms in Burkina Faso.

The antimalarial MMV688533 provides potential for single-dose cures with a high barrier to Plasmodium falciparum parasite resistance

July 28, 2021 - 12:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Murithi JM, Pascal C, Leroy D, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Transl Med. 2021 Jul 21;13(603):eabg6013

The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to first-line antimalarials creates an imperative to identify and develop potent preclinical candidates with distinct modes of action. Here, we report the identification of MMV688533, an acylguanidine that was developed following a whole-cell screen with compounds known to hit high-value targets in human cells.

A malaria parasite phospholipid flippase safeguards midgut traversal of ookinetes for mosquito transmission

July 28, 2021 - 12:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yang Z, Shi Y, Cui H, Yang S, Gao H, Yuan J
Reference: 
Sci Adv. 2021 Jul 23;7(30):eabf6015

Mosquito midgut epithelium traversal is essential for malaria parasite transmission. Phospholipid flippases are eukaryotic type 4 P-type adenosine triphosphatases (P4-ATPases), which, in association with CDC50, translocate phospholipids across the membrane lipid bilayers. In this study, we investigated the function of a putative P4-ATPase, ATP7, from the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii Disruption of ATP7 blocks the parasite infection of mosquitoes.

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