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Scientific Articles

NOT Open Access | A Thermal Exhaust Port on the Death Star of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes

June 30, 2020 - 14:54 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Petersen JEV, Taylor SM
Reference: 
Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2020 Jun 26:S0165-6147(20)30141-3q

Eliciting reliable and effective immunity against Plasmodium falciparum parasites remains an elusive goal in malaria control.

NOT Open Access | Comparison of carrier proteins to conjugate malaria transmission blocking vaccine antigens, Pfs25 and Pfs230

June 30, 2020 - 14:53 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Scaria PV, Chen BB, Duffy PE, et al.
Reference: 
Vaccine. 2020 Jun 26:S0264-410X (20)30790-8

Malaria transmission blocking vaccines (TBV) target the sexual stage of the parasite and have been pursued as a stand-alone vaccine or for combination with pre-erythrocytic or blood stage vaccines. Our efforts to develop TBV focus primarily on two antigens, Pfs25 and Pfs230. Chemical conjugation of these poorly immunogenic antigens to carrier proteins enhances their immunogenicity, and conjugates of these antigens to Exoprotein A (EPA) are currently under evaluation in clinical trials.

Associations of malaria, HIV, and coinfection, with anemia in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a population-based cross-sectional study

June 30, 2020 - 14:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ssentongo P, Ba DM, Ssentongo AE, Ericson JE, Wang M, Liao D, Chinchilli VM
Reference: 
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020 Jun 29; 20(1):379

Malaria and HIV are common infections in Africa and cause substantial morbidity and mortality in pregnant women. We aimed to assess the association of malaria with anemia in pregnant women and to explore the joint effects of malaria and HIV infection on anemia in pregnant women.

Structure and catalytic regulation of Plasmodium falciparum IMP specific nucleotidase

June 30, 2020 - 14:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Carrique L, Ballut L, Aghajari N, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2020 Jun 26;11(1):3228

Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) relies solely on the salvage pathway for its purine nucleotide requirements, making this pathway indispensable to the parasite. Purine nucleotide levels are regulated by anabolic processes and by nucleotidases that hydrolyse these metabolites into nucleosides. Certain apicomplexan parasites, including Pf, have an IMP-specific-nucleotidase 1 (ISN1).

Not Open Access | Glycolipid-peptide vaccination induces liver-resident memory CD8(+) T cells that protect against rodent malaria

June 30, 2020 - 14:30 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Holz LE, Chua YC, Heath WR, et al.
Reference: 
Science Immunology 26 Jun 2020: Vol. 5, Issue 48, eaaz8035

Liver resident-memory CD8+ T cells (TRM cells) can kill liver-stage Plasmodium-infected cells and prevent malaria, but simple vaccines for generating this important immune population are lacking. Here, we report the development of a fully synthetic self-adjuvanting glycolipid-peptide conjugate vaccine designed to efficiently induce liver TRM cells.

Submicroscopic malaria infection is not associated with fever in cross-sectional studies in Malawi

June 30, 2020 - 14:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jimmy Vareta, Andrea G. Buchwald, Miriam K. Laufer, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:233, 29 June 2020

Submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections are widespread in many areas. However, the contribution of these infections to symptomatic malaria is not well understood. This study evaluated whether participants with submicroscopic P. falciparum infections have higher prevalence of fever than uninfected participants in southern Malawi.

Effectiveness of a health education intervention on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets for the prevention of malaria in pregnant women of Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study

June 30, 2020 - 14:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ramesh Kumar, Midhat Farzeen, Assad Hafeez, Baseer Khan Achakzai, Muskan Vankwani, Manohar Lal, Rabia Iqbal and Ratana Somrongthong
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:232, 29 June 2020

About one quarter of pregnant women in the population of Pakistan are using long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) for prevention of malaria. Past research reported that adequate information and education would act as mediator to change behaviour among patients for prevention of malaria infection. The effective use of LLINs would contribute to reduction of disease burden caused by malaria. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of health education on the adoption of LLINs among pregnant women living in Tharparkar, a remote district in Sindh Province, Pakistan.

In silico and in vivo anti-malarial investigation on 1-(heteroaryl)-2-((5-nitroheteroaryl)methylene) hydrazine derivatives

June 30, 2020 - 14:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Azar Tahghighi, Seyed-Mahdi Mohamadi-Zarch, Hamzeh Rahimi, Mahya Marashiyan, Naseh Maleki-Ravasan and Ali Eslamifar
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:231, 29 June 2020

Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against common anti-malarial drugs emphasizes the need of alternative and more effective drugs. Synthetic derivatives of 1-(heteroaryl)-2-((5-nitroheteroaryl)methylene) hydrazine have showed in vitro anti-plasmodial activities. The present study aimed to evaluate the molecular binding and anti-plasmodial activity of synthetic compounds in vivo.

Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus biting patterns in Dielmo, an area of low level exposure to malaria vectors

June 30, 2020 - 14:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Souleymane Doucoure, Omar Thiaw, Amélé N. Wotodjo, Charles Bouganali, Nafisatou Diagne, Philippe Parola and Cheikh Sokhna
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:230, 26 June 2020

In Dielmo, Senegal, the widespread use of long-lasting insecticidal nets has decreased both the incidence of malaria and the density of the Anopheles population. However, persistent low-level malaria transmission may hamper efforts to eliminate the disease. Therefore, continuous monitoring of the vector population is needed in order to improve knowledge of Anopheles biting behaviour and to readjust control interventions.

Presence of additional Plasmodium vivax malaria in Duffy negative individuals from Southwestern Nigeria

June 30, 2020 - 14:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mary Aigbiremo Oboh, Upasana Shyamsunder Singh, Daouda Ndiaye, Aida Sadikh Badiane, Nazia Anwar Ali, Praveen Kumar Bharti and Aparup Das
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:229, 26 June 2020

Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) is thought to be mostly caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Recently, growing reports of cases due to Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium vivax have been increasingly observed to play a role in malaria epidemiology in sSA. This in fact is due to the usage of very sensitive diagnostic tools (e.g. PCR), which have highlighted the underestimation of non-falciparum malaria in this sub-region. Plasmodium vivax was historically thought to be absent in sSA due to the high prevalence of the Duffy negativity in individuals residing in this sub-continent. Recent studies reporting detection of vivax malaria in Duffy-negative individuals from Mali, Mauritania, Cameroon challenge this notion.

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