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Scientific Articles

The potential of pregnant women as a sentinel population for malaria surveillance

November 26, 2019 - 14:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nina C. Brunner, Frank Chacky, Renata Mandike, Ally Mohamed, Manuela Runge, Sumaiyya G. Thawer, Amanda Ross, Penelope Vounatsou, Christian Lengeler, Fabrizio Molteni and Manuel W. Hetzel
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:370, 21 November 2019

With increasing spatial heterogeneity of malaria transmission and a shift of the disease burden towards older children and adults, pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) have been proposed as a pragmatic sentinel population for malaria surveillance. However, the representativeness of routine ANC malaria test-positivity and its relationship with prevalence in other population subgroups are yet to be investigated.

Infected Mosquitoes Have Altered Behavior to Repellents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

November 26, 2019 - 13:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lajeunesse MJ, Avello DA, Yanez NE, et al.
Reference: 
Journal of Medical Entomology, tjz209 22 November 2019

Here we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to reach a consensus on whether infected and uninfected mosquitoes respond differently to repellents. After screening 2,316 published studies, theses, and conference abstracts, we identified 18 studies that tested whether infection status modulated the effectiveness of repellents. Thirteen of these studies had outcomes available for meta-analysis, and overall, seven repellents were tested (typically DEET with 62% of outcomes), six mosquito species had repellence behaviors measured (typically Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes with 71% of outcomes), and a broad diversity of infections were tested including Sindbis virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) (33% of outcomes), Dengue (Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) (31%), malaria (Plasmodium berghei Vincke & Lips (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) or P. falciparum Welch (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae); 25%), Zika (Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) (7%), and microsporidia (4%).

NOT Open Access | Prevalence of mutations in Plasmodium falciparum genes associated with resistance to different antimalarial drugs in Nyando, Kisumu County in Kenya

November 26, 2019 - 13:55 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Musyoka KB, Kiiru JN, Aluvaala E, Omondi P, Chege WK, Judah T, Kiboi D, Nganga JK, Kimani FT.
Reference: 
Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 19 November 2019, 104121

Resistance to the mainstay antimalarial drugs is a major concern in the control of malaria. Delayed Plasmodium falciparum parasite clearance has been associated with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the kelch propeller region (K13). However, SNPs in the Pf-adaptor protein complex 2 mu subunit (Pfap2-mu), Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 are possible markers associated with multi-drug resistance. Here, we explored the prevalence of SNPs in the K13, Pfap2-mu, Pfcrt, and Pfmdr1 in 94 dried blood spot field isolates collected from children aged below 12 years infected with P. falciparum during a cross-sectional study.

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Histone deacetylase inhibitors with high in vitro activities against Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected from Gabonese children and adults

November 26, 2019 - 13:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Koehne E, Kreidenweiss A, Zoleko Manego R, McCall M, Mombo-Ngoma G, Mackwitz MKW, Hansen FK, Held J.
Reference: 
Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 17336 (2019)

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes are targets for the development of antimalarial drugs with a different mode of action to established antimalarials. Broad-spectrum HDAC-inhibitors show high potency against Plasmodium falciparum, but displayed some toxicity towards human cells. Inhibitors of human HDAC6 are new drug candidates with supposed reduced toxicity to human cells and favorable activities against laboratory P. falciparum strains.

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NOT Open Access | Reactivation of Plasmodium infection during a treatment with Infliximab: a case report

November 26, 2019 - 13:34 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Haeseleer C, Martiny D, Van Laethem Y, Cantinieaux B, Martin C.
Reference: 
International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 20 November 2019

We describe a symptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection in a 29-year-old Guinean man receiving Infliximab since one year and without recent travel. The reactivation of submicroscopic malaria following the inhibition of TNF-alpha by infliximab is suspected.

NOT Open Access | Functional analysis of the three major PGRPLC isoforms in the midgut of the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii

November 26, 2019 - 13:30 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rodgers FH, Cai JA, Pitaluga AN, Mengin-Lecreulx D, Gendrin M, Christophides GK
Reference: 
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 21 November 2019, 103288

Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) constitute the primary means of bacterial recognition in insects. Recent work in the model organism Drosophila has revealed the mechanisms by which the complement of PGRPs refine the sensitivity of different tissues to bacterial elicitors, permitting the persistence of commensal bacteria in the gut whilst maintaining vigilance against bacterial infection.

Decadal epidemiology of malaria in KwaZulu-Natal, a province in South Africa targeting elimination

November 26, 2019 - 13:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rajendra Maharaj, Ishen Seocharan, Bheki Qwabe, Moses Mkhabela, Sunitha Kissoon and Vishan Lakan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18: 368, 20 November 2019

Although malaria remains a noteworthy disease in South Africa, the provinces are at differing stages of the malaria elimination continuum. KwaZulu-Natal has consistently reported the lowest number of cases over the past 5 years and it is expected that the goal of elimination will be achieved in this province over the next few years. The study reports on few key indicators that realistically represents the provinces progress over the past decade. Local and imported morbidity and mortality is seen as the key indicator as is malaria in children under the age of five and pregnant women. The only vector control intervention in the province is indoor residual spraying (IRS) and this gives an estimate of the population protected by this intervention.

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Genetic polymorphism of merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 of Plasmodium falciparum in the China–Myanmar border region

November 26, 2019 - 13:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cang-Lin Zhang, Hong-Ning Zhou, Quan Liu and Ya-Ming Yang
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18: 367, 19 November 2019

Malaria is a major public health problem in the China–Myanmar border region. The genetic structure of malaria parasite may affect its transmission model and control strategies. The present study was to analyse genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum by merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 (MSP1 and MSP2) and to determine the multiplicity of infection in clinical isolates in the China–Myanmar border region.

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Microsatellite analysis reveals connectivity among geographically distant transmission zones of Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazon: A critical barrier to regional malaria elimination

November 25, 2019 - 16:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Paulo Manrique, Julio Miranda-Alban, Jhonatan Alarcon-Baldeon, Roberson Ramirez, Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar, Henry Herrera, Mitchel Guzman-Guzman, Angel Rosas-Aguirre, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Joseph M. Vinetz, Ananias A. Escalante, Dionicia Gamboa
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(11): e0007876

Despite efforts made over decades by the Peruvian government to eliminate malaria, Plasmodium vivax remains a challenge for public health decision-makers in the country. The uneven distribution of its incidence, plus its complex pattern of dispersion, has made ineffective control measures based on global information that lack the necessary detail to understand transmission fully. In this sense, population genetic tools can complement current surveillance. This study describes the genetic diversity and population structure from September 2012 to March 2015 in three geographically distant settlements, Cahuide (CAH), Lupuna (LUP) and Santa Emilia (STE), located in the Peruvian Amazon.

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