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Scientific Articles

NOT Open Access | The PHIST protein GEXP02 targets the host cytoskeleton during sexual development of Plasmodium falciparum

January 24, 2020 - 15:42 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Jan D. Warncke, Armin Passecker, Enja Kipfer, Françoise Brand, Lara Pérez‐Martínez, Nicholas I. Proellochs, Taco W.A. Kooij, Falk Butter, Till S. Voss, Hans‐Peter Beck
Reference: 
Cellular Microbiology, Volume22, Issue2, February 2020, e13123

A hallmark of the biology of Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites is their extensive host cell remodelling, facilitated by parasite proteins that are exported into the erythrocyte. Although this area has received extensive attention, only a few exported parasite proteins have been analysed in detail, and much of this remodelling process remains unknown, particularly for gametocyte development. Recent advances to induce high rates of sexual commitment enable the production of large numbers of gametocytes. We used this approach to study the Plasmodium helical interspersed subtelomeric (PHIST) protein GEXP02, which is expressed during sexual development.

NOT Open Access | dGMP Binding to Thymidylate Kinase from Plasmodium falciparum Shows Half-Site Binding and Induces Protein Dynamics at the Dimer Interface

January 24, 2020 - 15:10 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Chen MD, Fucci IJ, Sinha K, Rule GS
Reference: 
Biochemistry. 2020 Jan 14

Plasmodium falciparum thymidylate kinase (PfTMK) is an essential enzyme for the growth of the organism because of its critical role in the de novo synthesis of deoxythymidine 5′-diphosphate (TDP), a precursor for TTP that is required for DNA replication and repair. The kinetics, thermodynamic parameters, and substrate binding properties of PfTMK for TMP, dGMP, ADP, and ATP were measured and characterized by steady-state kinetics and a combination of isothermal titration calorimetry, tryptophan fluorescence titration, and NMR.

Investigating a Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion phenotype switch at the whole transcriptome level

January 24, 2020 - 15:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nyarko PB, Tarr SJ, Aniweh Y, Stewart LB, Conway DJ, Awandare GA
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Jan 14; 10(1):245

The central role that erythrocyte invasion plays in Plasmodium falciparum survival and reproduction makes this process an attractive target for therapeutic or vaccine development. However, multiple invasion-related genes with complementary and overlapping functions afford the parasite the plasticity to vary ligands used for invasion, leading to phenotypic variation and immune evasion. Overcoming the challenge posed by redundant ligands requires a deeper understanding of conditions that select for variant phenotypes and the molecular mediators.

Long-term immunogenicity and immune memory response to the hepatitis B antigen in the RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine in African children: a randomized trial

January 24, 2020 - 15:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Valéa I, Adjei S, Agbenyega T, et al.
Reference: 
Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2020 Jan 17:1-7

RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine contains the hepatitis B virus surface antigen and may thus serve as a potential hepatitis B vaccine. To evaluate the impact of RTS,S/AS01E when implemented in the Expanded Program of Immunization, infants 8–12 weeks old were randomized to receive either RTS,S/AS01E or a licensed hepatitis B control vaccine (HepB), both co-administered with various combinations of the following childhood vaccines: diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b, trivalent oral poliovirus, pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate and human rotavirus vaccine.

NOT Open Access | G-strand binding protein 2 is involved in asexual and sexual development of Plasmodium berghei

January 24, 2020 - 15:02 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Mamoru Niikura, Toshiyuki Fukutomi, Kana Fukui, Shin-Ichi Inoue, Hiroko Asahi, Fumie Kobayashi
Reference: 
Parasitology International, 18 January 2020, 102059

G-strand binding protein 2 (GBP2) is a Ser/Arg-rich (SR) protein involved in mRNA surveillance and nuclear mRNA quality control in yeast. However, the roles of GBP2 in virulence and sexual development in Plasmodium parasites are unclear, although GBP2 is involved in the asexual development of Plasmodium berghei, the rodent malaria parasite. In this study, we investigated the role of GBP2 in virulence and sexual development of P. berghei using gbp2-deleted P. berghei (Δgbp2 parasites).

NAD(P) transhydrogenase has vital non-mitochondrial functions in malaria parasite transmission

January 24, 2020 - 14:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Saeed S, Tremp AZ, Sharma V, Lasonder E, Dessens JT
Reference: 
EMBO Rep. 2020 Jan 17:e47832

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphorylated form (NADP) are vital for cell function in all organisms and form cofactors to a host of enzymes in catabolic and anabolic processes. NAD(P) transhydrogenases (NTHs) catalyse hydride ion transfer between NAD(H) and NADP(H). Membrane‐bound NTH isoforms reside in the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria, and the inner membrane of mitochondria in metazoans, where they generate NADPH.

NOT Open Access | Congenital Malaria in Newborns Delivered to Mothers with Malaria-Infected Placenta in Blue Nile State, Sudan

January 24, 2020 - 14:57 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Omer SA, Adam I, Noureldien A, Elhaj H, Guerrero-Latorre L, Silgado A, Sulleiro E, Molina I
Reference: 
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, fmz083

Diagnosis of congenital malaria is complicated by the low density of the parasite circulating in the cord blood and/or the peripheral blood of the newborns. Molecular techniques are significantly more sensitive than blood smears in detecting low-level parasitemia. This study investigated the prevalence of congenital malaria by the use of the real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) in 102 babies born to mothers with microscopically confirmed infected placenta from Blue Nile state, Sudan.

Determinants of the persistence of malaria in Rwanda

January 24, 2020 - 14:53 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Guillaume Rudasingwa and Sung-Il Cho
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:36, 21 January 2020

Malaria has a considerable impact on the health of the populations of developing countries; indeed, the entire population of Rwanda is at risk of contracting the disease. Although various interventions to control malaria have been implemented in Rwanda, the incidence of malaria has increased since 2012. There is an interest in understanding factors driving its persistence in Rwanda. This study aims at evaluating the effect of socio-economic and environmental factors, seasonality and the use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) on malaria persistence in Rwanda.

Improving the performance of spray operators through monitoring and evaluation of insecticide concentrations of pirimiphos-methyl during indoor residual spraying for malaria control on Bioko Island

January 24, 2020 - 14:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Godwin Fuseini, Hanafy M. Ismail, Michael E. von Fricken, Thomas A. Weppelmann, Jordan Smith, Rhiannon Agnes Ellis Logan, Folasade Oladepo, Kyle J. Walker, Wonder P. Phiri, Mark J. I. Paine and Guillermo A. García
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:35, 21 January 2020

Quality control of indoor residual spraying (IRS) is necessary to ensure that spray operators (SOs) deposit the correct concentration of insecticide on sprayed structures, while also confirming that spray records are not being falsified.

Optimal timing of primaquine to reduce Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage when co-administered with artemether–lumefantrine

January 24, 2020 - 14:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Seif Shekalaghe, Dominic Mosha, Ali Hamad, Thabit A. Mbaga, Michael Mihayo, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley and Salim Abdulla
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:34, 21 January 2020

Primaquine is an important gametocytocidal drug that is combined with conventional malaria treatment for prevention of Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission. Primaquine has been administered together on the first or the last day of conventional treatment but the impact of primaquine timing has never been examined. This study aimed to assess safety, efficacy and optimal timing of single full-dose (0.75 mg/kg) primaquine when added to a standard 6-dose regimen of artemether–lumefantrine (AL).

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