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Scientific Articles

Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes in parasite isolates from asymptomatic individuals in Southeast Nigeria 11 years after withdrawal of chloroquine

October 8, 2019 - 15:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Moses N. Ikegbunam, Charles N. Nkonganyi, Bolaji N. Thomas, Charles O. Esimone, Thirumalaisamy P. Velavan and Olusola Ojurongbe
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:343, 7 October 2019

A reversal of chloroquine (CQ) resistance following a period of withdrawal has raised the possibility of its re-introduction. This study evaluated the current prevalence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles in Plasmodium falciparum isolates, 11 years after CQ withdrawal in Southeast Nigeria.

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Uptake of a fluorescently tagged chloroquine analogue is reduced in CQ-resistant compared to CQ-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum parasites

October 8, 2019 - 15:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sarah J. Reiling and Petra Rohrbach
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:342, 7 October 2019

Chloroquine (CQ) was the drug of choice for decades in the treatment of falciparum malaria until resistance emerged. CQ is suggested to accumulate in the parasite’s digestive vacuole (DV), where it unfolds its anti-malarial properties. Discrepancies of CQ accumulation in CQ-sensitive (CQS) and CQ-resistant (CQR) strains are thought to play a significant role in drug susceptibility. Analysis of CQ transport and intracellular localization using a fluorescently tagged CQ analogue could provide much needed information to distinguish susceptible from resistant parasite strains. The fluorescently tagged CQ analogue LynxTag-CQ™GREEN (CQGREEN) is commercially available and was assessed for its suitability.

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Detection of malaria parasites in dried human blood spots using mid-infrared spectroscopy and logistic regression analysis

October 8, 2019 - 15:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Emmanuel P. Mwanga, Elihaika G. Minja, Fredros O. Okumu, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:341, 7 October 2019

Epidemiological surveys of malaria currently rely on microscopy, polymerase chain reaction assays (PCR) or rapid diagnostic test kits for Plasmodium infections (RDTs). This study investigated whether mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy coupled with supervised machine learning could constitute an alternative method for rapid malaria screening, directly from dried human blood spots.

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Prevalence and distribution of G6PD deficiency: implication for the use of primaquine in malaria treatment in Ethiopia

October 8, 2019 - 14:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Eugenia Lo, Daibin Zhong, Beka Raya, Kareen Pestana, Cristian Koepfli, Ming-Chieh Lee, Delenasaw Yewhalaw and Guiyun Yan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:340, 7 October 2019

G6PD enzyme deficiency is a common enzymatic X-linked disorder. Deficiency of the G6PD enzyme can cause free radical-mediated oxidative damage to red blood cells, leading to premature haemolysis. Treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria with primaquine poses a potential risk of mild to severe acute haemolytic anaemia in G6PD deficient people. In this study, the prevalence and distribution of G6PD mutations were investigated across broad areas of Ethiopia, and tested the association between G6PD genotype and phenotype with the goal to provide additional information relevant to the use of primaquine in malaria treatment.

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Triple artemisinin-containing combination anti-malarial treatments should be implemented now to delay the emergence of resistance: the case against

October 7, 2019 - 15:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sanjeev Krishna
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:339, 3 October 2019

Managing multidrug resistant malaria can be problematic if currently available artemisinin-containing anti-malarial combination treatments are not used appropriately.

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A systematic review on anti-malarial drug discovery and antiplasmodial potential of green synthesis mediated metal nanoparticles: overview, challenges and future perspectives

October 7, 2019 - 15:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Loick P. Kojom Foko, Francois Eya’ane Meva, Carole E. Eboumbou Moukoko, Agnes A. Ntoumba, Marie I. Ngaha Njila, Philippe Belle Ebanda Kedi, Lawrence Ayong and Leopold G. Lehman
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:337, 3 October 2019

The recent emergence in Southeast Asia of artemisinin resistance poses major threats to malaria control and elimination globally. Green nanotechnologies can constitute interesting tools for discovering anti-malarial medicines. This systematic review focused on the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles as potential source of new antiplasmodial drugs.

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DNA recovery from archived RDTs for genetic characterization of Plasmodium falciparum in a routine setting in Lambaréné, Gabon

October 7, 2019 - 15:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
The Trong Nguyen, Brice Nzigou Mombo, Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:336, 2 October 2019

Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been described as a source of genetic material to analyse malaria parasites in proof-of-concept studies. The increasing use of RDTs (e.g., in focal or mass screening and treatment campaigns) makes this approach particularly attractive for large-scale investigations of parasite populations. In this study, the complexity of Plasmodium falciparum infections, parasite load and chloroquine resistance transporter gene mutations were investigated in DNA samples extracted from positive RDTs, obtained in a routine setting and archived at ambient temperature.

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Bio-efficacy and wash resistance of MAGNet long-lasting insecticidal net against wild populations of Anopheles funestus in experimental huts in Muheza, Tanzania

October 7, 2019 - 15:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Eliningaya J. Kweka, Patrick K. Tungu, Aneth M. Mahande, Humphrey D. Mazigo, Subira Sayumwe, Shandala Msangi, Lucile Lyaruu, John Waweru, William Kisinza and James Wangai
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:335, 1 October 2019

The decline in malaria cases and vectors is major milestone in fighting against malaria. The efficacy of MAGNet long-lasting insecticidal nets (MAGNet LLIN), an alpha-cypermethrin incorporated long-lasting net, with the target dose ± 25% of 5.8 g active ingredient (AI)/kg (4.35–7.25 g AI/kg) was evaluated in six veranda-trap experimental huts in Muheza, Tanzania against freely flying wild population of Anopheles funestus.

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Human exposure to Anopheles farauti bites in the Solomon Islands is not associated with IgG antibody response to the gSG6 salivary protein of Anopheles gambiae

October 7, 2019 - 15:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Edgar J. M. Pollard, Catriona Patterson, Tanya L. Russell, Alan Apairamo, Jance Oscar, Bruno Arcà, Chris Drakeley and Thomas R. Burkot
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:334, 1 October 2019

Mosquito saliva elicits immune responses in humans following mosquito blood feeding. Detection of human antibodies recognizing the Anopheles gambiae salivary gland protein 6 (gSG6) or the gSG6-P1 peptide in residents of Africa, South America and Southeast Asia suggested the potential for these antibodies to serve as a universal marker to estimate human biting rates. Validating the utility of this approach requires concurrent comparisons of anopheline biting rates with antibodies to the gSG6 protein to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for monitoring changes in vector populations. This study investigated whether seroprevalence of anti-gSG6 antibodies in humans reflected the relative exposure to Anopheles farauti bites in the Solomon Islands as estimated from sympatric human landing catches.

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Genetic polymorphism of the N-terminal region in circumsporozoite surface protein of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Sudan

October 7, 2019 - 15:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nouh S. Mohamed, Musab M. Ali Albsheer, Mohamed M. Elbasheir, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:333, 1 October 2019

Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasite is still known to be one of the most significant public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic diversity of the Sudanese P. falciparum based on the diversity in the circumsporozoite surface protein (PfCSP) has not been previously studied. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of the N-terminal region of the pfcsp gene.

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