The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) call for increased gender equity and reduction in malaria-related mortality and morbidity. Plasmodium vivax infections in pregnancy are associated with maternal anaemia and increased adverse perinatal outcomes. Providing radical cure for women with 8-aminoquinolines (e.g., primaquine) is hindered by gender-specific complexities.
Parenteral artesunate is the treatment of choice for severe malaria. It is safe, efficacious and well tolerated anti-malarial. However, delayed haemolysis has been reported in travellers, non-immune individuals and in African children.
The association between irrigation and the proliferation of adult mosquitoes including malaria vectors is well known; however, irrigation schemes are treated as homogenous spatio-temporal units, with little consideration for how larval breeding varies across space and time. The objective of this study was to estimate the spatio-temporal distribution of pools of water facilitating breeding at the Bwanje Valley Irrigation Scheme (BVIS) in Malawi, Africa as a function of environmental and anthropogenic characteristics.
The Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte surface protein, Pfs48/45, is a potential target for malaria transmission-blocking vaccines. However, due to its size and complexity, expression of the full-length protein has been difficult, leading to focus on the C-terminal six cysteine domain (6C) with the use of fusion proteins to facilitate expression and folding. In this study, we utilized the baculovirus system to evaluate the expression of three Pfs48/45 proteins including the full-length protein, the 6C domain fragment and the 6C domain mutant to prevent glycosylation. Expression of the recombinant Pfs48/45 proteins was conducted in super Sf9 cells combined with the use of tunicamycin to prevent N-glycosylation.
Antigenic diversity is a major concern in malaria vaccine development that requires to be considered in developing a malaria vaccine. Plasmodium falciparum thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (PfTRAP) is a leading malaria vaccine candidate antigen. In the current study, we investigated the level of genetic diversity and natural selection of pftrap sequences in P. falciparum isolates from Iran (n = 47). The gene diversity of Iranian pftrap sequences was also compared to available global pftrap sequences deposited in the GenBank or PlasmoDB databases (n = 220).
Malaria parasites proliferate by repeated invasion of and multiplication within erythrocytes in the vertebrate host. Sexually committed intraerythrocytic parasites undergo sexual stage differentiation to become gametocytes. After ingestion by the mosquito, male and female gametocytes egress from erythrocytes and fertilize within the mosquito midgut. A complex signaling pathway likely responds to environmental events to trigger gametogenesis and regulate fertilization; however, such knowledge remains limited for malaria parasites.
MHC class II (MHCII) molecules are cell surface glycoproteins that play an important role to develop adaptive immune responses. MHCII-disease association is not restricted to structural variation alone but also may extend to genetic variations, which may modulate gene expression. The observed variations in class II gene expression make it possible that the association of MHCII polymorphism with diseases may relate to the level of gene expression in addition to the restriction of response to Ag.
Subtilisin-like serine peptidases (subtilases) play important roles in the life cycle of many organisms, including the protozoan parasites that are the causative agent of malaria, Plasmodium spp. As with other peptidases, subtilase proteolytic activity has to be tightly regulated in order to prevent potentially deleterious uncontrolled protein degradation.
It is believed that the current prevalence of malaria in endemic areas reflects selection for the carrier form of sickle cell trait through a survival advantage. Malaria has been incriminated as a great cause of mortality in people with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, people with SCD, a high-risk group, do not benefit from free or subsisized malaria prevention and treatment in Cameroon unlike other vulnerable groups which may be due to insufficient evidence to guide policy makers. This study aimed at describing clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of patients with malaria, determining the prevalence of malaria in hospitalized children and in those with SCD and without, compare frequency of presentation of malaria related complications (using clinical and laboratory elements that define severe malaria) between children admitted for malaria with SCD and those without and finally, determing the risk factors for death in children admitted for malaria.
Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as malaria, dengue, and leishmaniasis exert a huge burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly affecting the poorest of the poor. The principal method by which these diseases are controlled is through vector control, which has a long and distinguished history. Vector control, to a greater extent than drugs or vaccines, has been responsible for shrinking the map of many VBDs. Here, we describe the history of vector control programmes worldwide from the late 1800s to date.