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Scientific Articles

Transcriptome-based analysis of blood samples reveals elevation of DNA damage response, neutrophil degranulation, cancer and neurodegenerative pathways in Plasmodium falciparum patients

October 9, 2021 - 09:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Akua A. Karikari, Wasco Wruck and James Adjaye
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:383, 26 September 2021

Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum results in severe complications including cerebral malaria (CM) especially in children. While the majority of falciparum malaria survivors make a full recovery, there are reports of some patients ending up with neurological sequelae or cognitive deficit.

Asymptomatic and sub-microscopic Plasmodium falciparum infection in children in the Mount Cameroon area: a cross-sectional study on altitudinal influence, haematological parameters and risk factors

October 9, 2021 - 09:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Irene Ule Ngole Sumbele, Rene Ning Teh, Helen Kuokuo Kimbi, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:382, 26 September 2021

The Mount Cameroon area has experienced a 57.2% decline in confirmed malaria cases between 2006 and 2013 with the implementation of different control measures but, the disease is still of public health concern. The objective of the study was to assess the burden of asymptomatic and sub-microscopic Plasmodium infection, altitudinal influence on it, their effect on haematological parameters as well as identify the risk factors of infection.

A portfolio of geographically distinct laboratory-adapted Plasmodium falciparum clones with consistent infection rates in Anopheles mosquitoes

October 9, 2021 - 09:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Wouter Graumans, Rianne Stoter, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Robert Sauerwein, Katharine A. Collins and Teun Bousema
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:381, 26 September 2021

The ability to culture Plasmodium falciparum continuously in vitro has enabled stable access to asexual and sexual parasites for malaria research. The portfolio of isolates has remained limited and research is still largely based on NF54 and its derived clone 3D7. Since 1978, isolates were collected and cryopreserved at Radboudumc from patients presenting at the hospital. Here, procedures are described for culture adaptation of asexual parasites, cloning and production of sexual stage parasites responsible for transmission (gametocytes) and production of oocysts in Anopheles mosquitoes. This study aimed to identify new culture-adapted transmissible P. falciparum isolates, originating from distinct geographical locations.

Antibody signatures of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections measured from dried blood spots

October 6, 2021 - 20:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Christine F. Markwalter, Myat Htut Nyunt, Zay Yar Han, Ricardo Henao, Aarti Jain, Omid Taghavian, Philip L. Felgner, Kay Thwe Han, Myaing M. Nyunt and Christopher V. Plowe
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:378, 23 September 2021

Screening malaria-specific antibody responses on protein microarrays can help identify immune factors that mediate protection against malaria infection, disease, and transmission, as well as markers of past exposure to both malaria parasites and mosquito vectors. Most malaria protein microarray work has used serum as the sample matrix, requiring prompt laboratory processing and a continuous cold chain, thus limiting applications in remote locations. Dried blood spots (DBS) pose minimal biohazard, do not require immediate laboratory processing, and are stable at room temperature for transport, making them potentially superior alternatives to serum. The goals of this study were to assess the viability of DBS as a source for antibody profiling and to use DBS to identify serological signatures of low-density Plasmodium falciparum infections in malaria-endemic regions of Myanmar.

Adaptation of ELISA detection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite proteins in mosquitoes to a multiplex bead-based immunoassay

October 6, 2021 - 20:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alice C. Sutcliffe, Seth R. Irish, Eric Rogier, Micaela Finney, Sarah Zohdy and Ellen M. Dotson
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:377, 23 September 2021

Plasmodium spp. sporozoite rates in mosquitoes are used to better understand malaria transmission intensity, the relative importance of vector species and the impact of interventions. These rates are typically estimated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) utilizing antibodies against the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax VK210 (P. vivax210) or P. vivax VK247 (P. vivax247), employing assays that were developed over three decades ago. The ELISA method requires a separate assay plate for each analyte tested and can be time consuming as well as requiring sample volumes not always available. The bead-based multiplex platform allows simultaneous measurement of multiple analytes and may improve the lower limit of detection for sporozoites.

Significant differences in FcγRIIa, FcγRIIIa and FcγRIIIb genes polymorphism and anti-malarial IgG subclass pattern are associated with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Saudi children

October 6, 2021 - 20:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Amre Nasr, Ahmad Aljada, Osama Hamid, Hatim A. Elsheikh, Emad Masuadi, Ahmad Al-Bawab, Themer H. Alenazi, Amir Abushouk and Ayman M. Salah
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:376, 22 September 2021

The FcγRs genotypes have been reported to play a key role in the defence against malaria parasites through both cellular and humoral immunity. This study aimed to investigate the possible correlation between FcγR (IIa, IIIa, and IIIb) genes polymorphism and the clinical outcome for anti‐malarial antibody response of Plasmodium falciparum infection among Saudi children.

The clinical–epidemiological profile of malaria patients from Southern Venezuela, a critical hotspot in Latin America

October 6, 2021 - 20:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
David A. Forero-Peña, Fhabián S. Carrión-Nessi, Ananías A. Escalante, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:375, 20 September 2021

Venezuela accounted for 55% of the cases and 73% of the malaria deaths in the Americas in 2019. Bolivar state, in the southeast, contributes > 60% of the country's Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum cases every year. This study describes the clinical–epidemiological characteristics of clinical malaria patients in this high-transmission area.

Population genetic analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (EBA-175) gene in Equatorial Guinea

October 6, 2021 - 20:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pei-Kui Yang, Xue-Yan Liang, Ying-E. Wu, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:374, 19 September 2021

Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (PfEBA-175) is a candidate antigen for a blood-stage malaria vaccine, while various polymorphisms and dimorphism have prevented to development of effective vaccines based on this gene. This study aimed to investigate the dimorphism of PfEBA-175 on both the Bioko Island and continent of Equatorial Guinea, as well as the genetic polymorphism and natural selection of global PfEBA-175.

Risk factors for malaria in high incidence areas of Viet Nam: a case–control study

October 6, 2021 - 20:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Richard J. Maude, Thang Duc Ngo, Nicholas J. Martin, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:373, 17 September 2021

A key step to advancing the goal of malaria elimination in Viet Nam by 2030 is focusing limited resources for treatment and prevention to groups most at risk for malaria transmission.

Not Open Access | Learnings from two independent malaria elimination demonstration projects in India

October 5, 2021 - 10:53 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rajvanshi H, Mishra K, Lal AA, et al.
Reference: 
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 25:trab148

India and sub-Saharan Africa contributes about 85% of the global malaria burden, and India is committed to eliminating malaria by 2030.

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