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Scientific Articles

NOT Open Access | Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of dual-stage antimalarial pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines

September 22, 2020 - 10:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Eagon S, Hammill JT, Guy RK, et al.
Reference: 
J Med Chem. 2020 Sep 18

Malaria remains one of the most deadly infectious diseases, causing hundreds of thousands of deaths each year, primarily in young children and pregnant mothers. Here we report the discovery and derivatization of a series of pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines targeting Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest species of the malaria parasite.

Community perception of malaria in a vulnerable municipality in the Colombian Pacific

September 22, 2020 - 10:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Carol Yovanna Rosero, Gloria Isabel Jaramillo, Franco Andrés Montenegro, César García, Arelis Alexandra Coral
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:343, 21 September 2020

Malaria primarily affects populations living in poor socioeconomic conditions, with limited access to basic services, deteriorating environmental conditions, and barriers to accessing health services. Control programmes are designed without participation from the communities involved, ignoring local knowledge and sociopolitical and cultural dynamics surrounding their main health problems, which implies imposing decontextualized control measures that reduce coverage and the impact of interventions. The objective of this study was to determine the community perception of malaria in the municipality of Olaya Herrera in the Colombian Pacific.

Use of a Plasmodium vivax genetic barcode for genomic surveillance and parasite tracking in Sri Lanka

September 22, 2020 - 10:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rajika L. Dewasurendra, Mary Lynn Baniecki, Nadira D. Karunaweera, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:342, 21 September 2020

Sri Lanka was certified as a malaria-free nation in 2016; however, imported malaria cases continue to be reported. Evidence-based information on the genetic structure/diversity of the parasite populations is useful to understand the population history, assess the trends in transmission patterns, as well as to predict threatening phenotypes that may be introduced and spread in parasite populations disrupting elimination programmes. This study used a previously developed Plasmodium vivax single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) barcode to evaluate the population dynamics of P. vivax parasite isolates from Sri Lanka and to assess the ability of the SNP barcode for tracking the parasites to its origin.

Rapid reduction of malaria transmission following the introduction of indoor residual spraying in previously unsprayed districts: an observational analysis of Mopti Region, Mali, in 2017

September 22, 2020 - 10:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joseph Wagman, Idrissa Cissé, Molly Robertson, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:340, 19 September 2020

The National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) of Mali has had recent success decreasing malaria transmission using 3rd generation indoor residual spraying (IRS) products in areas with pyrethroid resistance, primarily in Ségou and Koulikoro Regions. In 2015, national survey data showed that Mopti Region had the highest under 5-year-old (u5) malaria prevalence at 54%—nearly twice the national average—despite having high access to long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC). Accordingly, in 2016 the NMCP and other stakeholders shifted IRS activities from Ségou to Mopti. Here, the results of a series of observational analyses utilizing routine malaria indicators to evaluate the impact of this switch are presented.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium vivax strains use alternative pathways for invasion

September 22, 2020 - 10:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kanjee U, Grüring C, Duraisingh MT, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 17:jiaa592

Plasmodium vivax has two invasion ligand/host receptor pathways (PvDBP/DARC and PvRBP2b/TfR1) that are promising targets for therapeutic intervention. We optimized invasion assays with isogenic cultured reticulocytes.

NOT Open Access | Exploration of Anti-plasmodial Activity of Prunus cerasoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don (family: Rosaceae) and Its Wood Chromatographic Fractions

September 22, 2020 - 10:14 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sachdeva C, Kumar S, Kaushik NK
Reference: 
Acta Parasitol. 2020 Sep 17

Increasing resistance to the currently available antimalarial drugs is a leading cause of failure to control malaria. Plant-based medicines are commonly used to manage numerous infections, making medicinal plants the best possible source of alternative antimalarial drugs. The objective of this study is therefore to identify antimalarial potential of Prunus cerasoides.

Demonstration of indigenous malaria elimination through Track-Test-Treat-Track (T4) strategy in a Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in Mandla, Madhya Pradesh

September 17, 2020 - 13:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Praveen K. Bharti, Harsh Rajvanshi, Altaf A. Lal, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:339, 17 September 2020

Many malaria endemic countries are heading towards malaria elimination through the use of case management and vector control strategies, which employ surveillance, improving access to early diagnosis, prompt treatment., and integrated vector control measures. There is a consensus that elimination of malaria is feasible when rapid detection and prompt treatment is combined with mosquito-human contact interruption in an efficient and sustainable manner at community levels. This paper describes results of an integrated case management and vector control strategy for reducing malaria cases in 1233 villages over 3 years in district Mandla, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Genetic diversity and complexity of Plasmodium falciparum infections in the microenvironment among siblings of the same household in North-Central Nigeria

September 17, 2020 - 13:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Segun Isaac Oyedeji, Peter Usman Bassi, Samuel Adeola Oyedeji, Olusola Ojurongbe and Henrietta Oluwatoyin Awobode
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:338, 16 September 2020

Plasmodium falciparum parasites are known to exhibit extensive genetic diversity in areas of high transmission intensity and infected individuals in such communities often harbour several complex mixtures of parasite clones with different genetic characteristics. However, in the micro-environment, the extent of genetic diversity of P. falciparum parasites remain largely unknown. In this study therefore, the complexity of P. falciparum infections in households was investigated among symptomatic siblings, living under the same roof in north-central Nigeria.

A Sweet Galactose Transfer: Metabolic Oligosaccharide Engineering as a Tool To Study Glycans in Plasmodium Infection

September 17, 2020 - 13:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kitowski A, Bernardes GJL
Reference: 
Chembiochem. 2020 Sep 14;21(18):2696-2700

The introduction of chemical reporter groups into glycan structures through metabolic oligosaccharide engineering (MOE) followed by bio-orthogonal ligation is an important tool to study glycosylation. We show the incorporation of synthetic galactose derivatives that bear terminal alkene groups in hepatic cells, with and without infection by Plasmodium berghei parasites, the causative agent of malaria.

3D imaging of undissected optically cleared Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and midguts infected with Plasmodium parasites

September 17, 2020 - 13:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
De Niz M, Kehrer J, Brancucci NMB, Moalli F, Reynaud EG, Stein JV, Frischknecht F
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Sep 16;15(9):e0238134

Malaria is a life-threatening disease, caused by Apicomplexan parasites of the Plasmodium genus. The Anopheles mosquito is necessary for the sexual replication of these parasites and for their transmission to vertebrate hosts, including humans. Imaging of the parasite within the insect vector has been attempted using multiple microscopy methods, most of which are hampered by the presence of the light scattering opaque cuticle of the mosquito.

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