The emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination. The interconnectedness of parasite populations may be essential to monitor the spread of resistance. Combining a published barcoding system of geographically restricted single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), mainly mitochondria of P. falciparum with SNPs in the K13 artemisinin resistance marker, could elucidate the parasite population structure and provide insight regarding the spread of drug resistance.
Intermittent preventive treatment could help prevent malaria in infants (IPTi) living in areas of moderate to high malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization (WHO) policy recommended IPTi in 2010, but its adoption in countries has been limited.
We determined the prevalence of Kelch 13 mutations and pfmdr1 copy number in samples collected from the Thailand-Myanmar border, the Thailand-Cambodia border, and southern Thailand from 2002 to 2007.
Sri Lanka reported the last case of indigenous malaria in October 2012, and received malaria-free certification from WHO in September 2016. Malaria cases have since, shifted from indigenous to imported, and the country remains receptive and vulnerable to malaria. A case-based epidemiological study was conducted on all imported malaria cases reported in the country in 2015 and 2016 with the aim of profiling imported malaria to improve the effectiveness of the surveillance and case management system for malaria.
In Brazil, the Amazon region comprises 99.5% of the reported malaria cases. However, another hotspot of the disease is the Atlantic Forest regions, with the sporadic occurrence of autochthonous human cases. In such context, this study sought to investigate the role of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the residual malaria transmission in Atlantic Forest areas.
Currently, conjugation of artemisinin-derived dimers, trimers, and tetramers is a viable strategy for developing new effective antimalarial candidates. Furthermore, nanotechnology is an effective means to achieve intravenous administration of hydrophobic drugs. In this paper, an ester-linked dihydroartemisinin trimer (DHA3) was synthesized and further prepared as self-assembled nanoparticles (DHA3NPs) by a one-step nanoprecipitation method. The pharmacokinetics and antimalarial pharmacodynamics of DHA3NPs were studied in rats and mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii BY265 (PyBY265). DHA3NPs had a regular spherical shape with a uniform size distribution of 140.27 ± 3.59 nm, entrapment efficiency (EE) of 99.63 ± 0.17%, and drug loading efficiency (DL) of 79.62 ± 0.11%.
Individual-level geographic information about malaria cases, such as the GPS coordinates of residence or health facility, is often collected as part of surveillance in near-elimination settings, but could be more effectively utilised to infer transmission dynamics, in conjunction with additional information such as symptom onset time and genetic distance. However, in the absence of data about the flow of parasites between populations, the spatial scale of malaria transmission is often not clear. As a result, it is important to understand the impact of varying assumptions about the spatial scale of transmission on key metrics of malaria transmission, such as reproduction numbers. We developed a method which allows the flexible integration of distance metrics (such as Euclidian distance, genetic distance or accessibility matrices) with temporal information into a single inference framework to infer malaria reproduction numbers.
This review analyses the most recent scientific research conducted for the purpose of enhancing artemisinin production. It may help to devise better artemisinin enhancement strategies, so that its production becomes cost effective and becomes available to masses. Malaria is a major threat to world population, particularly in South-East Asia and Africa, due to dearth of effective anti-malarial compounds, emergence of quinine resistant malarial strains, and lack of advanced healthcare facilities. Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone obtained from Artemisia annua L., is the most potent drug against malaria and used in the formulation of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs).
Limited drugs, rise in drug resistance against frontline anti-malarial drugs, non-availability of efficacious vaccines and high cost of drug development hinders malaria intervention programs. Search for safe, effective and affordable plant based anti-malarial agents, thus becomes crucial and vital in the current scenario. The Vitex negundo L. is medicinal plant possessing a variety of pharmaceutically important compounds. The plant is used traditionally worldwide for the treatment of malaria including India and Malaysia by the indigenous tribes. In vitro studies have reported the anti-malarial use of the plant in traditional medicinal systems.
As infectious diseases approach global elimination targets, spatial targeting is increasingly important to identify community hotspots of transmission and effectively target interventions. We aimed to synthesise relevant evidence to define best practice approaches and identify policy and research gaps.