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Scientific Articles

Vivax malaria in pregnancy and lactation: a long way to health equity

January 27, 2020 - 13:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tobias Brummaier, Mary Ellen Gilder, Gornpan Gornsawun, Cindy S. Chu, Germana Bancone, Mupawjay Pimanpanarak, Kesinee Chotivanich, François Nosten and Rose McGready
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:40, 22 January 2020

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) call for increased gender equity and reduction in malaria-related mortality and morbidity. Plasmodium vivax infections in pregnancy are associated with maternal anaemia and increased adverse perinatal outcomes. Providing radical cure for women with 8-aminoquinolines (e.g., primaquine) is hindered by gender-specific complexities.

Delayed haemolysis after treatment with intravenous artesunate in patients with severe malaria in India

January 27, 2020 - 13:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Deepali Savargaonkar, Manoj Kumar Das, Amar Verma, Jeevan K. Mitra, C. P. Yadav, Bina Srivastava, Anupkumar R. Anvikar and Neena Valecha
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:39, 22 January 2020

Parenteral artesunate is the treatment of choice for severe malaria. It is safe, efficacious and well tolerated anti-malarial. However, delayed haemolysis has been reported in travellers, non-immune individuals and in African children.

Estimating spatio-temporal distributions of mosquito breeding pools in irrigated agricultural schemes: a case study at the Bwanje Valley Irrigation Scheme

January 27, 2020 - 13:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
April N. Frake, Willy Namaona, Edward D. Walker and Joseph P. Messina
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:38, 22 January 2020

The association between irrigation and the proliferation of adult mosquitoes including malaria vectors is well known; however, irrigation schemes are treated as homogenous spatio-temporal units, with little consideration for how larval breeding varies across space and time. The objective of this study was to estimate the spatio-temporal distribution of pools of water facilitating breeding at the Bwanje Valley Irrigation Scheme (BVIS) in Malawi, Africa as a function of environmental and anthropogenic characteristics.

A C-terminal Pfs48/45 malaria transmission-blocking vaccine candidate produced in the baculovirus expression system

January 27, 2020 - 13:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lee SM, Hickey JM, Miura K, Joshi SB, Volkin DB, King CR, Plieskatt JL
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Jan 15; 10(1):395

The Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte surface protein, Pfs48/45, is a potential target for malaria transmission-blocking vaccines. However, due to its size and complexity, expression of the full-length protein has been difficult, leading to focus on the C-terminal six cysteine domain (6C) with the use of fusion proteins to facilitate expression and folding. In this study, we utilized the baculovirus system to evaluate the expression of three Pfs48/45 proteins including the full-length protein, the 6C domain fragment and the 6C domain mutant to prevent glycosylation. Expression of the recombinant Pfs48/45 proteins was conducted in super Sf9 cells combined with the use of tunicamycin to prevent N-glycosylation.

NOT Open Access | Population genetic structure analysis of thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) as a vaccine candidate antigen in worldwide Plasmodium falciparum isolates

January 27, 2020 - 13:24 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Mehrizi AA, Zadeh AJ, Zakeri S, Djadid ND
Reference: 
Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 16 January 2020, 104197

Antigenic diversity is a major concern in malaria vaccine development that requires to be considered in developing a malaria vaccine. Plasmodium falciparum thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (PfTRAP) is a leading malaria vaccine candidate antigen. In the current study, we investigated the level of genetic diversity and natural selection of pftrap sequences in P. falciparum isolates from Iran (n = 47). The gene diversity of Iranian pftrap sequences was also compared to available global pftrap sequences deposited in the GenBank or PlasmoDB databases (n = 220).

A novel Plasmodium yoelii pseudokinase, PypPK1, is involved in erythrocyte invasion and exflagellation center formation

January 27, 2020 - 13:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ishizaki T, Chaiyawong N, Hakimi H, Asada M, Tachibana M, Ishino T, Yahata K, Kaneko O
Reference: 
Parasitology International, 14 January 2020, 102056

Malaria parasites proliferate by repeated invasion of and multiplication within erythrocytes in the vertebrate host. Sexually committed intraerythrocytic parasites undergo sexual stage differentiation to become gametocytes. After ingestion by the mosquito, male and female gametocytes egress from erythrocytes and fertilize within the mosquito midgut. A complex signaling pathway likely responds to environmental events to trigger gametogenesis and regulate fertilization; however, such knowledge remains limited for malaria parasites.

NOT Open Access | MHC Class II (DRB) Promoter Polymorphism and Its Role in Parasite Control among Malaria Patients

January 27, 2020 - 13:21 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sar P, Agarwal A, Vadodariya DH, Kariya H, Khuman J, Dalai S
Reference: 
J Immunol January 15, 2020, ji1900558

MHC class II (MHCII) molecules are cell surface glycoproteins that play an important role to develop adaptive immune responses. MHCII-disease association is not restricted to structural variation alone but also may extend to genetic variations, which may modulate gene expression. The observed variations in class II gene expression make it possible that the association of MHCII polymorphism with diseases may relate to the level of gene expression in addition to the restriction of response to Ag.

A malaria parasite subtilisin propeptide-like protein is a potent inhibitor of the egress protease SUB1

January 27, 2020 - 13:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tarr SJ, Withers-Martinez C, Flynn HR, Snijders AP, Masino L, Koussis K, Conway DJ, Blackman MJ
Reference: 
Biochem J. 2020 Jan 16. pii: BCJ20190918

Subtilisin-like serine peptidases (subtilases) play important roles in the life cycle of many organisms, including the protozoan parasites that are the causative agent of malaria, Plasmodium spp. As with other peptidases, subtilase proteolytic activity has to be tightly regulated in order to prevent potentially deleterious uncontrolled protein degradation.

Malaria in patients with sickle cell anaemia: burden, risk factors and outcome at the Laquintinie hospital, Cameroon

January 27, 2020 - 13:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Eleonore NLE, Cumber SN, Mbanya D, et al.
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Jan 14; 20(1):40

It is believed that the current prevalence of malaria in endemic areas reflects selection for the carrier form of sickle cell trait through a survival advantage. Malaria has been incriminated as a great cause of mortality in people with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, people with SCD, a high-risk group, do not benefit from free or subsisized malaria prevention and treatment in Cameroon unlike other vulnerable groups which may be due to insufficient evidence to guide policy makers. This study aimed at describing clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of patients with malaria, determining the prevalence of malaria in hospitalized children and in those with SCD and without, compare frequency of presentation of malaria related complications (using clinical and laboratory elements that define severe malaria) between children admitted for malaria with SCD and those without and finally, determing the risk factors for death in children admitted for malaria.

The importance of vector control for the control and elimination of vector-borne diseases

January 27, 2020 - 13:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wilson AL, Courtenay O, Kelly-Hope LA, Scott TW, Takken W, Torr SJ, Lindsay SW
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(1): e0007831

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as malaria, dengue, and leishmaniasis exert a huge burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly affecting the poorest of the poor. The principal method by which these diseases are controlled is through vector control, which has a long and distinguished history. Vector control, to a greater extent than drugs or vaccines, has been responsible for shrinking the map of many VBDs. Here, we describe the history of vector control programmes worldwide from the late 1800s to date.

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