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Scientific Articles

Pharmacokinetic profile of amodiaquine and its active metabolite desethylamodiaquine in Ghanaian patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria

January 9, 2021 - 13:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Thomas A. Anyorigiya, Sandra Castel, Karen I. Barnes, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:18, 6 January 2021

Accurate measurement of anti-malarial drug concentrations in therapeutic efficacy studies is essential to distinguish between inadequate drug exposure and anti-malarial drug resistance, and to inform optimal anti-malarial dosing in key target population groups.

Plasma angiopoietin-2 is associated with age-related deficits in cognitive sub-scales in Ugandan children following severe malaria

January 9, 2021 - 13:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Benson J. Ouma, Paul Bangirana, John M. Ssenkusu, Dibyadyuti Datta, Robert O. Opoka, Richard Idro, Kevin C. Kain, Chandy C. John and Andrea L. Conroy
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:17, 6 January 2021

Elevated angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2) concentrations are associated with worse overall neurocognitive function in severe malaria survivors, but the specific domains affected have not been elucidated.

KASP: a genotyping method to rapid identification of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum

January 9, 2021 - 13:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ana Alvarez-Fernandez, María J. Bernal, Isabel Fradejas, Alexandra Martin Ramírez, Noor Azian Md Yusuf, Marta Lanza, Shamilah Hisam, Ana Pérez de Ayala and José M. Rubio
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:16, 6 January 2021

The emergence and spread of anti-malarial resistance continues to hinder malaria control. Plasmodium falciparum, the species that causes most human malaria cases and most deaths, has shown resistance to almost all known anti-malarials. This anti-malarial resistance arises from the development and subsequent expansion of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in specific parasite genes. A quick and cheap tool for the detection of drug resistance can be crucial and very useful for use in hospitals and in malaria control programmes. It has been demonstrated in different contexts that genotyping by Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP), is a simple, fast and economical method that allows a high-precision biallelic characterization of SNPs, hence its possible utility in the study of resistance in P. falciparum.

Epidemiological profile of Plasmodium ovale spp. imported from Africa to Anhui Province, China, 2012–2019

January 9, 2021 - 12:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tao Zhang, Shuqi Wang, Weidong Li, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:15, 6 January 2021

Although autochthonous malaria cases are no longer reported in Anhui Province, China, imported malaria has become a major health concern. The proportion of reported malaria cases caused by Plasmodium ovale spp. increased to levels higher than expected during 2012 to 2019, and showed two peaks, 19.69% in 2015 and 19.35% in 2018.

Detecting Plasmodium falciparum in community surveys: a comparison of Paracheck Pf® Test and ICT Malaria Pf® Cassette Test to polymerase chain reaction in Mutasa District, Zimbabwe

January 9, 2021 - 12:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nobert Mudare, Zvifadzo Matsena-Zingoni, Aramu Makuwaza, Edmore Mamini, Shungu S. Munyati, Lovemore Gwanzura, Nicholas Midzi, Susan L. Mutambu, Peter Mason, Tamaki Kobayashi and Sungano Mharakurwa
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:14, 6 January 2021

Microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the main techniques used to diagnose malaria. While microscopy is considered the gold standard, RDTs have established popularity as they allow for rapid diagnosis with minimal technical skills. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of two Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2)-based RDTs (Paracheck Pf® Test (Paracheck) and Malaria Pf™ ICT (ICT)) to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a community survey.

Should we care about Plasmodium vivax and HIV co-infection? A systematic review and a cases series from the Brazilian Amazon

January 9, 2021 - 12:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Paola López Del-Tejo, Nadia Cubas-Vega, Fernando Val, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:13, 6 January 2021

Malaria and HIV are two important public health issues. However, evidence on HIV-Plasmodium vivax co-infection (HIV/PvCo) is scarce, with most of the available information related to Plasmodium falciparum on the African continent. It is unclear whether HIV can change the clinical course of vivax malaria and increase the risk of complications. In this study, a systematic review of HIV/PvCo studies was performed, and recent cases from the Brazilian Amazon were included.

Single blinded semi-field evaluation of MAÏA® topical repellent ointment compared to unformulated 20% DEET against Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and Aedes aegypti in Tanzania

January 9, 2021 - 12:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Emmanuel Mbuba, Olukayode G. Odufuwa, Frank C. Tenywa, Rose Philipo, Mgeni M. Tambwe, Johnson K. Swai, Jason D. Moore and Sarah J. Moore
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:12, 6 January 2021

N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) topical mosquito repellents are effective personal protection tools. However, DEET-based repellents tend to have low consumer acceptability because they are cosmetically unappealing. More attractive formulations are needed to encourage regular user compliance. This study evaluated the protective efficacy and protection duration of a new topical repellent ointment containing 15% DEET, MAÏA® compared to 20% DEET in ethanol using malaria and dengue mosquito vectors in Bagamoyo Tanzania.

Aedes aegypti SGS1 is critical for Plasmodium gallinaceum infection of both the mosquito midgut and salivary glands

January 9, 2021 - 12:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bianca B. Kojin, Ines Martin-Martin, Helena R. C. Araújo, Brian Bonilla, Alvaro Molina-Cruz, Eric Calvo, Margareth L. Capurro and Zach N. Adelman
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:11, 6 January 2021

The invasion of the mosquito salivary glands by Plasmodium sporozoites is a critical step that defines the success of malaria transmission and a detailed understanding of the molecules responsible for salivary gland invasion could be leveraged towards control of vector-borne pathogens. Antibodies directed against the mosquito salivary gland protein SGS1 have been shown to reduce Plasmodium gallinaceum sporozoite invasion of Aedes aegypti salivary glands, but the specific role of this protein in sporozoite invasion and in other stages of the Plasmodium life cycle remains unknown.

Transition of radical, preventive and presumptive treatment regimens for malaria in China: a systematic review

January 7, 2021 - 12:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jian-Wei Xu, Rogan Lee, Xiao-Hong Li and Hui Liu
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:10, 6 January 2021

Globally, malaria is still a major public health challenge. Drug-based treatment is the primary intervention in malaria control and elimination. However, optimal use of mass or targeted treatments remains unclear. A variety of radical, preventive and presumptive treatment regimens have been administrated in China and a systematic review was conducted to evaluate effectiveness, and discuss experiences, limitations, and lessons learnt in relation to the use of these regimens.

Dendritic cell responses to Plasmodium falciparum in a malaria-endemic setting

January 7, 2021 - 12:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Triniti C. Turner, Charles Arama, Aissata Ongoiba, Safiatou Doumbo, Didier Doumtabé, Kassoum Kayentao, Jeff Skinner, Shanping Li, Boubacar Traore, Peter D. Crompton and Anton Götz
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:9, 6 January 2021

Plasmodium falciparum causes the majority of malaria cases worldwide and children in sub-Saharan Africa are the most vulnerable group affected. Non-sterile clinical immunity that protects from symptoms develops slowly and is relatively short-lived. Moreover, current malaria vaccine candidates fail to induce durable high-level protection in endemic settings, possibly due to the immunomodulatory effects of the malaria parasite itself. Because dendritic cells play a crucial role in initiating immune responses, the aim of this study was to better understand the impact of cumulative malaria exposure as well as concurrent P. falciparum infection on dendritic cell phenotype and function.

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