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Scientific Articles

Effect of pre-consultation testing on clinicians’ adherence to malaria test results and waiting time among children under 5 years in the Northern Zone of Volta Region of Ghana

March 24, 2020 - 11:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jonathan Mawutor Gmanyami, Asiwome Ameko, Saviour Selase Ahiafe, Samuel Adolf Bosoka, Margaret Kweku and Evelyn Korkor Ansah
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:120, 20 March 2020

The Ministry of Health, Ghana, in accordance with global policy, recommends that all suspected malaria cases be confirmed parasitologically before treatment. Not all clinicians, however, base their treatment on test results. Patients also spend a lot of time at health facilities waiting to consult a clinician before being asked to go for testing and to see a clinician with test results. The purpose of the study was to determine if testing all children aged 6 to 59 months with fever reporting at an outpatients department (OPD) for malaria before consultation with a clinician (pre-consultation testing) will influence clinicians to adhere to test results and also reduce the time spent by such patients.

Systematic review of statistical methods for safety data in malaria chemoprevention in pregnancy trials

March 24, 2020 - 11:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Noel Patson, Mavuto Mukaka, Tobias Chirwa, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:119, 20 March 2020

Drug safety assessments in clinical trials present unique analytical challenges. Some of these include adjusting for individual follow-up time, repeated measurements of multiple outcomes and missing data among others. Furthermore, pre-specifying appropriate analysis becomes difficult as some safety endpoints are unexpected. Although existing guidelines such as CONSORT encourage thorough reporting of adverse events (AEs) in clinical trials, they provide limited details for safety data analysis. The limited guidelines may influence suboptimal analysis by failing to account for some analysis challenges above. A typical example where such challenges exist are trials of anti-malarial drugs for malaria prevention during pregnancy. Lack of proper standardized evaluation of the safety of antimalarial drugs has limited the ability to draw conclusions about safety. Therefore, a systematic review was conducted to establish the current practice in statistical analysis for preventive antimalarial drug safety in pregnancy.

Video Recording Can Conveniently Assay Mosquito Locomotor Activity

March 23, 2020 - 14:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Araujo MDS, Guo F, Rosbash M
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Mar 19;10(1):4994

Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti are perhaps the best studied mosquito species and important carriers of human malaria and arbovirus, respectively. Mosquitoes have daily rhythms in behaviors and show a wide range of activity patterns. Although Anopheles is known to be principally nocturnal and Aedes principally diurnal, details of mosquito activity are not easily assayed in the laboratory.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium stage-selective antimalarials from Lophira lanceolata stem bark

March 23, 2020 - 14:53 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Soré H, Lopatriello A, Ebstie YA, Tenoh Guedoung AR, Hilou A, Pereira JA, Kijjoa A, Habluetzel A, Taglialatela-Scafati O
Reference: 
Phytochemistry Volume 174, June 2020, 112336

Targeting the transmissible stages of the Plasmodium parasite that develop in the human and mosquito host is a crucial strategy for malaria control and elimination. Medicinal plants offer a prolific source for the discovery of new antimalarial compounds. The recent identification of the gametocytocidal activity of lophirone E, obtained from the African plant Lophira lanceolata (Ochnaceae), inspired the evaluation of the plant also against early sporogonic stages of the parasite development.

NOT Open Access | Immunogenicity and safety of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine co-administered with measles, rubella and yellow fever vaccines in Ghanaian children: A phase IIIb, multi-center, non-inferiority, randomized, open, controlled trial

March 23, 2020 - 14:50 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Asante KP, Ansong D, Ofori-Anyinam O, et al.
Reference: 
Vaccine. 2020 Mar 16. pii: S0264-410X(20)30358-3

To optimize vaccine implementation visits for young children, it could be efficient to administer the first RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine dose during the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) visit at 6 months of age together with Vitamin A supplementation and the third RTS,S/AS01 dose on the same day as yellow fever (YF), measles and rubella vaccines at 9 months of age. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of RTS,S/AS01 when co-administered with YF and combined measles-rubella (MR) vaccines.

Preparedness is essential for malaria-endemic regions during the COVID-19 pandemic

March 23, 2020 - 14:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wang J, Xu C, Tu Y, et al.
Reference: 
Lancet. 2020 Mar 16. pii: S0140-6736(20)30561-4

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that first emerged in Wuhan in China's Hubei province has quickly spread to the rest of China and many other countries. Within 3 months, more than 125 000 people have been infected and the death toll had reached over 4600 worldwide on March 12, 2020. In an attempt to contain the virus, the Chinese Government has made unprecedented efforts and invested enormous resources and these containment efforts have stemmed the spread of the disease.

Practical example of multiple antibody screening for evaluation of malaria control strategies

March 23, 2020 - 14:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Marie-Louise Varela, David Koffi, Michael White, Makhtar Niang, Babacar Mbengue, Fatoumata Diene Sarr, André Offianan Touré and Ronald Perraut
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:117, 19 March 2020

Ongoing efforts to fight Plasmodium falciparum malaria has reduced malaria in many areas, but new tools are needed to monitor further progress, including indicators of decreasing exposure to parasite infection. Sero-surveillance is considered promising to monitor exposure, transmission and immunity.

Prospective assessment of malaria infection in a semi-isolated Amazonian indigenous Yanomami community: Transmission heterogeneity and predominance of submicroscopic infection

March 23, 2020 - 14:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Robortella DR, Calvet AA, Carvalho LH, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(3): e0230643

In the Amazon basin, indigenous forest-dwelling communities typically suffer from a high burden of infectious diseases, including malaria. Difficulties in accessing these isolated ethnic groups, such as the semi-nomadic Yanomami, make official malaria data largely underestimated. In the current study, we longitudinally surveyed microscopic and submicroscopic malaria infection in four Yanomami villages of the Marari community in the northern-most region of the Brazilian Amazon.

NOT Open Access | Classification models for predicting the antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum

March 23, 2020 - 14:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Liu Q, Deng J, Liu M
Reference: 
SAR QSAR Environ Res. 2020 Mar 19:1-12

Support vector machine (SVM) and general regression neural network (GRNN) were used to develop classification models for predicting the antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Only 15 molecular descriptors were used to build the classification models for the antimalarial activities of 4750 compounds, which were divided into a training set (3887 compounds) and a test set (863 compounds).

Multiplex Human Malaria Array: Quantifying Antigens for Malaria Rapid Diagnostics

March 23, 2020 - 14:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jang IK, Tyler A, Domingo GJ, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Mar 16

Malaria antigen detection through rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) is widely used to diagnose malaria and estimate prevalence. To support more sensitive next-generation RDT development and screen asymptomatic malaria, we developed and evaluated the Q-Plex™ Human Malaria Array, which quantifies the antigens commonly used in RDTs—Plasmodium falciparum–specific histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), P. falciparum-specific lactate dehydrogenase (Pf LDH), P. vivax –specific LDH (Pv LDH), and Pan malaria lactate dehydrogenase (Pan LDH), and human C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of severity in malaria.

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