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Scientific Articles

Blood donor variability is a modulatory factor for P. falciparum invasion phenotyping assays

March 31, 2021 - 14:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Thiam LG, Nyarko PB, Kusi KA, Niang M, Aniweh Y, Awandare GA
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 29;11(1):7129

Human erythrocytes are indispensable for Plasmodium falciparum development. Unlike other eukaryotic cells, there is no existing erythroid cell line capable of supporting long-term P. falciparum in vitro experiments. Consequently, invasion phenotyping experiments rely on erythrocytes of different individuals. However, the contribution of the erythrocytes variation in influencing invasion rates remains unknown, which represents a challenge for conducting large-scale comparative studies.

COVID-19 and Syndemic challenges in 'Battling the Big Three': HIV, TB and malaria

March 31, 2021 - 14:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Velavan TP, Meyer CG, Esen M, Kremsner PG, Ntoumi F
Reference: 
Int J Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 26:S1201-9712(21)00289-7

Indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have the potential to seriously undermine the health system in sub-Saharan Africa with an increase in the incidences of malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV infections.

NOT Open Access | Quality Control of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets: Are We Neglecting It

March 30, 2021 - 14:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Karl S, Katusele M, Freeman TW, Moore SJ
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Mar 25:S1471-4922(21)00056-8

Over 2.2 billion long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) for malaria control have been delivered to recipient countries. LLINs are the largest single item in the global malaria control budget. To be eligible for donor-funded procurement and distribution schemes, LLIN products must attain and retain World Health Organization (WHO) prequalification status by passing safety, quality, and efficacy benchmarks.

Studies on the mitochondrial, immunological and inflammatory effects of solvent fractions of Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice

March 30, 2021 - 14:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
David OM, Olanlokun JO, Owoniyi BE, Ayeni M, Ebenezer O, Koorbanally NA
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6941

The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of malaria is gaining global attention due to their efficacy and cost effectiveness. This study evaluated the bioactivity-guided antiplasmodial efficacy and immunomodulatory effects of solvent fractions of Diospyros mespiliformis in mice infected with a susceptible strain of Plasmodium berghei (NK 65). The crude methanol extract of the stem of D. mespiliformis (DM) was partitioned between n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Male Swiss mice (20 ± 2 g) infected with P. berghei were grouped and treated with vehicle (10 mL/kg, control), Artemether lumefantrine (10 mg/kg), 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions of D. mespiliformis for seven days. Blood was obtained for heme and hemozoin contents while serum was obtained for inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulins G and M assessments.

Status of insecticide susceptibility in Anopheles arabiensis and detection of the knockdown resistance mutation (kdr) concerning agricultural practices from Northern Sudan state, Sudan

March 30, 2021 - 14:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Korti MY, Ageep TB, Adam AI, Shitta KB, Hassan AA, Algadam AA, Baleela RM, Saad HA, Abuelmaali SA
Reference: 
J Genet Eng Biotechnol. 2021 Mar 29;19(1):49

Chemical control has been the most efficient method in mosquito control, the development of insecticide resistance in target populations has a significant impact on vector control. The use of agricultural pesticides may have a profound impact on the development of resistance in the field populations of malaria vectors. Our study focused on insecticide resistance and knockdown resistance (kdr) of Anopheles arabiensis populations from Northern Sudan, related to agricultural pesticide usage.

NOT Open Access | Effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine in pregnant women in San Pedro, Côte D'Ivoire

March 30, 2021 - 14:24 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bedia-Tanoh AV, Konaté A, Yavo W, et al.
Reference: 
Pathog Glob Health. 2021 Mar 26:1-6

Malaria remains a major public health issue for pregnant women. Côte d'Ivoire has adopted a series of measures aimed at combatting this plague, and these measures include administering Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) as an intermittent preventive treatment to pregnant women in the second and third terms.This cross-sectional study included a parturient population after informed written consent. We recruited women from the Terre Rouge maternity ward and the labor room of the Regional Medical Center of San-Pedro.

Novel anti-malarial drug strategies to prevent artemisinin partner drug resistance: A model-based analysis

March 30, 2021 - 14:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kunkel A, White M, Piola P
Reference: 
PLoS Comput Biol. 2021 Mar 25;17(3):e1008850

Emergence of resistance to artemisinin and partner drugs in the Greater Mekong Subregion has made elimination of malaria from this region a global priority; it also complicates its achievement. Novel drug strategies such as triple artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) and chemoprophylaxis have been proposed to help limit resistance and accelerate elimination. The objective of this study was to better understand the potential impacts of triple ACTs and chemoprophylaxis, using a mathematical model parameterized using data from Cambodia.

NOT Open Access | Antimalarial Quinacrine and Chloroquine Lose Their Activity by Decreasing Cationic Amphiphilic Structure with a Slight Decrease in pH

March 30, 2021 - 14:21 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kitagawa T, Matsumoto A, Terashima I, Uesono Y
Reference: 
J Med Chem. 2021 Mar 27

Quinacrine (QC) and chloroquine (CQ) have antimicrobial and antiviral activities as well as antimalarial activity, although the mechanisms remain unknown. QC increased the antimicrobial activity against yeast exponentially with a pH-dependent increase in the cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD) structure. CAD-QC localized in the yeast membranes and induced glucose starvation by noncompetitively inhibiting glucose uptake as antipsychotic chlorpromazine (CPZ) did.

NOT Open Access | Determining suitable machine learning classifier technique for prediction of malaria incidents attributed to climate of Odisha

March 30, 2021 - 14:19 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Mohapatra P, Tripathi NK, Pal I, Shrestha S
Reference: 
Int J Environ Health Res. 2021 Mar 26:1-17

This study investigated the influence of climate factors on malaria incidence in the Sundargarh district, Odisha, India. The WEKA machine learning tool was used with two classifier techniques, Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) and J48, with three test options, 10-fold cross-validation, percentile split, and supplied test. A comparative analysis was carried out to ascertain the superior model among malaria prediction accuracy techniques in varying climate contexts.

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