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Scientific Articles

Prevalence, probability, and outcomes of typhoidal/non-typhoidal Salmonella and malaria co-infection among febrile patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

November 10, 2021 - 21:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wilairatana P, Mala W, Klangbud WK, Kotepui KU, Rattaprasert P, Kotepui M
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Nov 8;11(1):21889

The geographical overlaps of malaria parasites and Salmonella spp. can lead to co-infection of these two pathogens, especially in the tropics where malaria is endemic. Moreover, few literatures suggested that malaria infection was associated with Salmonella bacteremia. Therefore, this study quantified pooled prevalence of typhoidal/non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and probability of typhoidal/NTS and malaria co-infection among febrile patients. The systematic review protocol was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42021252322). Studies on co-infection of typhoidal/NTS and malaria were searched in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. The risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using the checklist for analytical cross-sectional studies developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Meta-analyses on the following criteria were performed: (1) pooled prevalence of typhoidal/NTS and malaria co-infection among febrile patients, (2) pooled prevalence of typhoidal/NTS among malaria patients, (3) pooled prevalence of malaria infections among patients with Salmonella spp. infection, and (4) probability of typhoidal/NTS and malaria co-infection among febrile patients.

NOT Open Access | Severe imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children: Characteristics and useful factors in the risk stratification

November 10, 2021 - 21:02 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Comelli A, Guarner ME, Tomasoni LR, Zamboni AF, Pavon BM, Zanotti P, Caligaris S, Matteelli A, Soriano-Arandes A, Castelli F
Reference: 
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2021 Nov 5:102196

Severe imported pediatric malaria is of concern in non-endemic settings. We aimed to determine the features of pediatric severe cases in order to design a model able to stratify patients at presentation.

Not Open Access | Plasmodium vivax gametocytes and transmission

November 10, 2021 - 21:00 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bantuchai S, Imad H, Nguitragool W
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2021 Nov 5:102497

Malaria elimination means cessation of parasite transmission. At present, the declining malaria incidence in many countries has made elimination a feasible goal. Transmission control has thus been placed at the center of the national malaria control programs. The efficient transmission of Plasmodium vivax from humans to mosquitoes is a key factor that helps perpetuate malaria in endemic areas.

Osteopontin and malaria: no direct effect on parasite growth, but correlation with P. falciparum-specific B cells and BAFF in a malaria endemic area

November 10, 2021 - 20:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mortazavi SE, Lugaajju A, Kaddumukasa M, Tijani MK, Kironde F, Persson KEM
Reference: 
BMC Microbiol. 2021 Nov 6;21(1):307

The dysregulation of B cell activation is prevalent during naturally acquired immunity against malaria. Osteopontin (OPN), a protein produced by various cells including B cells, is a phosphorylated glycoprotein that participates in immune regulation and has been suggested to be involved in the immune response against malaria. Here we studied the longitudinal concentrations of OPN in infants and their mothers living in Uganda, and how OPN concentrations correlated with B cell subsets specific for P. falciparum and B cell activating factor (BAFF). We also investigated the direct effect of OPN on P. falciparum in vitro.

Malaria and curable sexually transmitted and reproductive tract coinfection among pregnant women in rural Burkina Faso

November 10, 2021 - 20:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lingani M, Zango, Dramaix M, et al.
Reference: 
Trop Med Health. 2021 Nov 4;49(1):90

Malaria and sexually transmitted/reproductive tract infections (STI/RTI) are leading and preventable causes of low birthweight in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing their impact on pregnancy outcomes requires efficient interventions that can be easily integrated into the antenatal care package. The paucity of data on malaria and STI/RTI coinfection, however, limits efforts to control these infections. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of malaria and STI/RTI coinfection among pregnant women in rural Burkina Faso.

Practices of anti-malaria pharmaceuticals inventory control system and associated challenges in public health facilities of Oromiya special zone, Amhara region, Ethiopia

November 10, 2021 - 20:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mengesha HY, Gebrehiwot GM, Workneh BD, Kahissay MH
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2021 Nov 6;21(1):2026

Anti-malaria pharmaceuticals inventory control system helps to maintain an appropriate stock level using logistics management information system records and reports. Antimalaria pharmaceuticals are highly influenced by seasonality and demand variation. Thus, to compensate the seasonality, resupply quantities should be adjusted by multiplying the historical consumption with the Look-ahead seasonality indexes (LSI) to minimize stock-outs during the peak transmission season and overstocks (possible expiries) during off-peak seasons The purpose of this study was to assess anti-malaria pharmaceuticals inventory control practice and associated challenges in public health facilities of the Oromiya special zone, Amhara region, Ethiopia.

NOT Open Access | The Future in Sensing Technologies for Malaria Surveillance: A Review of Hemozoin-Based Diagnosis

November 10, 2021 - 20:52 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Baptista V, Costa MS, Calçada C, Silva M, Gil JP, Veiga MI, Catarino SO
Reference: 
ACS Sens. 2021 Nov 4

Early and effective malaria diagnosis is vital to control the disease spread and to prevent the emergence of severe cases and death. Currently, malaria diagnosis relies on optical microscopy and immuno-rapid tests; however, these require a drop of blood, are time-consuming, or are not specific and sensitive enough for reliable detection of low-level parasitaemia.

Determinants of improvement trends in health workers' compliance with outpatient malaria case-management guidelines at health facilities with available "test and treat" commodities in Kenya

November 10, 2021 - 20:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Amboko B, Stepniewska K, Malla L, Machini B, Bejon P, Snow RW, Zurovac D
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Nov 5;16(11):e0259020

Health workers’ compliance with outpatient malaria case-management guidelines has been improving in Africa. This study examined the factors associated with the improvements.

NOT Open Access | Live attenuated rubella vectors expressing Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (Pf-CSP) provide a novel malaria vaccine platform in the rhesus macaque

November 9, 2021 - 09:12 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Virnik K, Zhou W, Medvedev A, Walsh G, Perry-Anderson J, Majam V, Felber BK, Kumar S, Berkower I
Reference: 
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2021 Nov 5;577:58-63

There is an urgent need for a malaria vaccine that can prevent severe disease in young children and adults. Despite earlier work showing an immunological mechanism for preventing infection and reducing disease severity, there is currently no reliable vaccine that can provide durable protection. In part, this may reflect a limited number of ways that the host can respond to the NANP repeat sequences of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) in the parasite. In addition, it may reflect antigenic escape by the parasite from protective antibodies.

NOT Open Access | Covalent inhibition of P. falciparum ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase: Exploring alternative strategies for the development of new antimalarial drugs

November 9, 2021 - 09:10 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
de Rosa M, Nonnis S, Aliverti A
Reference: 
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2021 Nov 5;577:89-94

The protozoan Plasmodium falciparum is the main aetiological agent of tropical malaria. Characteristic of the phylum is the presence of a plastid-like organelle which hosts several homologs of plant proteins, including a ferredoxin (PfFd) and its NADPH-dependent reductase (PfFNR). The PfFNR/PfFd redox system is essential for the parasite, while mammals share no homologous proteins, making the enzyme an attractive target for novel and much needed antimalarial drugs.

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