Cerebral malaria (CM) is one of the most severe forms of P. falciparum infection, with an associated high case-fatality rate. Angiopoietins (ANG-1 and ANG-2) are important biomarkers of endothelial activation and dysfunction. This study was carried out in Maharani Hospital and associated Medical College, Jagdalpur, CG, Central India from 2010 to 2014. Based on the treatment recovery patterns, cases (n = 65) were classified as mild malaria with rapid recovery (MM-RR), n= 14; non-cerebral severe malaria with moderately fast recovery (NCSM-MFR), n= 9; CM survivors with slow recovery (CMS-SR), n= 36 and deteriorated CM non-survivors (Det-CMNS), n= 6.
Severe malaria can be deadly and requires treatment with intravenous artesunate (IVAS). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided IVAS starting April 1, 2019 for all patients with severe malaria in the United States. This study describes the safety and effectiveness of IVAS in these patients.
Lipid rafts, sterol-rich and sphingolipid-rich microdomains on the plasma membrane are important in processes like cell signaling, adhesion, and protein and lipid transport. The virulence of many eukaryotic parasites is related to raft microdomains on the cell membrane. In the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, which are important for invasion and are possible targets for vaccine development, are localized in the raft.
Several promising antimalarial drugs are currently being tested in human trials, such as artefenomel, cipargamin, ferroquine and ganaplacide. Many of these compounds were identified using high throughput screens against a single species of human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, under the assumption that effectiveness against all malaria species will be similar, as has been observed for other antimalarial drugs. However, using our in vitro adapted line, we demonstrated recently that P. knowlesi is significantly less susceptible than P. falciparum to some new antimalarial drugs (e.g., cipargamin and DSM265), and more susceptible to others (e.g., ganaplacide). There is, therefore, an urgent need to determine the susceptibility profile of all human malaria species to the current generation of antimalarial compounds.
Pre-erythrocytic vaccines prevent malaria by targeting parasites in the clinically silent sporozoite and liver stages and preventing progression to the virulent blood stages. The leading pre-erythrocytic vaccine RTS,S/AS01E (Mosquirix®) entered implementation programs in 2019 and targets the major sporozoite surface antigen called circumsporozoite protein or CSP.
Despite adequate treatment, recent studies have hypothesized that malaria may affect long-term cardiovascular function. We aimed to investigate the long-term risk of cardiovascular events and death in individuals with a history of imported malaria in Denmark.
The fidelity and reliability of disease model predictions depend on accurate and precise descriptions of processes and determination of parameters. Various models exist to describe within-host dynamics during malaria infection but there is a shortage of clinical data that can be used to quantitatively validate them and establish confidence in their predictions. In addition, model parameters often contain a degree of uncertainty and show variations between individuals, potentially undermining the reliability of model predictions. In this study models were reproduced and analysed by means of robustness, uncertainty, local sensitivity and local sensitivity robustness analysis to establish confidence in their predictions.
Monocytes play an important role in the host defense against Plasmodium vivax as the main source of inflammatory cytokines and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS). Here, we show that monocyte metabolism is altered during human P. vivax malaria, with mitochondria playing a major function in this switch. The process involves a reprograming in which the cells increase glucose uptake and produce ATP via glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation.
Despite reductions in malaria incidence and mortality across Sub-Saharan (SSA) countries, malaria control and elimination efforts are currently facing multiple global challenges such as climate and land use change, invasive vectors, and disruptions in healthcare delivery. Although relationships between malaria risks and socioeconomic factors have been widely demonstrated, the strengths and variability of these associations have not been quantified across SSA.
The co-reactivity of the Plasmodium histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) and lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) in malaria rapid diagnosis tests (mRDTs) as a potential indicator of high parasitemia linked to Plasmodium falciparum was evaluated in the reported study from Cameroon. The samples were screened for malaria using both mRDTs (SD bioline HRP2/pLDH), light microscopy and further confirmed by Plasmodium species-specific PCR assay.