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Scientific Articles

The impact of community-delivered models of malaria control and elimination: a systematic review

August 9, 2019 - 14:43 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Win Han Oo, Lisa Gold, Kerryn Moore, Paul A. Agius and Freya J. I. Fowkes
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:269, 6 August 2019

Community-delivered models have been widely used to reduce the burden of malaria. This review aimed to explore different community-delivered models and their relative effectiveness in terms of coverage and malaria-metric outcomes in order to inform the design and implementation of Community Health Worker (CHW) programmes for malaria control and elimination.

Are new national malaria strategic plans informed by the previous ones? A comprehensive assessment of sub-Saharan African countries from 2001 to present

August 6, 2019 - 16:17 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Andrew Andrada, Samantha Herrera and Yazoumé Yé
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:253, 29 July 2019

New national malaria strategic plans (NMSPs) should build upon the achievements and challenges identified during the implementation of previous plans, but there is limited research on the transition process between NMSPs. This study aims to fill this gap through an assessment of NMSPs across sub-Saharan Africa.

Theory of reactive interventions in the elimination and control of malaria

August 6, 2019 - 16:14 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Nakul Chitnis, Peter Pemberton-Ross, Josh Yukich, Busiku Hamainza, John Miller, Theresa Reiker, Thomas P. Eisele and Thomas A. Smith
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:266, 2 August 2019

Reactive case detection (RCD) is an integral part of many malaria control and elimination programmes and can be conceived of as a way of gradually decreasing transmission. However, it is unclear under what circumstances RCD may have a substantial impact on prevalence, how likely it is to lead to local elimination, or how effective it needs to be to prevent reintroduction after transmission has been interrupted.

Diversity and immune responses against Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in non-febrile school children living in Southern Ghana

August 6, 2019 - 16:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Linda E. Amoah, Hamza B. Abagna, Ruth Ayanful-Torgby, Samuel O. Blankson and Nii A. Aryee
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:265, 1 August 2019

Natural exposure to gametocytes can result in the development of immunity against the gametocyte by the host as well as genetic diversity in the gametocyte. This study evaluated the quantity and quality of natural immune responses against a gametocyte antigen, Pfs230 as well as the prevalence and diversity of gametocytes circulating in children living in two communities in southern Ghana.

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Susceptibility testing of Anopheles malaria vectors with the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin; results from 16 African countries, in preparation for indoor residual spraying with new insecticide formulations

August 6, 2019 - 16:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Richard M. Oxborough, Aklilu Seyoum, Dereje Dengela, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:264, 1 August 2019

In 2017, more than 5 million house structures were sprayed through the U.S. President’s Malaria Initiative, protecting more than 21 million people in sub-Saharan Africa. New IRS formulations, SumiShield™ 50WG and Fludora Fusion™ WP-SB, became World Health Organization (WHO) prequalified vector control products in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Both formulations contain the neonicotinoid active ingredient, clothianidin. The target site of neonicotinoids represents a novel mode of action for vector control, meaning that cross-resistance through existing mechanisms is less likely. In preparation for rollout of clothianidin formulations as part of national IRS rotation strategies, baseline susceptibility testing was conducted in 16 countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

Diverse origin of Plasmodium falciparum in northwest Ecuador

August 5, 2019 - 17:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Claudia A. Vera-Arias, L. Enrique Castro, Javier Gómez-Obando and Fabián E. Sáenz
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:251, 26 July 2019

Ecuador plans to eliminate malaria by 2020, and the country has already seen a decrease in the number of cases from more than 100,000 in 2000 to only 618 in 2015. Around 30% of malaria infections in Ecuador are caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Most malaria population genetics studies performed in Latin America, especially in the Pacific Coast, indicate a high clonality and a clear structure of P. falciparum populations. It was shown that an outbreak of P. falciparum in northwest Ecuador was the result of a clonal expansion of parasites circulating at low levels in the country or re-invading Ecuador from neighbouring territories. However, general characteristics of P. falciparum circulating in the northwest coast of Ecuador have not been determined. The main goal of this study was to genetically characterize the population structure of P. falciparum in coastal Ecuadorian localities bordering with Colombia.

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Models of effectiveness of interventions against malaria transmitted by Anopheles albimanus

August 5, 2019 - 16:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Olivier J. T. Briët, Daniel E. Impoinvil, Nakul Chitnis, Emilie Pothin, Jean Frantz Lemoine, Joseph Frederic and Thomas A. Smith
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:263, 1 August 2019

Most impact prediction of malaria vector control interventions has been based on African vectors. Anopheles albimanus, the main vector in Central America and the Caribbean, has higher intrinsic mortality, is more zoophilic and less likely to rest indoors. Therefore, relative impact among interventions may be different. Prioritizing interventions, in particular for eliminating Plasmodium falciparum from Haiti, should consider local vector characteristics.

Infected RBC flag/parameter provided by Mindray BC-6800 haematology analyzer aid the diagnosis of malaria

August 5, 2019 - 16:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yi Sun, Daijun Xiang, Chen Chen, Shang He, Huan Qi and Chengbin Wang
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:262, 31 July 2019

The Mindray BC-6800 haematology analyzer (BC-6800) provides a dedicated flag ‘Infected RBC’ (InR) and the number of InR (InR#)/the permillage of InR (InR‰) in routine blood testing as a screening tool for malaria in endemic areas. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the BC-6800 flag parameter for aiding the diagnosis of malaria.

Anti-malarial activity of the root extract of Euphorbia abyssinica (Euphorbiaceae) against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice

August 5, 2019 - 16:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abrham Belachew Muluye, Ashenafi Genanew Desta, Selamu Kebamo Abate and Gemechu Tiruneh Dano
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:261, 30 July 2019

More than 200 medicinal plants including Euphorbia abyssinica are utilized for treatment of malaria in Ethiopian traditional medical practices. However, the safety, efficacy and quality of these medicinal plants are largely unknown. Pharmacological and toxicological investigations of these plants are among the prioritized issues in every country. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the anti-malarial activity of Euphorbia abyssinica root extract against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice.

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Dispensing practices for anti-malarials in the La Nkwantanang-Madina municipality, Greater Accra, Ghana: a cross-sectional study

August 5, 2019 - 16:23 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Charles Enyaah Amankwa, Harriet Affran Bonful, Kofi Agyabeng and Priscillia A. Nortey
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:260, 30 July 2019

Despite recent strides made towards reducing the emergence of artemisinin resistance, inappropriate dispensing practices for anti-malarials in both private and public sectors affect treatment outcomes negatively. In Ghana, private retail pharmacies are the most accessible health facilities for managing diseases of common occurrence. However, there is growing concern about the number of patients harmed by dispensing errors in the management of malaria in retail pharmacies. Although considerable work has been done in this area, several questions regarding dispensing practices remain unanswered. This study, therefore, sought to investigate the predictors of appropriate dispensing practices for anti-malarials in community pharmacies in the La Nkwantanang-Madina municipality of Greater Accra, Ghana.

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