Human malaria parasites have complex but poorly understood population dynamics inside their human host. In some but not all infections, parasites progress synchronously through the 48 h lifecycle following erythrocyte invasion, such that at any one time there is a limited spread of parasites at a particular time (hours) post-invasion. Patients presenting with older parasites, and with asynchronous infections, have been reported to have higher risks of fatal outcomes, associated with higher parasite biomass and multiplication rates respectively.
The genomic diversity of Plasmodium malariae malaria parasites is understudied, partly because infected individuals tend to present with low parasite densities, leading to difficulties in obtaining sufficient parasite DNA for genome analysis. Selective whole genome amplification (SWGA) increases the relative levels of pathogen DNA in a clinical sample, but has not been adapted for P. malariae parasites.
Community Health Workers (CHWs) are an important human resource in improving community malaria intervention coverages and success in reducing malaria incidence has been attributed to them. However, despite this attribution, malaria resurgence cases have been reported in various countries including Zambia. This study aims to evaluate the implementation fidelity of CHW roles in malaria prevention and control programs in Livingstone through performance and service quality assessment.
There is an increasing urgency in gaining greater understanding of the factors that affect vulnerability to extinction, given the current levels of species loss. Parasites often reduce host fitness and can thus exert an important influence on host population dynamics, exacerbating vulnerability to extinction. However, empirical support for the hypothesis that parasites can increase vulnerability to extinction is rare.
Anopheles sundaicus s.l. is an important malaria vector primarily found in coastal landscapes of western and central Indonesia. The species complex has a wide geographical distribution in South and Southeast Asia and exhibits ecological and behavioural variability over its range. Studies on understanding the distribution of different members in the complex and their bionomics related to malaria transmission might be important guiding more effective vector intervention strategies.
Laghman province, in the east of the Afghanistan, is one of the most malaria endemic regions with an eminence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. So far, no study has been conducted to investigate the extent of mixed infections in this area.
Despite ongoing malaria control efforts implemented throughout sub-Saharan Africa, malaria remains an enormous public health concern. Current interventions such as indoor residual spraying with insecticides and use of insecticide-treated bed nets are aimed at targeting the key malaria vectors that are primarily endophagic and endophilic. Anopheles coustani s.l., an understudied vector of malaria, is a species previously thought to exhibit mostly zoophilic behavior.
A novel series of synthetic functionalized arylvinyl‐1,2,4‐trioxanes (8 a –p ) has been prepared and assessed for their in vitro antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine‐resistant Pf INDO strain of Plasmodium falciparum by using a SYBR green‐I fluorescence assay. Compounds 8 g (IC50=0.051 μM; SI=589.41) and 8 m (IC50=0.059 μM; SI=55.93) showed 11‐fold and >9‐fold more potent antiplasmodial activity, respectively, as compared to chloroquine (IC50=0.546 μM; SI=36.63).
Vector control strategies recommended by the World Health Organization are threatened by resistance of Anopheles mosquitoes to insecticides. Information on the distribution of resistant genotypes of malaria vectors is increasingly needed to address the problem. Ten years of published and unpublished data on malaria vector susceptibility/resistance and resistance genes have been collected across Togo.
Studies done in Bouaké (Côte d'Ivoire) about 20-yr ago reported that Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles was the major malaria vector. The present study aimed to update these data and to identify the main vectors. Mosquitoes were collected in Allokokro and Petessou villages between June 2014 and December 2015 using the human landing catching method. Potential breeding sites of An. gambiae s.l. were identified in August and October 2014 and mapped using GPS.