Leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected parasitic infections of the world and current therapeutic options show several limitations. In the search for more effective drugs, plant compounds represent a powerful natural source. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone extracted from Artemisia annua L. leaves, from which dihydroartemisinin (DQHS) and artesunic acid (AA)/artesunate are examples of active derivatives.
Chemical matter is needed to target the divergent biology associated with the different life cycle stages of Plasmodium. Here, we report the parallel de novo screening of the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) Pandemic Response Box against Plasmodium asexual and liver stage parasites, stage IV/V gametocytes, gametes, oocysts and as endectocides. Unique chemotypes were identified with both multistage activity or stage-specific activity, including structurally diverse gametocyte-targeted compounds with potent transmission-blocking activity, such as the JmjC inhibitor ML324 and the antitubercular clinical candidate SQ109.
Malaria infection caused by Plasmodium falciparum is majorly responsible for millions of deaths in humans every year. Moreover, a rapid increase in resistance to existing drugs has posed an urgent need for new anti-malarials. Herein, we report the highly potent anti-malarial activity of benzopyrano(4,3-b)benzopyran derivatives, inspired from naturally occurring dependensin against chloroquine (CQ) sensitive and resistant P. falciparum strains. Chemically synthesized, four dependensin analogs 85(A-D) exhibited growth inhibition at nanomolar concentrations ranging from 63.96 to 725.8 nM by blocking the parasite development at the ring and early trophozoite stages.
The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) is the main surface antigen of malaria sporozoites, a prime vaccine target, and is known to have polymorphisms in the C-terminal region. Vaccines using a single allele may have lower efficacy against genotypic variants. Recent studies have found evidence suggesting the efficacy of the CSP-based RTS,S malaria vaccine may be limited against P. falciparum CSP alleles that diverge from the 3D7 vaccine allele, particularly in this polymorphic C-terminal region.
Fundamentally, larviciding with pyriproxyfen (PPF) has potential to complement Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) and indoor residual sprays (IRS) in settings where resistance to pyrethroids and residual malaria transmission exist. In this study, we evaluated the field effectiveness of larviciding using PPF to reduce dry season productivity of mosquito breeding habitats that were located by pastoralists within the study area.
A series of 3-substituted-2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives with a variety of side chains were successfully synthesized by Mannich reaction of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (lawsone) with selected amines and aldehydes. All substances (1-16) were evaluated for in-vitro antimalarial activity against strains of Plasmodium falciparum by microculture radioisotope technique.
A diverse series of hemozoin-inhibiting quinolines, benzamides, triarylimidazoles, quinazolines, benzimidazoles, benzoxazoles, and benzothiazoles have been found to lead to exchangeable heme levels in cultured Plasmodium falciparum (NF54) that ranged over an order of magnitude at the IC50. Surprisingly, less active compounds often exhibited higher levels of exchangeable heme than more active ones.
Despite its limited resources, Portugal has gained a prominent position in research on malaria.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in massive global disruptions with considerable impact on the delivery of health services and national health programmes. Since the detection of the first COVID-19 case on 5th March 2020, the Royal Government of Bhutan implemented a number of containment measures including border closure and national lockdowns.
Malaria volunteers have contributed significantly to malaria control achieving a reduction of annual parasite incidence to pre-elimination levels in several townships across Myanmar. However, the volunteers’ role is changing as Myanmar transitions from a malaria control to elimination programme and towards the goal of universal health coverage. The aim of the study is to explore the perspectives of community leaders, members and malaria volunteers in South-East Myanmar on community-delivered models to inform an optimal design that targets malaria elimination in the context of primary health care in Myanmar.