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Scientific Articles

Estimation of parasite age and synchrony status in Plasmodium falciparum infections

July 6, 2020 - 16:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ciuffreda L, Zoiku FK, Quashie NB, Ranford-Cartwright LC
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10925

Human malaria parasites have complex but poorly understood population dynamics inside their human host. In some but not all infections, parasites progress synchronously through the 48 h lifecycle following erythrocyte invasion, such that at any one time there is a limited spread of parasites at a particular time (hours) post-invasion. Patients presenting with older parasites, and with asynchronous infections, have been reported to have higher risks of fatal outcomes, associated with higher parasite biomass and multiplication rates respectively.

Selective whole genome amplification of Plasmodium malariae DNA from clinical samples reveals insights into population structure

July 6, 2020 - 16:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ibrahim A, Diez Benavente E, Campino S, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10832

The genomic diversity of Plasmodium malariae malaria parasites is understudied, partly because infected individuals tend to present with low parasite densities, leading to difficulties in obtaining sufficient parasite DNA for genome analysis. Selective whole genome amplification (SWGA) increases the relative levels of pathogen DNA in a clinical sample, but has not been adapted for P. malariae parasites.

Evaluating fidelity of community health worker roles in malaria prevention and control programs in Livingstone District, Zambia-A bottleneck analysis

July 6, 2020 - 16:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chipukuma HM, Halwiindi H, Zulu JM, Azizi SC, Jacobs C
Reference: 
BMC Health Serv Res. 2020 Jul 2;20(1):612

Community Health Workers (CHWs) are an important human resource in improving community malaria intervention coverages and success in reducing malaria incidence has been attributed to them. However, despite this attribution, malaria resurgence cases have been reported in various countries including Zambia. This study aims to evaluate the implementation fidelity of CHW roles in malaria prevention and control programs in Livingstone through performance and service quality assessment.

An urge to fill a knowledge void: Malaria parasites are rarely investigated in threatened species

July 6, 2020 - 16:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Carmona-Isunza MC, Ancona S, Figuerola J, Gonzalez-Voyer A, Martínez de la Puente J
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog. 2020 Jul 2;16(7):e1008626

There is an increasing urgency in gaining greater understanding of the factors that affect vulnerability to extinction, given the current levels of species loss. Parasites often reduce host fitness and can thus exert an important influence on host population dynamics, exacerbating vulnerability to extinction. However, empirical support for the hypothesis that parasites can increase vulnerability to extinction is rare.

Anopheles sundaicus complex and the presence of Anopheles epiroticus in Indonesia

July 6, 2020 - 16:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Syafruddin D, Lestari YE, Lobo NF, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Jul 2;14(7):e0008385

Anopheles sundaicus s.l. is an important malaria vector primarily found in coastal landscapes of western and central Indonesia. The species complex has a wide geographical distribution in South and Southeast Asia and exhibits ecological and behavioural variability over its range. Studies on understanding the distribution of different members in the complex and their bionomics related to malaria transmission might be important guiding more effective vector intervention strategies.

NOT Open Access | The comparison of Real-time-PCR-HRM and Microscopy Methods for Detection of Mixed Plasmodium spp. Infections in Laghman Province, Afghanistan

July 6, 2020 - 16:44 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Dalimi A, Mosawi SH
Reference: 
Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2020 Jul 2

Laghman province, in the east of the Afghanistan, is one of the most malaria endemic regions with an eminence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. So far, no study has been conducted to investigate the extent of mixed infections in this area.

NOT Open Access | Genetic Diversity of Anopheles coustani (Diptera: Culicidae) in Malaria Transmission Foci in Southern and Central Africa

July 6, 2020 - 16:42 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ciubotariu II, Jones CM, Kobayashi T, Bobanga T, Muleba M, Pringle JC, Stevenson JC, Carpi G, Norris DE
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2020 Jul 2:tjaa132

Despite ongoing malaria control efforts implemented throughout sub-Saharan Africa, malaria remains an enormous public health concern. Current interventions such as indoor residual spraying with insecticides and use of insecticide-treated bed nets are aimed at targeting the key malaria vectors that are primarily endophagic and endophilic. Anopheles coustani s.l., an understudied vector of malaria, is a species previously thought to exhibit mostly zoophilic behavior.

NOT Open Access | Design, Synthesis, Structure-Activity Relationship and Docking Studies of Novel Functionalized Arylvinyl-1,2,4-Trioxanes as Potent Antiplasmodial as well as Anticancer Agents

July 6, 2020 - 16:38 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Tiwari MK, Coghi P, Chaudhary S, et al.
Reference: 
ChemMedChem. 2020 Jul 3;15(13):1216-1228

A novel series of synthetic functionalized arylvinyl‐1,2,4‐trioxanes (8 a –p ) has been prepared and assessed for their in vitro antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine‐resistant Pf INDO strain of Plasmodium falciparum by using a SYBR green‐I fluorescence assay. Compounds 8 g (IC50=0.051 μM; SI=589.41) and 8 m (IC50=0.059 μM; SI=55.93) showed 11‐fold and >9‐fold more potent antiplasmodial activity, respectively, as compared to chloroquine (IC50=0.546 μM; SI=36.63).

NOT Open Access | Potential Roles of Environmental and Socio-Economic Factors in the Distribution of Insecticide Resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (Culicidae: Diptera) Across Togo, West Africa

July 6, 2020 - 16:36 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ahadji-Dabla KM, Romero-Alvarez D, Djègbè I, Amoudji AD, Apétogbo GY, Djouaka R, Oboussoumi K, Aawi A, Atcha-Oubou T, Peterson AT, Ketoh GK
Reference: 
Journal of Medical Entomology, Volume 57, Issue 4, July 2020, Pages 1168–1175

Vector control strategies recommended by the World Health Organization are threatened by resistance of Anopheles mosquitoes to insecticides. Information on the distribution of resistant genotypes of malaria vectors is increasingly needed to address the problem. Ten years of published and unpublished data on malaria vector susceptibility/resistance and resistance genes have been collected across Togo.

NOT Open Access | Role of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles coluzzii (Diptera: Culicidae) in Human Malaria Transmission in Rural Areas of Bouaké, in Côte d'Ivoire

July 6, 2020 - 16:32 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Zoh DD, Yapi A, Chandre F, et al.
Reference: 
Journal of Medical Entomology, Volume 57, Issue 4, July 2020, Pages 1254–1261

Studies done in Bouaké (Côte d'Ivoire) about 20-yr ago reported that Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles was the major malaria vector. The present study aimed to update these data and to identify the main vectors. Mosquitoes were collected in Allokokro and Petessou villages between June 2014 and December 2015 using the human landing catching method. Potential breeding sites of An. gambiae s.l. were identified in August and October 2014 and mapped using GPS.

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