Routine surveillance on the therapeutic efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been ongoing in Ghana since 2005. The sixth round of surveillance was conducted between 2015 and 2017 to determine the therapeutic efficacy of artesunate–amodiaquine (AS–AQ) and artemether–lumefantrine (AL) in 10 sentinel sites across the country.
Heterogeneity in the immune response to parasite infection is mediated in part by differences in host genetics, gender, and age group. In infants and young children, ongoing immunological maturation often results in increased susceptibility to infection and variable responses to drug treatment, increasing the risk of complications. Even though significant age-associated effects on host cytokine responses to Plasmodium falciparum infection have been identified, age-associated effects on uncomplicated malaria infection and anti-malarial treatment remain poorly understood.
As malaria elimination becomes a goal in malaria-endemic nations, questions of feasibility become critical. This article explores the potential challenges associated with this goal and future strategies for malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Sub-region.
Malaria remains an important public health problem in Latin America, and the development of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors poses a major threat to malaria elimination efforts. Monitoring of insecticide susceptibility and the determination of the mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance are needed to effectively guide the deployment of appropriate vector control measures. Here, molecular assays have been developed to screen for mutations associated with insecticide resistance on the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) and acetylcholinesterase-1 (Ace-1) genes in four malaria vectors from Latin America.
The challenge in anti-malarial chemotherapy is based on the emergence of resistance to drugs and the search for medicines against all stages of the life cycle of Plasmodium spp. as a therapeutic target. Nowadays, many molecules with anti-malarial activity are reported. However, few studies about the cellular and molecular mechanisms to understand their mode of action have been explored. Recently, new primaquine-based hybrids as new molecules with potential multi-acting anti-malarial activity were reported and two hybrids of primaquine linked to quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide (PQ–QdNO) were identified as the most active against erythrocytic, exoerythrocytic and sporogonic stages.
Two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility, analyzed risk of bias, and extracted data. We used risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We stratified by type of insecticide: ‘non‐pyrethroid‐like', as this could improve malaria control better than adding IRS insecticides that have the same way of working as the insecticide on ITNs (‘pyrethroid‐like'). We used subgroup analysis of ITN usage in the trials to explore heterogeneity. We assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach.
Malaria is considered as a major threat to health systems. It is still considered as one of the most important infectious diseases in Iran, but with an elimination goal in 2025. This study aimed to review the malaria situation in Iran over the 16 years.
Plasmodium falciparum is the main cause of disease and death from malaria.
Indoor residual spraying (IRS), the coating of interior walls of houses with insecticides, is common in malaria-endemic areas. While important in malaria control, IRS potentially exposes residents to harmful insecticides. The World Health Organization recommends steps to minimize exposure; however, no programme has focused on educating populations.
From 2011 to 2014, an indoor residual spray (IRS) programme for malaria vectors control was implemented in six health districts in Senegal. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of bendiocarb (FICAM WP 80) sprayed on different wall surfaces and its impact on malaria vectors. The entomological monitoring activities were carried out monthly in five treated sentinel villages and one control untreated village in each district.