Natural killer (NK) cells are important innate effector cells that are well described in their ability to kill virally-infected cells and tumors.
Over the past decade, food insecurity, connected to erratic rains and reduced agricultural outputs, has plagued Malawi. Many households are turning to fishing to seek additional sources of income and food. There is anecdotal evidence that insecticide-treated net (ITN) recipients in Malawi are using their nets for purposes other than sleeping, such as for fishing, protecting crops, and displaying merchandise, among others. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the factors leading residents of waterside communities in Malawi to use ITNs for fishing.
Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest causative agent of malaria, has high prevalence in Nigeria. Drug resistance causing failure of previously effective drugs has compromised anti-malarial treatment. On this basis, there is need for a proactive surveillance for resistance markers to the currently recommended artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), for early detection of resistance before it become widespread.
Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) of malaria is recommended as policy for certain high-risk populations, but not currently for schoolchildren. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of IPT with dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine (DP) on primary schoolchildren in Jinja, Uganda. Results of the impact of IPT of schoolchildren on community-level transmission have been reported previously. Here, secondary outcomes from a school-based survey are presented.
Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 (PfAMA-1) is a promising candidate antigen for a blood-stage malaria vaccine. However, antigenic variation and diversity of PfAMA-1 are still major problems to design a universal malaria vaccine based on this antigen, especially against domain I (DI). Detail understanding of the PfAMA-1 gene polymorphism can provide useful information on this potential vaccine component. Here, general characteristics of genetic structure and the effect of natural selection of DIs among Bioko P. falciparum isolates were analysed.
Plasmodium vivax infection is rising in sub-Saharan Africa, where Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for more than 90% of malaria cases. While P. vivax is identified as a major cause of severe and cerebral malaria in South east Asia, the Pacific and South America, most of the severe and cerebral cases in Africa were attributed to P. falciparum. Cases of severe malaria due to P. vivax are emerging in Africa. A few severe P. vivax cases were reported in Eastern Sudan and they were underestimated due to the lack of accurate diagnosis, low parasitaemia and seldom use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs).
Surveillance is a core component of an effective system to support malaria elimination. Poor surveillance data will prevent countries from monitoring progress towards elimination and targeting interventions to the last remaining at-risk places. An evaluation of the performance of surveillance systems in 16 countries was conducted to identify key gaps which could be addressed to build effective systems for malaria elimination.
Eave ribbons treated with spatial repellents effectively prevent human exposure to outdoor-biting and indoor-biting malaria mosquitoes, and could constitute a scalable and low-cost supplement to current interventions, such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). This study measured protection afforded by transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons to users (personal and communal protection) and non-users (only communal protection), and whether introducing mosquito traps as additional intervention influenced these benefits.
Malaria continues to impose a tremendous burden in terms of global morbidity and mortality, yet even today, a large number of diagnoses are presumptive resulting in lack of or inappropriate treatment.
Anaemia is a major consequence of malaria, caused by the removal of both infected and uninfected red blood cells (RBCs) from the circulation. Complement activation and reduced expression of complement regulatory proteins (CRPs) on RBCs are an important pathogenic mechanism in severe malarial anaemia in both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infection. However, little is known about loss of CRPs on RBCs during mild malarial anaemia and in low-density infection.