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Scientific Articles

Spatiotemporal epidemiology, environmental correlates, and demography of malaria in Tak Province, Thailand (2012–2015)

July 21, 2019 - 21:36 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Chris Erwin G. Mercado, Saranath Lawpoolsri, Richard J. Maude, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:240, 16 July 2019

Tak Province, at the Thai–Myanmar border, is one of three high malaria incidence areas in Thailand. This study aimed to describe and identify possible factors driving the spatiotemporal trends of disease incidence from 2012 to 2015.

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Temporal changes in Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte binding protein homolog 2b (PfRh2b) in Senegal and The Gambia

July 21, 2019 - 21:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cyrille K. Diédhiou, Rahama A. Moussa, Ambroise D. Ahouidi, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:239, 16 July 2019

The Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte binding protein homolog 2b (PfRh2b) is an important P. falciparum merozoite ligand that mediates invasion of erythrocytes by interacting with a chymotrypsin-sensitive “receptor Z”. A large deletion polymorphism is found in the c-terminal ectodomain of this protein in many countries around the world, resulting in a truncated, but expressed protein. The varying frequencies by region suggest that there could be region specific immune selection at this locus. Therefore, this study was designed to determine temporal changes in the PfRh2b deletion polymorphism in infected individuals from Thiès (Senegal) and Western Gambia (The Gambia). It was also sought to determine the selective pressures acting at this locus and whether prevalence of the deletion in isolates genotyped by a 24-SNP molecular barcode is linked to background genotype or whether there might be independent selection acting at this locus.

“We were afraid of the lion that has roared next to us”; community response to reactive focal mass drug administration for malaria in Eswatini (formerly Swaziland)

July 21, 2019 - 21:34 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Kimberly A. Baltzell, Alysse Maglior, Michelle S. Hsiang, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:238, 15 July 2019

Reactive focal mass drug administration (rfMDA), or presumptive treatment without malaria testing of household members and neighbours of a passively identified malaria case, is currently being explored as a possible malaria elimination strategy in low transmission settings. One of the primary factors determining the effectiveness of rfMDA on reducing or interrupting transmission is achieving high coverage of the target population with drug administration. This study aims to explore the acceptability of rfMDA and identify facilitators and barriers to its potential implementation, as well as the community’s general knowledge, attitudes and beliefs with regard to malaria elimination.

Anopheles mosquito surveillance in Madagascar reveals multiple blood feeding behavior and Plasmodium infection

July 16, 2019 - 17:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Riley E. Tedrow, Tovonahary Rakotomanga, Thiery Nepomichene, Rosalind E. Howes, Jocelyn Ratovonjato, Arséne C. Ratsimbasoa, Gavin J. Svenson, Peter A. Zimmerman
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(7): e0007176

The Madagascar National Strategic Plan for Malaria Control 2018 (NSP) outlines malaria control pre-elimination strategies that include detailed goals for mosquito control. Primary surveillance protocols and mosquito control interventions focus on indoor vectors of malaria, while many potential vectors feed and rest outdoors. Here we describe the application of tools that advance our understanding of diversity, host choice, and Plasmodium infection in the Anopheline mosquitoes of the Western Highland Fringe of Madagascar.

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Controlled human malaria infection with Plasmodium falciparum demonstrates impact of naturally acquired immunity on virulence gene expression

July 16, 2019 - 17:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Anna Bachmann, Ellen Bruske, Egbert Tannich, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog 15(7): e1007906

The pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which mediates tethering of infected erythrocytes to the host endothelium and is encoded by approximately 60 var genes per parasite genome.

NOT Open Access | Dissemination of non-typhoidal Salmonella during Plasmodium chabaudi infection affects anti-malarial immunity

July 16, 2019 - 16:49 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Edrous Alamer, Victor H. Carpio, Robin Stephens, et al.
Reference: 
Parasitology Research, July 2019, Volume 118, Issue 7, pp 2277–2285

Malaria-associated bacteremia accounts for up to one-third of deaths from severe malaria, and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) has been reported as a major complication of severe malarial infection.

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Not Open Access | Chemical depletion of phagocytic immune cells in Anopheles gambiae reveals dual roles of mosquito hemocytes in anti-Plasmodium immunity

July 16, 2019 - 16:23 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Hyeogsun Kwon and Ryan C. Smith
Reference: 
PNAS July 9, 2019 116 (28) 14119-14128

Mosquito immunity is composed of both cellular and humoral factors that provide protection from invading pathogens.

Antigenic cartography of immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1)

July 16, 2019 - 16:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
James Tuju, Margaret J. Mackinnon, Britta C. Urban, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog 15(7): e1007870

Naturally acquired clinical immunity to Plasmodium falciparum is partly mediated by antibodies directed at parasite-derived antigens expressed on the surface of red blood cells which mediate disease and are extremely diverse.

Competition for hosts modulates vast antigenic diversity to generate persistent strain structure in Plasmodium falciparum

July 16, 2019 - 16:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Shai Pilosof, Qixin He, Kathryn E. Tiedje, Shazia Ruybal-Pesántez, Karen P. Day, Mercedes Pascual
Reference: 
PLoS Biol 17(6): e3000336

In their competition for hosts, parasites with antigens that are novel to the host immune system will be at a competitive advantage.

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