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Scientific Articles

Widespread zoophagy and detection of Plasmodium spp. in Anopheles mosquitoes in southeastern Madagascar

January 13, 2021 - 08:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Micaela Finney, Benjamin A. McKenzie, Bernadette Rabaovola, Alice Sutcliffe, Ellen Dotson and Sarah Zohdy
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:25, 7 January 2021

Malaria is a top cause of mortality on the island nation of Madagascar, where many rural communities rely on subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Understanding feeding behaviours of Anopheles in this landscape is crucial for optimizing malaria control and prevention strategies. Previous studies in southeastern Madagascar have shown that Anopheles mosquitoes are more frequently captured within 50 m of livestock. However, it remains unknown whether these mosquitoes preferentially feed on livestock. Here, mosquito blood meal sources and Plasmodium sporozoite rates were determined to evaluate patterns of feeding behaviour in Anopheles spp. and malaria transmission in southeastern Madagascar.

A minimal 3D model of mosquito flight behaviour around the human baited bed net

January 13, 2021 - 08:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jeff Jones, Gregory P D Murray and Philip J McCall
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:24, 7 January 2021

Advances in digitized video-tracking and behavioural analysis have enabled accurate recording and quantification of mosquito flight and host-seeking behaviours, facilitating development of individual (agent) based models at much finer spatial scales than previously possible.

Effect of 4 years of seasonal malaria chemoprevention on the acquisition of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in Ouelessebougou, Mali

January 13, 2021 - 08:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Almahamoudou Mahamar, Djibrilla Issiaka, Alassane Dicko, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:23, 7 January 2021

More than 200 million people live in areas of highly seasonal malaria transmission where Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) was recommended in 2012 by WHO. This strategy is now implemented widely and protected more than 19 million children in 2018. It was previously reported that exposure to SMC reduced antibody levels to AMA1, MSP-142 and CSP, but the duration of exposure to SMC up to three 3 years, had no effect on antibody levels to MSP-142 and CSP.

Malaria micro-stratification using routine surveillance data in Western Kenya

January 13, 2021 - 08:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Victor A. Alegana, Laurissa Suiyanka, Peter M. Macharia, Grace Ikahu-Muchangi and Robert W. Snow
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:22, 7 January 2021

There is an increasing need for finer spatial resolution data on malaria risk to provide micro-stratification to guide sub-national strategic plans. Here, spatial-statistical techniques are used to exploit routine data to depict sub-national heterogeneities in test positivity rate (TPR) for malaria among patients attending health facilities in Kenya.

Knowledge and practices regarding malaria and the National Treatment Guidelines among public health workers in Equatorial Guinea

January 13, 2021 - 08:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Marta Blanco, Pablo Suárez-Sanchez, Belén García, Jesús Nzang, Policarpo Ncogo, Matilde Riloha, Pedro Berzosa, Agustín Benito and María Romay-Barja
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:21, 7 January 2021

In 2018, an estimated 228 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide. Countries are far from having achieved reasonable levels of national protocol compliance among health workers. Lack of awareness of treatment protocols and treatment resistance by prescribers threatens to undermine progress when it comes to reducing the prevalence of this disease. This study sought to evaluate the degree of knowledge and practices regarding malaria diagnosis and treatment amongst prescribers working at the public health facilities of Bata, Equatorial Guinea.

NOT Open Access | Community Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on Malaria Vector Control Strategies in Lagos State, South-West Nigeria

January 12, 2021 - 15:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Omotayo AI, Ande AT, Oduola AO, Olakiigbe AK, Ghazali AK, Adeneye A, Awolola ST
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2021 Jan 9:tjaa278

Malaria is a leading public health challenge causing mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Prominent malaria vector control methods employed in sub-Saharan Africa include Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual spraying (IRS). This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of malaria vector control methods in Lagos, South-West Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were employed for the cross-sectional survey which was carried out between May and August 2018. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select Lagos Mainland, Kosofe, and Ojo local government areas (LGAs).

Evaluating putative repellent 'push' and attractive 'pull' components for manipulating the odour orientation of host-seeking malaria vectors in the peri-domestic space

January 12, 2021 - 15:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Njoroge MM, Fillinger U, Saddler A, Moore S, Takken W, van Loon JJA, Hiscox A
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jan 11;14(1):42

Novel malaria vector control approaches aim to combine tools for maximum protection. This study aimed to evaluate novel and re-evaluate existing putative repellent ‘push’ and attractive ‘pull’ components for manipulating the odour orientation of malaria vectors in the peri-domestic space.

Adaptive immune responses mediated age-related Plasmodium yoelii 17XL and 17XNL infections in 4 and 8-week-old BALB/c mice

January 12, 2021 - 15:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wang QB, Du YT, Liu F, Sun XD, Sun X, Chen G, Pang W, Cao YM
Reference: 
BMC Immunol. 2021 Jan 11;22(1):6

It is important to expound the opposite clinical outcomes between children and adulthood for eradicate malaria. There remains unknown about the correlation between adaptive immune response and age-related in malaria.

Structure-Guided Design of a Synthetic Mimic of an Endothelial Protein C Receptor-Binding PfEMP1 Protein

January 12, 2021 - 15:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Barber NM, Lau CKY, Turner L, Watson G, Thrane S, Lusingu JPA, Lavstsen T, Higgins MK
Reference: 
mSphere. 2021 Jan 6;6(1):e01081-20

Structure-guided vaccine design provides a route to elicit a focused immune response against the most functionally important regions of a pathogen surface. This can be achieved by identifying epitopes for neutralizing antibodies through structural methods and recapitulating these epitopes by grafting their core structural features onto smaller scaffolds. In this study, we conducted a modified version of this protocol. We focused on the PfEMP1 protein family found on the surfaces of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum A subset of PfEMP1 proteins bind to endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), and their expression correlates with development of the symptoms of severe malaria.

Neonatal mice resist Plasmodium yoelii infection until exposed to para-aminobenzoic acid containing diet after weaning

January 12, 2021 - 15:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Parra M, Yang J, Weitner M, Akkoyunlu M
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Jan 8;11(1):90

We developed a newborn (NB) mouse Plasmodium yoelii NL infection model to study malaria in early age. Surprisingly, the onset of parasitemia in P. yoelii challenged NB mice was delayed compared to adults and coincided with the weaning date when weanlings switched from maternal milk to normal chow diet. Also, compared to adult mice, parasitemia resolved much later (48 days vs 20 days post challenge) and the peak parasitemia was twice as high in weanlings. Concurrently, weanlings' germinal center reaction was delayed and diminished compared to adult mice.

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