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Scientific Articles

NOT Open Access | Keep your natural enemies close - native predators can maintain low mosquito densities in temporary ponds in a malaria expansion area in Northern Tanzania

November 17, 2021 - 09:21 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Mataba GR, Kafula YA, Mwaijengo GN, Snoeks JM, Munishi L, Brendonck L, Vanschoenwinkel B
Reference: 
Sci Total Environ. 2021 Nov 10;794:148606

Mosquitoes and the diseases they transmit are a global public health threat that affects most human populations. Mosquito abundances are strongly linked to the number of suitable larval habitats available. However, it is still not well understood how different land uses impact larval habitat quality in different parts of the world. We investigated links between land use practices and abundance of mosquito larvae in temporary ponds located in different land uses in a malaria expansion zone in Tanzania. Temporary ponds are often cited as important sources of mosquitoes but are also of substantial conservation concern being home to a unique fauna and flora. Often, they also have high socio-economic importance.

NOT Open Access | High genetic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum isolates among Chinese migrant workers returnee from Africa

November 13, 2021 - 10:32 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Xu C, Huang B, Wei Q, Li J, Kong X, Xiao T, Sun H, Zhao G, Yan G, Gong M, Yin K
Reference: 
Parasitol Res. 2021 Nov 9

Malaria is one of the most important parasitic diseases that causes a serious public health problem. The genetic diversity of malaria parasites may affect malaria transmission and malaria control strategies. In China, imported malaria was significantly increased in recent years, among which numerous migrant workers were infected with Plasmodium falciparum from Africa.

Population-specific adaptation in malaria-endemic regions of Asia

November 13, 2021 - 10:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gusareva ES, Lorenzini PA, Ramli NAB, Ghosh AG, Kim HL
Reference: 
J Bioinform Comput Biol. 2021 Nov 10:2140006

Evolutionary mechanisms of adaptation to malaria are understudied in Asian endemic regions despite a high prevalence of malaria in the region. In our research, we performed a genome-wide screening for footprints of natural selection against malaria by comparing eight Asian population groups from malaria-endemic regions with two non-endemic population groups from Europe and Mongolia.

Barriers to seeking health care among returning travellers with malaria: A systematic review

November 13, 2021 - 10:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lu G, Cao Y, Chai L, Li Y, Li S, Heuschen AK, Chen Q, Müller O, Cao J, Zhu G
Reference: 
Trop Med Int Health. 2021 Nov 8

To identify barriers to seeking health care among returning travellers with malaria with the aim of developing targeted interventions that improve early health care-seeking behaviour, diagnosis and treatment.

NOT Open Access | Malaria Epidemiology Along the Indian Districts Bordering Bhutan and Implications for Malaria Elimination in the Region

November 13, 2021 - 10:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Gupta SK, Saroha P, Singh K, Saxena R, Barman K, Kumar A, Sharma A
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Nov 8:tpmd210513

It is important for malaria-endemic countries to address malaria control across international borders, and in particular to prioritize appropriate rapid diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance. Bhutan and India aim to achieve malaria elimination by 2023 and 2030, respectively. Malaria elimination along the Indo-Bhutan border is of common concern. We delineated malaria epidemiology along the border to provide a blueprint for focusing malaria control efforts in key foci within this region.

Global diversity of the gene encoding the Pfs25 protein-a Plasmodium falciparum transmission-blocking vaccine candidate

November 13, 2021 - 10:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sookpongthai P, Utayopas K, Sitthiyotha T, Pengsakul T, Kaewthamasorn M, Wangkanont K, Harnyuttanakorn P, Chunsrivirot S, Pattaradilokrat S
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Nov 8;14(1):571

Vaccines against the sexual stages of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum are indispensable for controlling malaria and abrogating the spread of drug-resistant parasites. Pfs25, a surface antigen of the sexual stage of P. falciparum, is a leading candidate for transmission-blocking vaccine development. While clinical trials have reported that Pfs25-based vaccines are safe and effective in inducing transmission-blocking antibodies, the extent of the genetic diversity of Pfs25 in malaria endemic populations has rarely been studied. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the global diversity of Pfs25 in P. falciparum populations.

Plasmodium falciparum rosetting protects schizonts against artemisinin

November 11, 2021 - 10:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lee WC, Russell B, Lee B, Chu CS, Phyo AP, Sriprawat K, Lau YL, Nosten F, Rénia L
Reference: 
EBioMedicine. 2021 Nov 5;73:103680

Artemisinin (ART) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is thought to occur during the early stage of the parasite's erythrocytic cycle. Here, we identify a novel factor associated with the late stage parasite development that contributes to ART resistance.

PAD4 controls chemoattractant production and neutrophil trafficking in malaria

November 11, 2021 - 10:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cela D, Knackstedt SL, Groves S, Rice CM, Kwon JTW, Mordmüller B, Amulic B
Reference: 
J Leukoc Biol. 2021 Nov 10

Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is a key regulator of inflammation but its function in infections remains incompletely understood. We investigate PAD4 in the context of malaria and demonstrate a role in regulation of immune cell trafficking and chemokine production. PAD4 regulates liver immunopathology by promoting neutrophil trafficking in a Plasmodium chabaudi mouse malaria model.

NOT Open Access | Assessing the Impact of Substandard and Falsified Antimalarials in Benin

November 10, 2021 - 21:07 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bui V, Higgins CR, Laing S, Ozawa S
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Nov 8:tpmd210450

Substandard and falsified antimalarials contribute to the global malaria burden by increasing the risk of treatment failures, adverse events, unnecessary health expenditures, and avertable deaths, yet no study has examined this impact in western francophone Africa to date. In Benin, where malaria remains endemic and is the leading cause of mortality among children younger than 5 years, there is a lack of robust data to combat the issue effectively and inform policy decisions. We adapted the Substandard and Falsified Antimalarial Research Impact model to assess the health and economic impact of poor-quality antimalarials in this population.

NOT Open Access | Structure, Function, and Thermodynamics of Lactate Dehydrogenases from Humans and the Malaria Parasite P. falciparum

November 10, 2021 - 21:06 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Khrapunov S, Waterman A, Persaud R, Chang EP
Reference: 
Biochemistry. 2021 Nov 8

Temperature adaptation is ubiquitous among all living organisms, yet the molecular basis for this process remains poorly understood. It can be assumed that for parasite-host systems, the same enzymes found in both organisms respond to the same selection factor (human body temperature) with similar structural changes. Herein, we report the existence of a reversible temperature-dependent structural transition for the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (pfLDH) and human heart (hhLDH) occurring in the temperature range of human fever.

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