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Scientific Articles

When fever is not malaria in Latin America: a systematic review

September 23, 2020 - 08:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Moreira J, Barros J, Lapouble O, Lacerda MVG, Felger I, Brasil P, Dittrich S, Siqueira AM
Reference: 
BMC Med. 2020 Sep 21;18(1):294

In malaria-endemic countries, febrile episodes caused by diseases other than malaria are a growing concern. However, limited knowledge of the prevalent etiologic agents and their geographic distributions restrict the ability of health services to address non-malarial morbidity and mortality through effective case management. Here, we review the etiology of fever in Latin America (LA) between 1980 and 2015 and map significant pathogens commonly implicated in febrile infectious diseases.

NOT Open Access | Depletion of cholesterol could be associated with modulation of progesterone but not other sex hormone levels during Plasmodium falciparum infection in humans: a cross-sectional study from Zaria, Nigeria

September 23, 2020 - 08:46 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Usman MA, Ibrahim MA, Salman AA, Sallau AB
Reference: 
Parasitol Res. 2020 Sep 20

In order for Plasmodium falciparum to grow and survive in its host, membrane biogenesis, fueled by host cholesterol, is essential for these processes. Consistent with this essential role, more insights into the cholesterol pathway would enhance the current understanding of the pathophysiology of malaria infection. To explore its broader potential, we conducted a cross-sectional study and assayed for the serum levels of cholesterol, vitamin D, progesterone, testosterone, estradiol and bile acid in both P. falciparum-infected patients and apparently healthy sex-matched participants.

Chloroquine against malaria, cancers and viral diseases

September 23, 2020 - 08:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhou W, Wang H, Yang Y, Chen ZS, Zou C, Zhang J
Reference: 
Drug Discov Today. 2020 Sep 16:S1359-6446(20)30367-6

Quinoline (QN) derivatives are often used for the prophylaxis and treatment of malaria. Chloroquine (CQ), a protonated, weakly basic drug, exerts its antimalarial effect mainly by increasing pH and accumulating in the food vacuole of the parasites.

Implementation of external quality assessment of microscopy for improved parasite detection and confirmatory diagnosis of malaria in Tanzanian Military health facilities

September 23, 2020 - 08:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kalinga AK, Mgata S, Kavishe RA, Mahikwano L, Temu L, Mswanya C, Mwanziva C, Amoo G, Kamau E, Vesely B, Ishengoma DS
Reference: 
BMC Res Notes. 2020 Sep 18;13(1):447

Good quality microscopy is critical for accurate detection and confirmation of malaria parasite infections. Microscopy relies on the skills of technicians to prepare and read slides, high quality reagents, and a good program of internal and external quality control (EQA), which are lacking in most malaria endemic settings. This study was undertaken between January 2016 and December 2018 to pilot an EQA of microscopy for improved diagnosis of malaria and patient care in Tanzanian Military health facilities.

Kinetics of Plasmodium midgut invasion in Anopheles mosquitoes

September 23, 2020 - 08:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Volohonsky G, Paul-Gilloteaux P, Štáfková J, Soichot J, Salamero J, Levashina EA
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog. 2020 Sep 18;16(9):e1008739

Malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites traverse the mosquito midgut cells to establish infection at the basal side of the midgut. This dynamic process is a determinant of mosquito vector competence, yet the kinetics of the parasite migration is not well understood.

Mosquito midgut Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens affect the fitness of adult female Anopheles gambiae s.l.

September 22, 2020 - 10:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ezemuoka LC, Akorli EA, Aboagye-Antwi F, Akorli J
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Sep 18;15(9):e0238931

Some bacteria species found in the mosquito midgut have demonstrated their role in interrupting the development of Plasmodium within the midgut of the Anopheles mosquito and have been identified as potential candidates for novel bacteria-mediated disease control. However, to use these bacteria successfully in biocontrol mechanisms their effect on the fitness of the vector into which they have been introduced has to be evaluated.

Comparative functional survival and equivalent annual cost of 3 long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) products in Tanzania: A randomised trial with 3-year follow up

September 22, 2020 - 10:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lorenz LM, Bradley J, Moore SJ, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Sep 18;17(9):e1003248

Two billion long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have been procured for malaria control. A functional LLIN is one that is present, is in good physical condition, and remains insecticidal, thereby providing protection against vector-borne diseases through preventing bites and killing disease vectors. The World Health Organization (WHO) prequalifies LLINs that remain adequately insecticidal 3 years after deployment. Therefore, institutional buyers often assume that prequalified LLINs are functionally identical with a 3-year lifespan. We measured the lifespans of 3 LLIN products, and calculated their cost per year of functional life, to demonstrate the economic and public health importance of procuring the most cost-effective LLIN product based on its lifespan.

Influence of GST- and P450-based metabolic resistance to pyrethroids on blood feeding in the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus

September 22, 2020 - 10:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nouage L, Elanga-Ndille E, Binyang A, Tchouakui M, Atsatse T, Ndo C, Kekeunou S, Wondji CS
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Sep 18;15(9):e0230984

Insecticide resistance genes are often associated with pleiotropic effects on various mosquito life-history traits. However, very little information is available on the impact of insecticide resistance on blood feeding process in mosquitoes. Here, using two recently detected DNA-based metabolic markers in the major malaria vector, An. funestus, we investigated how metabolic resistance genes could affect the blood meal intake.

NOT Open Access | Multilevel modelling of the risk of malaria among children aged under five years in Nigeria

September 22, 2020 - 10:31 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Oguoma VM, Anyasodor AE, Adeleye AO, Eneanya OA, Mbanefo EC
Reference: 
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Sep 18:traa096

Malaria is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children aged <5 y (U5s). This study assessed individual, household and community risk factors for malaria in Nigerian U5s.

NOT Open Access | Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of dual-stage antimalarial pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines

September 22, 2020 - 10:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Eagon S, Hammill JT, Guy RK, et al.
Reference: 
J Med Chem. 2020 Sep 18

Malaria remains one of the most deadly infectious diseases, causing hundreds of thousands of deaths each year, primarily in young children and pregnant mothers. Here we report the discovery and derivatization of a series of pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines targeting Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest species of the malaria parasite.

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