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Scientific Articles

Anopheline species composition and the 1014F-genotype in different ecological settings of Burkina Faso in relation to malaria transmission

May 13, 2019 - 14:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alphonse Traoré, Athanase Badolo, N’Falé Sagnon, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:165, 8 May 2019

A three-year longitudinal study was conducted in four sentinel sites from different ecological settings in Burkina Faso, between 2008 and 2010 to identify longitudinal changes in insecticide resistance within Anopheles gambiae complex species based on larval collection. During this study, adult mosquitoes were also collected indoor and outdoor using several methods of collection. The present study reports the diversity of malaria vectors and the 1014F-genotype from this adult collection and investigates the association between this 1014F-genotype and sporozoite rate.

The polymorphism and geographical distribution of knockdown resistance of adult Anopheles sinensis populations in eastern China

May 13, 2019 - 12:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wei-Long Tan, Chun-Xiao Li, Tong-Yan Zhao, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:164, 7 May 2019

Anopheles sinensis is one of the major malaria vectors in China and other southeast Asian countries, including Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand. Vector control is considered to be the critical measure for malaria control, while the increasing prevalence of insecticide resistance caused by long-term use of insecticides, especially pyrethroids, is threatening the successful control of An. sinensis. In order to understand the underlying resistance mechanisms involved and molecular basis, the principal malaria vector, An. sinensis from Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, Southeast China, was investigated.

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NOT Open Access | A population‐based study of the prevalence and risk factors of low‐grade Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in children aged 0–15 years old in northern Tanzania

May 7, 2019 - 14:59 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
S. Peprah, H. Dhudha, S. M. Mbulaiteye, et al.
Reference: 
Tropical Medicine & International Health Volume24, Issue5 May 2019 Pages 571-585

Northern Tanzania experiences significant malaria‐related morbidity and mortality, but accurate data are scarce. We update the data on patterns of low‐grade Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection among children in northern Tanzania.

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Febrile temperatures increase in vitro antibody affinity for malarial and dengue antigens

May 7, 2019 - 14:57 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Razvan C. Stan, Katia S. Françoso, Rubens P. S. Alves, Luís Carlos S. Ferreira, Irene S. Soares, Maristela M. de Camargo
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(4): e0007239

Fever is a regulated increase of the body temperature resulting from both infectious and non-infectious causes. Fever is known to play a role in modulating immune responses to infection, but the potential of febrile temperatures in regulating antigen binding affinity to antibodies has not been explored. Here we investigated this process under in vitro conditions using Isothermal titration calorimetry and ELISA.

Use cases for genetic epidemiology in malaria elimination

May 7, 2019 - 14:00 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Ronit Dalmat, Brienna Naughton, Tao Sheng Kwan-Gett, Jennifer Slyker and Erin M. Stuckey
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:163, 7 May 2019

While traditional epidemiological approaches have supported significant reductions in malaria incidence across many countries, higher resolution information about local and regional malaria epidemiology will be needed to efficiently target interventions for elimination. The application of genetic epidemiological methods for the analysis of parasite genetics has, thus far, primarily been confined to research settings. To illustrate how these technical methods can be used to advance programmatic and operational needs of National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs), and accelerate global progress to eradication, this manuscript presents seven use cases for which genetic epidemiology approaches to parasite genetic data are informative to the decision-making of NMCPs.

Quality of malaria services offered in public health facilities in three provinces of Mozambique: a cross-sectional study

May 7, 2019 - 13:59 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Baltazar Candrinho, Mateusz M. Plucinski, J Rose Zulliger, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:162, 6 May 2019

Fever associated with malaria is the leading cause of health care-seeking in Mozambique, yet there is limited evidence on the quality of malaria case management. This study evaluated the quality of malaria service provision offered in public health facilities in Mozambique.

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Excess risk of preterm birth with periconceptional iron supplementation in a malaria endemic area: analysis of secondary data on birth outcomes in a double blind randomized controlled safety trial in Burkina Faso

May 7, 2019 - 13:56 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Bernard Brabin, Sabine Gies, Stephen A. Roberts, Salou Diallo, Olga M. Lompo, Adama Kazienga, Loretta Brabin, Sayouba Ouedraogo and Halidou Tinto
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:161, 6 May 2019

Iron supplementation before a first pregnancy may improve the future health of mother and baby by reducing maternal anaemia. Iron supplementation could, however, increase malaria infections, notably in primigravidae who are most susceptible. The pathogenicity of other iron-utilizing pathogens could also increase, causing inflammation leading to increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. This paper reports pre-specified secondary birth outcomes from a safety trial in Burkina Faso in an area of high malaria endemicity. Primary outcomes from that trial had investigated effects of long-term weekly iron supplementation on malaria and genital tract infections in non-pregnant and pregnant women.

Synergy and timing: a concurrent mass medical campaign predicted to augment indoor residual spraying for malaria

May 7, 2019 - 13:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Richard C. Elliott, David L. Smith and Dorothy C. Echodu
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:160, 6 May 2019

Control programmes for high burden countries are tasked with charting effective multi-year strategies for malaria control within significant resource constraints. Synergies between different control tools, in which more than additive benefit accrues from interventions used together, are of interest because they may be used to obtain savings or to maximize health impact per expenditure. One commonly used intervention in sub-Saharan Africa is indoor residual spraying (IRS), typically deployed through a mass campaign. While possible synergies between IRS and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) have been investigated in multiple transmission settings, coordinated synergy between IRS and other mass medical distribution campaigns have not attracted much attention. Recently, a strong timing-dependent synergy between an IRS campaign and a mass drug administration (MDA) was theoretically quantified. These synergistic benefits likely differ across settings depending on transmission intensity and its overall seasonal pattern.

Comparing sequence and structure of falcipains and human homologs at prodomain and catalytic active site for malarial peptide based inhibitor design

May 7, 2019 - 13:40 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Thommas Mutemi Musyoka, Joyce Njoki Njuguna and Özlem Tastan Bishop
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:159, 3 May 2019

Falcipains are major cysteine proteases of Plasmodium falciparum involved in haemoglobin degradation and remain attractive anti-malarial drug targets. Several inhibitors against these proteases have been identified, yet none of them has been approved for malaria treatment. Other Plasmodium species also possess highly homologous proteins to falcipains. For selective therapeutic targeting, identification of sequence and structure differences with homologous human cathepsins is necessary. The substrate processing activity of these proteins is tightly controlled via a prodomain segment occluding the active site which is chopped under low pH conditions exposing the catalytic site. Current work characterizes these proteases to identify residues mediating the prodomain regulatory function for the design of peptide based anti-malarial inhibitors.

Species composition, seasonal abundance and distribution of potential anopheline vectors in a malaria endemic area of Iran: field assessment for malaria elimination

May 7, 2019 - 13:36 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi, Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi, Seyed Aghil Jaberhashemi and Mehdi Zare
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:157, 2 May 2019

Despite decreases in incidence, malaria remains a major public health challenge in south and southeast Iran, where vector control is considered one of the main strategies for elimination of the disease. The efficacy of this strategy depends on understanding malaria vector ecology, which varies by species. This study was conducted to determine the species composition, seasonal abundance and distribution of potential anopheline vectors in Bashagard County, one of the important malaria-endemic areas in south Iran.

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