Mosquitoes and the diseases they transmit are a global public health threat that affects most human populations. Mosquito abundances are strongly linked to the number of suitable larval habitats available. However, it is still not well understood how different land uses impact larval habitat quality in different parts of the world. We investigated links between land use practices and abundance of mosquito larvae in temporary ponds located in different land uses in a malaria expansion zone in Tanzania. Temporary ponds are often cited as important sources of mosquitoes but are also of substantial conservation concern being home to a unique fauna and flora. Often, they also have high socio-economic importance.
Malaria is one of the most important parasitic diseases that causes a serious public health problem. The genetic diversity of malaria parasites may affect malaria transmission and malaria control strategies. In China, imported malaria was significantly increased in recent years, among which numerous migrant workers were infected with Plasmodium falciparum from Africa.
Evolutionary mechanisms of adaptation to malaria are understudied in Asian endemic regions despite a high prevalence of malaria in the region. In our research, we performed a genome-wide screening for footprints of natural selection against malaria by comparing eight Asian population groups from malaria-endemic regions with two non-endemic population groups from Europe and Mongolia.
To identify barriers to seeking health care among returning travellers with malaria with the aim of developing targeted interventions that improve early health care-seeking behaviour, diagnosis and treatment.
It is important for malaria-endemic countries to address malaria control across international borders, and in particular to prioritize appropriate rapid diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance. Bhutan and India aim to achieve malaria elimination by 2023 and 2030, respectively. Malaria elimination along the Indo-Bhutan border is of common concern. We delineated malaria epidemiology along the border to provide a blueprint for focusing malaria control efforts in key foci within this region.
Vaccines against the sexual stages of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum are indispensable for controlling malaria and abrogating the spread of drug-resistant parasites. Pfs25, a surface antigen of the sexual stage of P. falciparum, is a leading candidate for transmission-blocking vaccine development. While clinical trials have reported that Pfs25-based vaccines are safe and effective in inducing transmission-blocking antibodies, the extent of the genetic diversity of Pfs25 in malaria endemic populations has rarely been studied. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the global diversity of Pfs25 in P. falciparum populations.
Artemisinin (ART) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is thought to occur during the early stage of the parasite's erythrocytic cycle. Here, we identify a novel factor associated with the late stage parasite development that contributes to ART resistance.
Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is a key regulator of inflammation but its function in infections remains incompletely understood. We investigate PAD4 in the context of malaria and demonstrate a role in regulation of immune cell trafficking and chemokine production. PAD4 regulates liver immunopathology by promoting neutrophil trafficking in a Plasmodium chabaudi mouse malaria model.
Substandard and falsified antimalarials contribute to the global malaria burden by increasing the risk of treatment failures, adverse events, unnecessary health expenditures, and avertable deaths, yet no study has examined this impact in western francophone Africa to date. In Benin, where malaria remains endemic and is the leading cause of mortality among children younger than 5 years, there is a lack of robust data to combat the issue effectively and inform policy decisions. We adapted the Substandard and Falsified Antimalarial Research Impact model to assess the health and economic impact of poor-quality antimalarials in this population.
Temperature adaptation is ubiquitous among all living organisms, yet the molecular basis for this process remains poorly understood. It can be assumed that for parasite-host systems, the same enzymes found in both organisms respond to the same selection factor (human body temperature) with similar structural changes. Herein, we report the existence of a reversible temperature-dependent structural transition for the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (pfLDH) and human heart (hhLDH) occurring in the temperature range of human fever.