Malaria is a top cause of mortality on the island nation of Madagascar, where many rural communities rely on subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Understanding feeding behaviours of Anopheles in this landscape is crucial for optimizing malaria control and prevention strategies. Previous studies in southeastern Madagascar have shown that Anopheles mosquitoes are more frequently captured within 50 m of livestock. However, it remains unknown whether these mosquitoes preferentially feed on livestock. Here, mosquito blood meal sources and Plasmodium sporozoite rates were determined to evaluate patterns of feeding behaviour in Anopheles spp. and malaria transmission in southeastern Madagascar.
Advances in digitized video-tracking and behavioural analysis have enabled accurate recording and quantification of mosquito flight and host-seeking behaviours, facilitating development of individual (agent) based models at much finer spatial scales than previously possible.
More than 200 million people live in areas of highly seasonal malaria transmission where Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) was recommended in 2012 by WHO. This strategy is now implemented widely and protected more than 19 million children in 2018. It was previously reported that exposure to SMC reduced antibody levels to AMA1, MSP-142 and CSP, but the duration of exposure to SMC up to three 3 years, had no effect on antibody levels to MSP-142 and CSP.
There is an increasing need for finer spatial resolution data on malaria risk to provide micro-stratification to guide sub-national strategic plans. Here, spatial-statistical techniques are used to exploit routine data to depict sub-national heterogeneities in test positivity rate (TPR) for malaria among patients attending health facilities in Kenya.
In 2018, an estimated 228 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide. Countries are far from having achieved reasonable levels of national protocol compliance among health workers. Lack of awareness of treatment protocols and treatment resistance by prescribers threatens to undermine progress when it comes to reducing the prevalence of this disease. This study sought to evaluate the degree of knowledge and practices regarding malaria diagnosis and treatment amongst prescribers working at the public health facilities of Bata, Equatorial Guinea.
Malaria is a leading public health challenge causing mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Prominent malaria vector control methods employed in sub-Saharan Africa include Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual spraying (IRS). This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of malaria vector control methods in Lagos, South-West Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were employed for the cross-sectional survey which was carried out between May and August 2018. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select Lagos Mainland, Kosofe, and Ojo local government areas (LGAs).
Novel malaria vector control approaches aim to combine tools for maximum protection. This study aimed to evaluate novel and re-evaluate existing putative repellent ‘push’ and attractive ‘pull’ components for manipulating the odour orientation of malaria vectors in the peri-domestic space.
It is important to expound the opposite clinical outcomes between children and adulthood for eradicate malaria. There remains unknown about the correlation between adaptive immune response and age-related in malaria.
Structure-guided vaccine design provides a route to elicit a focused immune response against the most functionally important regions of a pathogen surface. This can be achieved by identifying epitopes for neutralizing antibodies through structural methods and recapitulating these epitopes by grafting their core structural features onto smaller scaffolds. In this study, we conducted a modified version of this protocol. We focused on the PfEMP1 protein family found on the surfaces of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum A subset of PfEMP1 proteins bind to endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), and their expression correlates with development of the symptoms of severe malaria.
We developed a newborn (NB) mouse Plasmodium yoelii NL infection model to study malaria in early age. Surprisingly, the onset of parasitemia in P. yoelii challenged NB mice was delayed compared to adults and coincided with the weaning date when weanlings switched from maternal milk to normal chow diet. Also, compared to adult mice, parasitemia resolved much later (48 days vs 20 days post challenge) and the peak parasitemia was twice as high in weanlings. Concurrently, weanlings' germinal center reaction was delayed and diminished compared to adult mice.