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Scientific Articles

NOT Open Access | Geographical spread and structural basis of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine drug-resistant malaria parasites

March 31, 2021 - 14:48 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Chaturvedi R, Chhibber-Goel J, Verma I, Gopinathan S, Parvez S, Sharma A
Reference: 
Int J Parasitol. 2021 Mar 25:S0020-7519(21)00113-2

The global spread of sulfadoxine (Sdx, S) and pyrimethamine (Pyr, P) resistance is attributed to increasing number of mutations in DHPS and DHFR enzymes encoded by malaria parasites. The association between drug resistance mutations and SP efficacy is complex. Here we provide an overview of the geographical spread of SP resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) encoded dhps and dhfr genes.

The Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in the Bijagos Islands of Guinea-Bissau

March 31, 2021 - 14:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
McGregor D, Texeira da Silva E, Grignard L, Goncalves A, Vasileva H, Mabey D, Last A
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Mar 29:tpmd201029

Distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), passive detection and treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) are the mainstay malaria control measures of Guinea-Bissau's national control programme. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum on Bubaque, the most populous island of the country's remote Bijagos archipelago.

Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection and associated factors among pregnant women in the Merti district, Oromia, Ethiopia

March 31, 2021 - 14:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Subussa BW, Eshetu T, Degefa T, Ali MM
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Mar 25;16(3):e0248074

Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection (API) that occurs during pregnancy increases the risk of stillbirths, abortion, premature delivery, and low birth weight. API also hinders the control and prevention of malaria as infected hosts serve as silent reservoirs for transmission of Plasmodium species in the community.

Objective

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of API and associated factors among pregnant women. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Merti district, Oromia, Ethiopia among 364 pregnant women from March to September 2018.

Diagnostic performance of rapid diagnostic test, light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction during mass survey conducted in low and high malaria-endemic areas from two North-Eastern states of India

March 31, 2021 - 14:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Shankar H, Singh MP, Phookan S, Singh K, Mishra N
Reference: 
Parasitol Res (2021)

An early and accurate diagnosis followed by prompt treatment is pre-requisite for the management of any disease. Malaria diagnosis is routinely performed by microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in the field settings; however, their performance may vary across regions, age and asymptomatic status. Owing to this, we assessed the diagnostic performance of conventional and advanced molecular tools for malaria detection in low and high malaria-endemic settings. We performed mass blood surveys in low and high endemic regions of two North-Eastern districts from the states of Assam and Meghalaya.

NOT Open Access | Atovaquone/Proguanil Resistance in an Imported Malaria Case in Chile

March 31, 2021 - 14:35 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Chenet SM, Oyarce A, Fernandez J, Tapia-Limonchi R, Weitzel T, Tejedo JR, Udhayakumar V, Jercic MI, Lucchi NW
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Mar 29:tpmd201095

In November 2018, we diagnosed a cluster of falciparum malaria cases in three Chilean travelers returning from Nigeria. Two patients were treated with sequential intravenous artesunate plus oral atovaquone/proguanil (AP) and one with oral AP. The third patient, a 23-year-old man, presented with fever on day 29 after oral AP treatment and was diagnosed with recrudescent falciparum malaria.

School-based screening and treatment may reduce P. falciparum transmission

March 31, 2021 - 14:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cohee LM, Valim C, Laufer MK, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6905

In areas where malaria remains entrenched, novel transmission-reducing interventions are essential for malaria elimination. We report the impact screening-and-treatment of asymptomatic Malawian schoolchildren (n = 364 in the rainy season and 341 in the dry season) had on gametocyte-the parasite stage responsible for human-to-mosquito transmission-carriage.

NOT Open Access | Overview of natural antiplasmodials from the last decade to inspire medicinal chemistry

March 31, 2021 - 14:32 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Degotte G, Pirotte B, Francotte P, Frédérich M
Reference: 
Curr Med Chem. 2021 Mar 29.

Despite the major advances in the fight against this parasitic disease, malaria remains a major cause of concerns in 2020. This infection, mainly due to Plasmodium falciparum, causes every year more than 200 million of cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths in developing regions, mostly in Africa. The last statistics show an increase of cases for the third consecutive year, from 211 million in 2015, it has reached 229 million in 2019. This trend could be partially explained by the appearance of resistances to all the used antimalarials, even to artemisinin. Thus, the design of new anti-Plasmodium compounds is an urgent need. For thousands of years, nature has offered to humans the medicines to cure their diseases or the inspiration for development of new active principles. It seems then logical to explore the natural sources to find new molecules to treat this parasitosis.

Community delivery of malaria intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy: protocol of a quasi-experimental evaluation through multistage cluster sampling household surveys in four sub-Saharan African countries

March 31, 2021 - 14:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pons-Duran C, Llach M, Sanz S, Ramírez M, Méndez S, Roman E, Tholandi M, Pagnoni F, Menendez C, González R
Reference: 
BMJ Open. 2021 Mar 25;11(3):e044680

In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), millions of pregnant women are exposed to malaria infection. The cornerstone of the WHO strategy to prevent malaria in pregnancy in moderate to high-transmission areas is the administration of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine at each scheduled antenatal care (ANC) visit. However, overall coverage remains low. ‘Transforming IPT for Optimal Pregnancy’ (TIPTOP) project aims at delivering IPTp at the community level (C-IPTp) to complement ANC provision with the goal of increasing IPTp coverage and improving maternal and infant’s health. This protocol describes the approach to measure the effect of this strategy through household surveys (HHS) in four SSA countries: Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Madagascar, Mozambique and Nigeria.

Prevalence of pfk13 and pfmdr1 polymorphisms in Bounkiling, Southern Senegal

March 31, 2021 - 14:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ahouidi A, Oliveira R, Lobo L, Diedhiou C, Mboup S, Nogueira F
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Mar 26;16(3):e0249357

Delayed Plasmodium falciparum parasite clearance has been associated with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the kelch protein propeller domain (coded by pfk13 gene). SNPs in the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) are associated with multi-drug resistance including the combination artemether-lumefantrine. To our knowledge, this is the first work providing information on the prevalence of k13-propeller and pfmdr1 mutations from Sédhiou, a region in the south of Senegal.

NOT Open Access | Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-F and -G gene polymorphisms and haplotypes are associated with malaria susceptibility in the Beninese Toffin children

March 31, 2021 - 14:24 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sonon P, Tokplonou L, Donadi EA, et al.
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2021 Mar 26:104828

Little attention has been devoted to the role of the immunoregulatory HLA-E/-F/−G genes in malaria. We evaluated the entire HLA-E/-F/−G variability in Beninese children highly exposed to Plasmodium falciparum (P.f.) malaria.

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