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Scientific Articles

Contributions of natural killer cells to the immune response against Plasmodium

September 23, 2019 - 14:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kristina S. Burrack, Geoffrey T. Hart and Sara E. Hamilton
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:321, 18 September 2019

Natural killer (NK) cells are important innate effector cells that are well described in their ability to kill virally-infected cells and tumors.

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Poverty and food security: drivers of insecticide-treated mosquito net misuse in Malawi

September 23, 2019 - 14:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sara Berthe, Steven A. Harvey, Matthew Lynch, Hannah Koenker, Vincent Jumbe, Blessings Kaunda-Khangamwa and Don P. Mathanga
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:320, 18 September 2019

Over the past decade, food insecurity, connected to erratic rains and reduced agricultural outputs, has plagued Malawi. Many households are turning to fishing to seek additional sources of income and food. There is anecdotal evidence that insecticide-treated net (ITN) recipients in Malawi are using their nets for purposes other than sleeping, such as for fishing, protecting crops, and displaying merchandise, among others. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the factors leading residents of waterside communities in Malawi to use ITNs for fishing.

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Rare mutations in Pfmdr1 gene of Plasmodium falciparum detected in clinical isolates from patients treated with anti-malarial drug in Nigeria

September 23, 2019 - 14:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abel O. Idowu, Wellington A. Oyibo, Sanjib Bhattacharyya, Manjeet Khubbar, Udoma E. Mendie, Violet V. Bumah, Carolyn Black, Joseph Igietseme and Anthony A. Azenabor
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:319, 18 September 2019

Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest causative agent of malaria, has high prevalence in Nigeria. Drug resistance causing failure of previously effective drugs has compromised anti-malarial treatment. On this basis, there is need for a proactive surveillance for resistance markers to the currently recommended artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), for early detection of resistance before it become widespread.

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Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria delivered to primary schoolchildren provided effective individual protection in Jinja, Uganda: secondary outcomes of a cluster-randomized trial (START-IPT)

September 23, 2019 - 14:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Andrea M. Rehman, Catherine Maiteki-Sebuguzi, Samuel Gonahasa, Jaffer Okiring, Simon P. Kigozi, Clare I. R. Chandler, Chris Drakeley, Grant Dorsey, Moses R. Kamya and Sarah G. Staedke
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:318, 18 September 2019

Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) of malaria is recommended as policy for certain high-risk populations, but not currently for schoolchildren. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of IPT with dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine (DP) on primary schoolchildren in Jinja, Uganda. Results of the impact of IPT of schoolchildren on community-level transmission have been reported previously. Here, secondary outcomes from a school-based survey are presented.

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Natural selection and genetic diversity of domain I of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 on Bioko Island

September 23, 2019 - 14:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ya-Nan Wang, Min Lin, Hai-Bin Chen, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:317, 18 September 2019

Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 (PfAMA-1) is a promising candidate antigen for a blood-stage malaria vaccine. However, antigenic variation and diversity of PfAMA-1 are still major problems to design a universal malaria vaccine based on this antigen, especially against domain I (DI). Detail understanding of the PfAMA-1 gene polymorphism can provide useful information on this potential vaccine component. Here, general characteristics of genetic structure and the effect of natural selection of DIs among Bioko P. falciparum isolates were analysed.

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Plasmodium vivax cerebral malaria in an adult patient in Sudan

September 23, 2019 - 14:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Maowia M. Mukhtar, Omer A. Eisawi, Seth A. Amanfo, Elwaleed M. Elamin, Zeinab S. Imam, Faiza M. Osman and Manasik E. Hamed
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:316, 18 September 2019

Plasmodium vivax infection is rising in sub-Saharan Africa, where Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for more than 90% of malaria cases. While P. vivax is identified as a major cause of severe and cerebral malaria in South east Asia, the Pacific and South America, most of the severe and cerebral cases in Africa were attributed to P. falciparum. Cases of severe malaria due to P. vivax are emerging in Africa. A few severe P. vivax cases were reported in Eastern Sudan and they were underestimated due to the lack of accurate diagnosis, low parasitaemia and seldom use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs).

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Strengthening surveillance systems for malaria elimination: a global landscaping of system performance, 2015–2017

September 23, 2019 - 14:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Christopher Lourenço, Andrew J. Tatem, Peter M. Atkinson, Justin M. Cohen, Deepa Pindolia, Darlene Bhavnani and Arnaud Le Menach
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:315, 18 September 2019

Surveillance is a core component of an effective system to support malaria elimination. Poor surveillance data will prevent countries from monitoring progress towards elimination and targeting interventions to the last remaining at-risk places. An evaluation of the performance of surveillance systems in 16 countries was conducted to identify key gaps which could be addressed to build effective systems for malaria elimination.

Eave ribbons treated with transfluthrin can protect both users and non-users against malaria vectors

September 23, 2019 - 14:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Emmanuel P. Mwanga, Arnold S. Mmbando, Fredros O. Okumu, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:314, 18 September 2019

Eave ribbons treated with spatial repellents effectively prevent human exposure to outdoor-biting and indoor-biting malaria mosquitoes, and could constitute a scalable and low-cost supplement to current interventions, such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). This study measured protection afforded by transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons to users (personal and communal protection) and non-users (only communal protection), and whether introducing mosquito traps as additional intervention influenced these benefits.

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A two-colour multiplexed lateral flow immunoassay system to differentially detect human malaria species on a single test line

September 23, 2019 - 14:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jinsu Kim, Xiangkun Elvis Cao, Julia L. Finkelstein, Washington B. Cárdenas, David Erickson and Saurabh Mehta
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:313, 18 September 2019

Malaria continues to impose a tremendous burden in terms of global morbidity and mortality, yet even today, a large number of diagnoses are presumptive resulting in lack of or inappropriate treatment.

Loss of complement regulatory proteins on red blood cells in mild malarial anaemia and in Plasmodium falciparum induced blood-stage infection

September 23, 2019 - 14:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Damian A. Oyong, Jessica R. Loughland, Michelle J. Boyle, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:312, 18 September 2019

Anaemia is a major consequence of malaria, caused by the removal of both infected and uninfected red blood cells (RBCs) from the circulation. Complement activation and reduced expression of complement regulatory proteins (CRPs) on RBCs are an important pathogenic mechanism in severe malarial anaemia in both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infection. However, little is known about loss of CRPs on RBCs during mild malarial anaemia and in low-density infection.

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