Health workers (HWs) appropriate malaria case management includes early detection and prompt treatment with appropriate anti-malarial drugs. Subsequently, HWs readiness and practice are considered authentic evidence to measure the health system performance regarding malaria control programme milestones and to issue malaria elimination certification. There is no comprehensive evidence based on meta-analysis, to measure the performance of HWs in case management of malaria. This study aimed to evaluate HWs performance in early malaria case detection (testing) and the appropriate treatment.
Malaria transmission is highly seasonal in Niger. Despite the introduction of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) in the Magaria District, malaria incidence remains high, and the epidemiology of malaria in the community is not well-understood.
The urban–rural designation has been an important risk factor in infectious disease epidemiology. Many studies rely on a politically determined dichotomization of rural versus urban spaces, which fails to capture the complex mosaic of infrastructural, social and environmental factors driving risk. Such evaluation is especially important for Plasmodium transmission and malaria disease. To improve targeting of anti-malarial interventions, a continuous composite measure of urbanicity using spatially-referenced data was developed to evaluate household-level malaria risk from a house-to-house survey of children in Malawi.
Haemosporidioses are common in birds and their manifestations range from subclinical infections to severe disease, depending on the involved parasite and bird species. Clinical haemosporidioses are often observed in non-adapted zoo or aviary birds, whereas in wild birds, particularly passerines, haemosporidian infections frequently seem to be asymptomatic. However, a recent study from Austria showed pathogenic haemosporidian infections in common blackbirds due to high parasite burdens of Plasmodium matutinum LINN1, a common parasite in this bird species, suggesting that virulent infections also occur in natural hosts. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to explore whether and to what extent other native bird species are possibly affected by pathogenic haemosporidian lineages, contributing to avian morbidity.
Although the association between malaria and anaemia is widely studied in patient cohorts, the population-representative causal effects of malaria on anaemia remain unknown. This study estimated the malaria-induced decrease in haemoglobin levels among young children in malaria-endemic Burkina Faso.
The increasing resistant cases even against artemisinin-based combination therapy have necessitated the need to develop new antimalarials. Phytomedicinal therapy is a benchmark for malaria in the Himalayan region. As the dialect and traditional variations have been seen along with this, usage of medicinal plant, its portion (shoot and root system) and mode of preparation also varies. There is no scientific evidence available for illustrating the antiplasmodial activity of the rhizomes of Bergenia ciliata (Saxifragaceae), which is known to be an antipyretic (fever akin to malaria), hepato-protective, and also for spleen enlargement.
In an urban setting, it is a difficult task to collect adult Anopheles stephensi, unlike the immature stages, due to various reasons. A longitudinal study was undertaken from January 2016 to April 2017, with CDC light traps to collect adult Anopheles stephensi and other mosquito species in houses located in a few slums of Chennai, India. A total of 203 trap collections were made indoors from human dwellings having different roof types, as well as outdoors. Three to four trap collections were made at night (18:00 to 06:00 h) once a week.
Herein, we have synthesized a series of lipophilic, halogenated-arylvinyl-1,2,4-trioxanes 8a-g (28 compounds) and assessed for their in vitro anti-plasmodial activity in Plasmodium falciparum culture using SYBRgreen-I fluorescence assay against chloroquine-resistant Pf INDO and artemisinin-resistant Pf Cam 3.1R539T (MRA-1240) strains. Alongside, the cell cytotoxic potential of 8a-g has also been determined against the HEK293 cell line in vitro. Out of twenty-eight halogenated-arylvinyl-1,2,4-trioxanes; ten analogues (8a2, 8a4, 8b2, 8b4, 8d4, 8e1, 8e2, 8e4,8f2, and 8g4) have shown potent in vitro antiplasmodial activity with IC50 < 27 nM (IC50 range = 4.48-26.58 nM). Also, the selectivity index (SI) for these ten analogues were found in the range of 72.00-3972.50 which indicates their selective potential towards Plasmodium cells.
Overwhelming activation of T cells in acute malaria is associated with severe outcomes. Thus, counter-regulation by anti-inflammatory mechanisms is indispensable for an optimal resolution of disease. Using Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection of C57BL/6 mice, we performed a comprehensive analysis of co-inhibitory molecules expressed on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells using an unbiased cluster analysis approach. We identified similar T cell clusters co-expressing several co-inhibitory molecules like programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3) in the CD4+ and the CD8+ T cell compartment.