Sporozoites of the etiological agent of malaria, Plasmodium, form parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs) in hepatocytes. The PV membranes (PVM) are coated with a well-known host autophagy marker LC3 and parasite-derived protein called Upregulated in infective sporozoites 3 (UIS3), which has been shown to interact with LC3 and inhibit LC3-mediated autophagic disruption at the PV. Although uis3(-) sporozoites cannot proliferate in wild-type cells, they can replicate efficiently in cells defective in autophagy due to the lack of Atg proteins such as Atg3, Atg5 and Atg7, since these Atg proteins are essential for processing of LC3.
Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic agent that interferes with glutamate-gated chloride channels found in invertebrates but not in vertebrate species. Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin-based regimes has been a mainstay of elimination efforts targeting onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis for more than 3 decades. More recently, interest in the use of ivermectin to control other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) such as soil-transmitted helminths and scabies has grown.
The resistance of mosquito vectors to insecticides is one of the biological obstacles in the fight against malaria. Understanding of the status and mechanisms underlying the insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae species is necessary for success of vector control efforts. The study aimed to determine the molecular forms of An. gambiae from four districts in Sierra Leone during May and June 2018, and the level of N1575Y mutation.
It was while working at a hospital in Mae Sot on the Thailand-Myanmar border in 2006 when Elizabeth Ashley knew malaria research was her vocation. She also felt she had found a place in the world to call home. She had fallen for the people as well as a profession. Over 13 years later, Elizabeth Ashley became the Director of the Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit (LOMWRU) in Vientiane, Laos, specialising in infectious diseases, medical microbiology, and virology. LOMWRU conducts diverse research into specialities such as epidemiology, diagnostics, and forensics, while also being known for health advocacy.
Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), including exosomes, are formed by the endocytic pathway and contain genetic and protein material which reflect the contents of their cells of origin. These contents have a role in vesicle-mediated information transfer, as well as physiological and pathological functions. Thus, these vesicles are of great interest as therapeutic targets, or as vehicles for immunomodulatory control.
Mosquito control interventions are widely used to reduce mosquito-borne diseases. It is unclear what combination of interventions are most effective in reducing human disease. A novel intervention study for Buruli ulcer targeting mosquito vectors was proposed for a Buruli ulcer-endemic area of Victoria, Australia. The local community expressed a preference for avoiding widespread residual spraying of pyrethroids. To inform the design of a future cluster randomised control study (cRCT) for Buruli ulcer prevention in Victoria, we conducted a systematic literature review.
CRISPR-based gene-drives targeting the gene doublesex in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae effectively suppressed the reproductive capability of mosquito populations reared in small laboratory cages. To bridge the gap between laboratory and the field, this gene-drive technology must be challenged with vector ecology.Here we report the suppressive activity of the gene-drive in age-structured An. gambiae populations in large indoor cages that permit complex feeding and reproductive behaviours.
Artesunate is a widely used derivative of artemisinin for malaria. Recent researches have shown that artesunate has a significant anti-inflammatory effect on many diseases. However, its effect on acute kidney injury with a significant inflammatory response is not clear. In this study, we established a cisplatin-induced AKI mouse model and a co-culture system of BMDM and tubular epithelial cells (mTEC) to verify the renoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of artesunate on AKI, and explored the underlying mechanism.
Insecticide resistance has become a widespread problem causing a decline in the effectiveness of vector control tools in sub-Saharan Africa. In this situation, ongoing monitoring of vector susceptibility to insecticides is encouraged by the WHO to guide national malaria control programmes. Our study was conducted from April to November 2018 in Tchonka (Sud-Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo) and reported primary data on the resistance status of Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae.
School-age children (6–15 years) bear an under-appreciated burden of malaria. Across sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of infection peaks in this age group, and an estimated 200 million school-age children are at risk of malaria.