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Scientific Articles

Health workers readiness and practice in malaria case detection and appropriate treatment: a meta-analysis and meta-regression

November 18, 2021 - 11:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hosein Azizi, Reza Majdzadeh, Ayat Ahmadi, Elham Davtalab Esmaeili, Behrouz Naghili and Mohammad Ali Mansournia
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:420, 24 October 2021

Health workers (HWs) appropriate malaria case management includes early detection and prompt treatment with appropriate anti-malarial drugs. Subsequently, HWs readiness and practice are considered authentic evidence to measure the health system performance regarding malaria control programme milestones and to issue malaria elimination certification. There is no comprehensive evidence based on meta-analysis, to measure the performance of HWs in case management of malaria. This study aimed to evaluate HWs performance in early malaria case detection (testing) and the appropriate treatment.

Prevalence of malaria in an area receiving seasonal malaria chemoprevention in Niger

November 18, 2021 - 11:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Matthew E. Coldiron, Bachir Assao, Ousmane Guindo, Nathan Sayinzoga-Makombe, Alena Koscalova, Esther Sterk, Michel Quere, Iza Ciglenecki, Ann Mumina, Salifou Atti, Céline Langendorf and Rebecca F. Grais
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:419, 24 October 2021

Malaria transmission is highly seasonal in Niger. Despite the introduction of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) in the Magaria District, malaria incidence remains high, and the epidemiology of malaria in the community is not well-understood.

An urban-to-rural continuum of malaria risk: new analytic approaches characterize patterns in Malawi

November 18, 2021 - 11:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Peter S. Larson, Joseph N. S. Eisenberg, Veronica J. Berrocal, Don P. Mathanga and Mark L. Wilson
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:418, 24 October 2021

The urban–rural designation has been an important risk factor in infectious disease epidemiology. Many studies rely on a politically determined dichotomization of rural versus urban spaces, which fails to capture the complex mosaic of infrastructural, social and environmental factors driving risk. Such evaluation is especially important for Plasmodium transmission and malaria disease. To improve targeting of anti-malarial interventions, a continuous composite measure of urbanicity using spatially-referenced data was developed to evaluate household-level malaria risk from a house-to-house survey of children in Malawi.

A citizen science-based survey of avian mortality focusing on haemosporidian infections in wild passerine birds

November 18, 2021 - 10:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tanja Himmel, Josef Harl, Julia Matt and Herbert Weissenböck
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:417, 23 October 2021

Haemosporidioses are common in birds and their manifestations range from subclinical infections to severe disease, depending on the involved parasite and bird species. Clinical haemosporidioses are often observed in non-adapted zoo or aviary birds, whereas in wild birds, particularly passerines, haemosporidian infections frequently seem to be asymptomatic. However, a recent study from Austria showed pathogenic haemosporidian infections in common blackbirds due to high parasite burdens of Plasmodium matutinum LINN1, a common parasite in this bird species, suggesting that virulent infections also occur in natural hosts. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to explore whether and to what extent other native bird species are possibly affected by pathogenic haemosporidian lineages, contributing to avian morbidity.

The effect of malaria on haemoglobin concentrations: a nationally representative household fixed-effects study of 17,599 children under 5 years of age in Burkina Faso

November 18, 2021 - 10:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tim Starck, Caroline A. Bulstra, Halidou Tinto, Toussaint Rouamba, Ali Sie, Thomas Jaenisch and Till Bärnighausen
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:416, 23 October 2021

Although the association between malaria and anaemia is widely studied in patient cohorts, the population-representative causal effects of malaria on anaemia remain unknown. This study estimated the malaria-induced decrease in haemoglobin levels among young children in malaria-endemic Burkina Faso.

NOT Open Access | Ethanol extract of Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. (rhizome) impedes the propagation of the malaria parasite

November 17, 2021 - 09:42 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Gorki V, Walter NS, Chauhan M, Kaur M, Dhingra N, Bagai U, Kaur S
Reference: 
J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Nov 15;280:114417

The increasing resistant cases even against artemisinin-based combination therapy have necessitated the need to develop new antimalarials. Phytomedicinal therapy is a benchmark for malaria in the Himalayan region. As the dialect and traditional variations have been seen along with this, usage of medicinal plant, its portion (shoot and root system) and mode of preparation also varies. There is no scientific evidence available for illustrating the antiplasmodial activity of the rhizomes of Bergenia ciliata (Saxifragaceae), which is known to be an antipyretic (fever akin to malaria), hepato-protective, and also for spleen enlargement.

NOT Open Access | Does the roof type of a house influence the presence of adult Anopheles stephensi, urban malaria vector? - evidence from a few slum settings in Chennai, India

November 17, 2021 - 09:34 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ravishankaran S, Asokan A, Justin NAJA, Thomas S, Joshua V, Mathai MT, Eapen A
Reference: 
Parasitol Res. 2021 Nov 13

In an urban setting, it is a difficult task to collect adult Anopheles stephensi, unlike the immature stages, due to various reasons. A longitudinal study was undertaken from January 2016 to April 2017, with CDC light traps to collect adult Anopheles stephensi and other mosquito species in houses located in a few slums of Chennai, India. A total of 203 trap collections were made indoors from human dwellings having different roof types, as well as outdoors. Three to four trap collections were made at night (18:00 to 06:00 h) once a week.

NOT Open Access | Novel halogenated arylvinyl-1,2,4 trioxanes as potent antiplasmodial as well as anticancer agents: Synthesis, bioevaluation, structure-activity relationship and in-silico studies

November 17, 2021 - 09:32 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Tiwari MK, Coghi P, Agrawal P, Yadav DK, Yang LJ, Congling Q, Sahal D, Wai Wong VK, Chaudhary S
Reference: 
Eur J Med Chem. 2021 Nov 15;224:113685

Herein, we have synthesized a series of lipophilic, halogenated-arylvinyl-1,2,4-trioxanes 8a-g (28 compounds) and assessed for their in vitro anti-plasmodial activity in Plasmodium falciparum culture using SYBRgreen-I fluorescence assay against chloroquine-resistant Pf INDO and artemisinin-resistant Pf Cam 3.1R539T (MRA-1240) strains. Alongside, the cell cytotoxic potential of 8a-g has also been determined against the HEK293 cell line in vitro. Out of twenty-eight halogenated-arylvinyl-1,2,4-trioxanes; ten analogues (8a2, 8a4, 8b2, 8b4, 8d4, 8e1, 8e2, 8e4,8f2, and 8g4) have shown potent in vitro antiplasmodial activity with IC50 < 27 nM (IC50 range = 4.48-26.58 nM). Also, the selectivity index (SI) for these ten analogues were found in the range of 72.00-3972.50 which indicates their selective potential towards Plasmodium cells.

T cells expressing multiple co-inhibitory molecules in acute malaria are not exhausted but exert a suppressive function in mice

November 17, 2021 - 09:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Brandi J, Lehmann C, Kaminski LC, Schulze Zur Wiesch J, Addo M, Ramharter M, Mackroth M, Jacobs T, Riehn M
Reference: 
Eur J Immunol. 2021 Nov 9

Overwhelming activation of T cells in acute malaria is associated with severe outcomes. Thus, counter-regulation by anti-inflammatory mechanisms is indispensable for an optimal resolution of disease. Using Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection of C57BL/6 mice, we performed a comprehensive analysis of co-inhibitory molecules expressed on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells using an unbiased cluster analysis approach. We identified similar T cell clusters co-expressing several co-inhibitory molecules like programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3) in the CD4+ and the CD8+ T cell compartment.

Not Open Access | Simultaneous estimation of ZY-19489 and its active metabolite ZY-20486 in human plasma using LC-MS/MS, a novel antimalarial compound

November 17, 2021 - 09:24 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ghoghari AM, Patel HV, Nayak NN, Mansuri TH, Pillai SM, Jain MR, Patel HB, Kansagra K, Resta ID, Möhrle J, Parmar DV
Reference: 
Bioanalysis. 2021 Nov 15

ZY-19489 is a new antimalarial drug candidate and selective LC–MS/MS method was established for estimation of ZY-19489 and its metabolite in human plasma.

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