Our current knowledge of the clinical burden, biology, and transmission of Plasmodium malariae is extremely scarce. To start addressing some of those questions, we experimentally infected Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes with fresh P. malariae isolates obtained from asymptomatic individuals in Lambaréné, Gabon.
To the Editor: In ongoing pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19), clinicians are observing atypical manifestations of the disease.
The genomes of Plasmodium spp. encode a number of different multigene families that are thought to play a critical role for survival. However, with the exception of the P. falciparum var genes, very little is known about the biological roles of any of the other multigene families. Using the recently developed Selection Linked Integration method, we have been able to activate the expression of a single member of a multigene family of our choice in Plasmodium spp. from its endogenous promoter.
Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 3 (PvMSP3) is encoded by a multi-gene family. Of these, PvMSP3α, PvMSP3β and PvMSP3γ, are considered to be vaccine targets. Despite comprehensive analyses of PvMSP3α and PvMSP3β, little is known about structural and sequence diversity in PvMSP3γ. Analysis of 118 complete pvmsp3γ sequences from diverse endemic areas of Thailand and 9 reported sequences has shown 86 distinct haplotypes.
Mass drug administration (MDA) with artemisinin combination therapy is a potentially useful tool for malaria elimination programs, but its success depends partly on drug effectiveness and treatment coverage in the targeted population. As part of a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia evaluating the impact of MDA and household focal MDA (fMDA) with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAp), sub-studies were conducted investigating population drug adherence rates and effectiveness of DHAp as administered in clearing Plasmodium falciparum infections following household mass administration.
The antimalarial drug lumefantrine (LF) exhibits erratic pharmacokinetics (PK). Intersubject variability might be attributed, in part, to differences in the gut microbiome-mediated drug metabolism. We assessed LF disposition in healthy mice stratified by enterotype to explore associations between the gut microbiota and LF PK. Gut microbiota enterotypes were classified according to abundance and diversity indices from 16S rRNA sequencing.
From December 2014 to February 2016, a cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out in 60 health facility catchment areas along Lake Kariba in Zambia's Southern Province. The trial sought to evaluate the impact of four rounds of a mass drug administration (MDA) intervention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAP) or focal MDA with DHAP at the household level compared with a control population that received the standard of care.
Either intuition or empiricism must have led to the use of antimalarial drugs to both treat and prevent malaria, pre-dating the identification of the malaria parasite and the mode of its transmission. Josep Masdevall in the XVIII century managed epidemics in Spain through the administration of compounds that included the bark of the cinchona tree. In more recent times, mass drug administration (MDA) was the first form of chemoprevention used against malaria in the early 1900s.
Asymptomatic and/or low-density malaria infection has been acknowledged as an obstacle to achieving a malaria-free country. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic and/or low-density malaria infection in previously reported malarious localities using nested PCR in four states, namely, Johor, Pahang, Kelantan, and Selangor, between June 2019 and January 2020. Blood samples (n = 585) were collected and were extracted using a QIAamp blood kit.
A mass drug administration trial was carried out in Southern Province, Zambia, between 2014 and 2016, in conjunction with a standard of care package that included improved surveillance, increased access to malaria case management, and sustained high levels of vector control coverage. This was preceded by mass test and treatment in the same area from 2011 to 2013. Concordant decreases in malaria prevalence in Southern Province and deaths attributed to malaria in Zambia over this time suggest that these strategies successfully reduced the malaria burden.