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Scientific Articles

Mosquito feeding behavior and how it influences residual malaria transmission across Africa

July 29, 2019 - 15:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ellie Sherrard-Smith, Janetta E. Skarp, Thomas S. Churcher, et al.
Reference: 
PNAS July 23, 2019 116 (30) 15086-15095

The antimalarial efficacy of the most important vector control interventions—long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)—primarily protect against mosquitoes’ biting people when they are in bed and indoors.

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Modelling the relationship between malaria prevalence as a measure of transmission and mortality across age groups

July 23, 2019 - 15:32 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Sammy Khagayi, Meghna Desai, Penelope Vounatsou, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:247, 23 July 2019

Parasite prevalence has been used widely as a measure of malaria transmission, especially in malaria endemic areas. However, its contribution and relationship to malaria mortality across different age groups has not been well investigated. Previous studies in a health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSS) platform in western Kenya quantified the contribution of incidence and entomological inoculation rates (EIR) to mortality. The study assessed the relationship between outcomes of malaria parasitaemia surveys and mortality across age groups.

Multiplex serology demonstrate cumulative prevalence and spatial distribution of malaria in Ethiopia

July 23, 2019 - 15:31 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Ashenafi Assefa, Ahmed Ali Ahmed, Jimee Hwang, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:246, 22 July 2019

Measures of malaria burden using microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in cross-sectional household surveys may incompletely describe the burden of malaria in low-transmission settings. This study describes the pattern of malaria transmission in Ethiopia using serological antibody estimates derived from a nationwide household survey completed in 2015.

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Primaquine at alternative dosing schedules for preventing relapse in people with Plasmodium vivax malaria

July 23, 2019 - 13:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rachael Milligan, André Daher, Patricia M Graves
Reference: 
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2019, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD012656

This Cochrane Review evaluated whether more patient‐friendly alternative regimens are as efficacious as the standard regimen for radical cure ofP vivax malaria.

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What is community engagement and how can it drive malaria elimination? Case studies and stakeholder interviews

July 21, 2019 - 21:50 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Kimberly Baltzell, Kelly Harvard, Marguerite Hanley, Roly Gosling and Ingrid Chen
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:245, 17 July 2019

In light of increasing complexity of identifying and treating malaria cases in low transmission settings, operational solutions are needed to increase effective delivery of interventions. Community engagement (CE) is at the forefront of this conversation given the shift toward creating local and site-specific solutions. Malaria programmes often confuse CE with providing information to the community or implementing community-based interventions. This study seeks to expand on CE approaches for malaria by looking to a variety of health and development programmes for lessons that can be applied to malaria elimination.

Characterizing the molecular and metabolic mechanisms of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae in Faranah, Guinea

July 21, 2019 - 21:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Caleb Stica, Claire L. Jeffries, Seth R. Irish, Yaya Barry, Denka Camara, Ismael Yansane, Mojca Kristan, Thomas Walker and Louisa A. Messenger
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:244, 17 July 2019

In recent years, the scale-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) has greatly reduced malaria transmission. However, malaria remains a global public health concern with the majority of the disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Insecticide resistance is a growing problem among Anopheles vector populations, with potential implications for the continued effectiveness of available control interventions. Improved understanding of current resistance levels and underlying mechanisms is essential to design appropriate management strategies and to mitigate future selection for resistance.

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Diagnostic dose determination and efficacy of chlorfenapyr and clothianidin insecticides against Anopheles malaria vector populations of western Kenya

July 21, 2019 - 21:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Silas Agumba, John E. Gimnig, Lilian Ogonda, Maurice Ombok, Jackline Kosgei, Stephen Munga, Benard Guyah, Seline Omondi and Eric Ochomo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:243, 17 July 2019

Malaria vector control is dependent on chemical insecticides applied to walls by indoor residual spraying or on long-lasting insecticidal nets. The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in major malaria vectors may compromise malaria control and elimination efforts. The aim of this study was to estimate a diagnostic dose for chlorfenapyr (class: pyrrole) and clothianidin (class: neonicotinoid) and assess the baseline susceptibility of three major Anopheles malaria vectors of western Kenya to these two insecticides.

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Prevalence of submicroscopic malaria infection in immigrants living in Spain

July 21, 2019 - 21:43 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Isabel Fradejas, José Miguel Rubio, Ana Pérez‑Ayala, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:242, 17 July 2019

The importance of submicroscopic malaria infections in high-transmission areas could contribute to maintain the parasite cycle. Regarding non-endemic areas, its importance remains barely understood because parasitaemia in these afebrile patients is usually below the detection limits for microscopy, hence molecular techniques are often needed for its diagnosis. In addition to this, the lack of standardized protocols for the screening of submicroscopic malaria in immigrants from endemic areas may underestimate the infection with Plasmodium spp. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of submicroscopic malaria in afebrile immigrants living in a non-endemic area.

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Changing pattern of the genetic diversities of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 and merozoite surface protein-2 in Myanmar isolates

July 21, 2019 - 21:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hương Giang Lê, Jung-Mi Kang, Byoung-Kuk Na, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:241, 16 July 2019

Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (PfMSP-1) and -2 (PfMSP-2) are major blood-stage vaccine candidate antigens. Understanding the genetic diversity of the genes, pfmsp-1 and pfmsp-2, is important for recognizing the genetic structure of P. falciparum, and the development of an effective vaccine based on the antigens. In this study, the genetic diversities of pfmsp-1 and pfmsp-2 in the Myanmar P. falciparum were analysed.

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