CD4+ T follicular helper (Tfh) cells dominate the acute response to a blood-stage Plasmodium infection and provide signals to direct B cell differentiation and protective antibody expression. We studied antigen-specific CD4+ Tfh cells responding to Plasmodium infection in order to understand the generation and maintenance of the Tfh response.
Early diagnosis and comprehensive treatment are the mainstays of malaria disease control. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with 18r RNA as a diagnostic target still has problem in sensitivity.
Despite historical and contemporary evidence of its effectiveness, larval source management with insecticides remains little used by most malaria control programs worldwide. Here we show that environmentally safe biological larvicides under field conditions can significantly reduce anopheline larval density in fish farming ponds that have became major larval habitats across the Amazon Basin.
Avian malaria parasites are a highly diverse group that commonly infect birds and have deleterious effects on their hosts. Some parasite lineages are geographically widespread and infect many host species in many regions. Bird migration, natural dispersal, invasive species and human-mediated introductions into areas where competent insect vectors are present, are probably the main drivers of the current distribution of avian malaria parasites.
The transmissible forms of Plasmodium parasites result from a process of sporogony that takes place inside their obligatory mosquito vector and culminates in the formation of mammalian-infective parasite forms. Ivermectin is a member of the avermectin family of endectocides, which has been proposed to inhibit malaria transmission due its insecticidal effect. However, it remains unclear whether ivermectin also exerts a direct action on the parasite's blood and transmission stages.
With increasing spatial heterogeneity of malaria transmission and a shift of the disease burden towards older children and adults, pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) have been proposed as a pragmatic sentinel population for malaria surveillance. However, the representativeness of routine ANC malaria test-positivity and its relationship with prevalence in other population subgroups are yet to be investigated.
Malaria remains a public health issue, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa with special features of seriousness in young children and pregnant women. Adolescents and adults are reported to have acquired a semi-immune status and, therefore, present with low parasitaemia. Children are understood to present with a much higher parasitaemia and severe malaria. It is a concern that effective malaria control programmes targeting young children may lead to a delay in the acquisition of acquired immunity and, therefore, causing a shift in the epidemiology of malaria. Prevalence and parasitaemia were explored in adolescents and adults with Plasmodium falciparum infections compared to young children in the area of Lambaréné, Gabon as an indicator for semi-immunity.
Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) contributes to devastating maternal and neonatal outcomes. Coverage of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) remains alarmingly low.
Malaria and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection constitute public health problems in Cameroon including the South West Region (SWR). This study determined the prevalence of malaria parasites and haematological abnormalities in HIV positive patients in Limbe, Cameroon from April-July 2014.
Insects express chemical receptors within sensory neurons that are activated by specific cues in the environment, thereby influencing the acquisition of critical resources. A significant gap in our current understanding of insect chemical ecology is defining the molecular mechanisms that underlie sensitivity to plant-emitted volatiles.