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Scientific Articles

Targeting remaining pockets of malaria transmission in Kenya to hasten progress towards national elimination goals: an assessment of prevalence and risk factors in children from the Lake endemic region

July 15, 2019 - 15:10 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Ismail Mahat Bashir, Nancy Nyakoe and Marianne van der Sande
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Malaria Journal 2019 18:233, 12 July 2019

With an overall decline of malaria incidence, elimination of malaria is gradually becoming the next target for many of countries affected by the disease. In Kenya the national malaria control strategy is aiming to reach pre-elimination for most parts of the country. However, considerable heterogeneity in prevalence of the disease within the country and especially the remaining high prevalent region of the Lake endemic region is likely to slow progress towards this target. To achieve a sustained control and an eventual elimination, a clear understanding of drivers of ongoing malaria transmission in remaining hotspots is needed.

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Examining community perceptions of malaria to inform elimination efforts in Southern Mozambique: a qualitative study

July 12, 2019 - 16:35 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Harvie P. Portugaliza, Beatriz Galatas, Hoticha Nhantumbo, Helder Djive, Ilda Murato, Francisco Saúte, Pedro Aide, Christopher Pell and Khátia Munguambe
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Malaria Journal 2019 18:232, 11 July 2019

In a background of renewed calls for malaria eradication, several endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa are contemplating malaria elimination nationally or sub-nationally. In Mozambique, a strategy to eliminate malaria in the south is underway in the context of low endemicity levels and cross-border initiatives to eliminate malaria in South Africa and Eswatini. In this context, a demonstration project aiming to interrupt malaria transmission through mass antimalarial drug administrations and intensified vector control programmes accompanied by community engagement and standard case management was implemented in the Magude District. To ensure the necessary uptake of these interventions, formative qualitative research explored the perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and practices related to malaria, its prevention and control. The current article describes the results of this study.

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High therapeutic efficacy of artemether–lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Somalia

July 12, 2019 - 16:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Marian Warsame, Abdillahi Mohamed Hassan, Pascal Ringwald, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:231, 11 July 2019

Artemether–lumefantrine (AL) and dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine (DHA/PPQ) are the recommended first- and second-line treatments, respectively, for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Somalia. The studies reported here were conducted to assess the efficacy of these artemisinin-based combinations and the mutations in Plasmodium falciparum K13-propeller (Pfk13) domain and amplification in Pfplasmepsin 2 (Pfpm2) gene in Somalia.

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Imported cases of malaria in Spain: observational study using nationally reported statistics and surveillance data, 2002–2015

July 12, 2019 - 16:30 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Zaida Herrador, Beatriz Fernández-Martinez, Víctor Quesada-Cubo, Oliva Diaz-Garcia, Rosa Cano, Agustín Benito and Diana Gómez-Barroso
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:230, 10 July 2019

Malaria was eliminated in Spain in 1964. Since then, more than 10,000 cases of malaria have been reported, mostly in travellers and migrants, making it the most frequently imported disease into this country. In order to improve knowledge on imported malaria cases characteristics, the two main malaria data sources were assessed: the national surveillance system and the hospital discharge database (CMBD).

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Assessment of the impact of availability and readiness of malaria services on uptake of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) provided during ANC visits in Tanzania

July 12, 2019 - 16:27 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Shraddha Bajaria, Charles Festo, Sigilbert Mrema, Josephine Shabani, Ellen Hertzmark and Ramadhani Abdul
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:229, 9 July 2019

Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) is a highly-recommended intervention to prevent maternal and neonatal complications associated with malaria infection. Despite fairly high antenatal care (ANC) coverage in Tanzania, low IPTp uptake rates represent a gap in efforts to decrease complications attributed to malaria in pregnancy. The objective of this study was to examine if availability, readiness and managing authority are associated with uptake of IPTp during ANC.

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Spatio-temporal prevalence of malaria and anaemia in relation to agro-ecosystems in Mvomero district, Tanzania

July 12, 2019 - 16:25 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Susan F. Rumisha, Elizabeth H. Shayo and Leonard E. G. Mboera
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:228, 9 July 2019

Agro-ecological systems have been associated with increased malaria intensity. This study determined association between different agro-ecological systems, prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in Mvomero district, Tanzania.

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Analysis of serological data to investigate heterogeneity of malaria transmission: a community-based cross-sectional study in an area conducting elimination in Indonesia

July 8, 2019 - 17:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Henry Surendra, Mahardika A. Wijayanti, Supargiyono, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:227, 8 July 2019

Analysis of anti-malarial antibody responses has the potential to improve characterization of the variation in exposure to infection in low transmission settings, where conventional measures, such as entomological estimates and parasitaemia point prevalence become less sensitive and expensive to measure. This study evaluates the use of sero-epidemiological analysis to investigate heterogeneity of transmission in area conducting elimination in Indonesia.

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Malaria mosquito control in rice paddy farms using biolarvicide mixed with fertilizer in Tanzania: semi-field experiments

July 8, 2019 - 17:07 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Humphrey D. Mazigo, Leonard E. G. Mboera, Susan F. Rumisha and Eliningaya J. Kweka
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:226, 8 July 2019

The wide distribution of malaria mosquito breeding sites within tropical environments limits the mosquito larval source management efforts to control malaria. Rice farming contributes substantially in supporting malaria mosquito productivity in tropical countries. To overcome this challenge, this study was carried out to determine the effect of applying a mixture of biolarvicide and fertilizer on mosquito larvae density in rice farms under semi-field conditions in Tanzania.

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Competing risk events in antimalarial drug trials in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network individual participant data meta-analysis

July 8, 2019 - 17:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
The WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network Methodology Study Group
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:225, 5 July 2019

Therapeutic efficacy studies in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria are confounded by new infections, which constitute competing risk events since they can potentially preclude/pre-empt the detection of subsequent recrudescence of persistent, sub-microscopic primary infections.

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Bio-efficacy and physical integrity of piperonylbutoxide coated combination net (PermaNet® 3.0) against pyrethroid resistant population of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Ethiopia

July 8, 2019 - 17:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abaynesh Birhanu, Abebe Asale and Delenasaw Yewhalaw
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:224, 4 July 2019

PermaNet® 3.0 is a deltamethrin-treated combination long-lasting insecticidal net with the addition of synergist piperonylbutoxide (PBO) on its roof section. It is designed to overcome the challenge posed by pyrethroid resistant vector populations against mainstream long-lasting insecticidal nets impregnated with pyrethroids only. The objective of this study was to determine insecticide resistance status of Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes, to evaluate the bio-efficacy of PermaNet® 3.0 nets and to assess household factors affecting the physical integrity of PermaNet® 3.0 after 3 years of use.

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