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Scientific Articles

NOT Open Access | gammadelta T cells suppress Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage infection by direct killing and phagocytosis

January 13, 2021 - 11:07 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Junqueira C, Polidoro RB, Lieberman J, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Immunol. 2021 Jan 11

Activated Vγ9Vδ2 (γδ2) T lymphocytes that sense parasite-produced phosphoantigens are expanded in Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients. Although previous studies suggested that γδ2 T cells help control erythrocytic malaria, whether γδ2 T cells recognize infected red blood cells (iRBCs) was uncertain. Here we show that iRBCs stained for the phosphoantigen sensor butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1). γδ2 T cells formed immune synapses and lysed iRBCs in a contact, phosphoantigen, BTN3A1 and degranulation-dependent manner, killing intracellular parasites.

NOT Open ACcess | Malaria and encephalopathy in a heart transplant recipient: a case report in the context of multiorgan donation

January 13, 2021 - 10:37 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Vernaza A, Pinilla-Monsalve G, Cañas F, Carrillo D, López JD, Flórez N, Gómez JE
Reference: 
Transpl Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 11:e13565

Malaria is an endemic infection in tropical circles. It can be transmitted from mosquitoes bite, but exceptional cases have been attributed to multiorgan transplantation.

An integrated platform for genome engineering and gene expression perturbation in Plasmodium falciparum

January 13, 2021 - 10:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nasamu AS, Falla A, Pasaje CFA, Wall BA, Wagner JC, Ganesan SM, Goldfless SJ, Niles JC
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Jan 11;11(1):342

Establishing robust genome engineering methods in the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, has the potential to substantially improve the efficiency with which we gain understanding of this pathogen's biology to propel treatment and elimination efforts. Methods for manipulating gene expression and engineering the P. falciparum genome have been validated. However, a significant barrier to fully leveraging these advances is the difficulty associated with assembling the extremely high AT content DNA constructs required for modifying the P. falciparum genome.

Increased investment in gametocytes in asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in the wet season

January 13, 2021 - 10:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Oduma CO, Ogolla S, Atieli H, Ondigo BN, Lee MC, Githeko AK, Dent AE, Kazura JW, Yan G, Koepfli C
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 9;21(1):44

Transmission stemming from asymptomatic infections is increasingly being recognized as a threat to malaria elimination. In many regions, malaria transmission is seasonal. It is not well understood whether Plasmodium falciparum modulates its investment in transmission to coincide with seasonal vector abundance.

Effectiveness of the school-based social and behaviour change communication interventions on insecticide-treated nets utilization among primary school children in rural Ethiopia: a controlled quasi-experimental design

January 13, 2021 - 10:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fira Abamecha, Morankar Sudhakar, Lakew Abebe, Yohannes Kebede, Guda Alemayehu and Zewdie Birhanu
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:41, 13 January 2021

School-based behaviour change communication interventions could help to achieve behavioural changes in the school and enhance the enrollment of the students and teachers as health messengers to local communities. Evidence on the impacts of the school-engaged malaria preventive interventions are limited as far as the social and behaviour change communication (SBCC) is concerned. This study examined the effectiveness of the school-based SBCC approach on insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) utilization among primary school students in malaria-endemic settings of Ethiopia.

Culturable bacteria associated with Anopheles darlingi and their paratransgenesis potential

January 13, 2021 - 10:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Elerson Matos Rocha, Osvaldo Marinotti, Wanderli Pedro Tadei, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:40, 13 January 2021

Malaria remains a major public health problem in South America, mostly in the Amazon region. Among newly proposed ways of controlling malaria transmission to humans, paratransgenesis is a promising alternative. Paratransgenesis aims to inhibit the development of parasites within the vector through the action of genetically modified bacteria. The first step towards successful paratransgenesis in the Amazon is the identification of Anopheles darlingi symbiotic bacteria, which are transmitted vertically among mosquitoes, and are not pathogenic to humans.

A comparative evaluation of mobile medical APPS (MMAS) for reading and interpreting malaria rapid diagnostic tests

January 13, 2021 - 10:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Theodoor Visser, Sumedh Ramachandra, Emilie Pothin, Jan Jacobs, Jane Cunningham, Arnaud Le Menach, Michelle L. Gatton, Samaly dos Santos Souza, Sydney Nelson, Luke Rooney and Michael Aidoo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:39, 13 January 2021

The World Health Organization recommends confirmatory diagnosis by microscopy or malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in patients with suspected malaria. In recent years, mobile medical applications (MMAs), which can interpret RDT test results have entered the market. To evaluate the performance of commercially available MMAs, an evaluation was conducted by comparing RDT results read by MMAs to RDT results read by the human eye.

Allelic diversity of MSP1 and MSP2 repeat loci correlate with levels of malaria endemicity in Senegal and Nigerian populations

January 13, 2021 - 10:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mary A. Oboh, Tolla Ndiaye, Daouda Ndiaye, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:38, 13 January 2021

Characterizing the genetic diversity of malaria parasite populations in different endemic settings (from low to high) could be helpful in determining the effectiveness of malaria interventions. This study compared Plasmodium falciparum parasite population diversity from two sites with low (pre-elimination) and high transmission in Senegal and Nigeria, respectively.

Isolation and light chain shuffling of a Plasmodium falciparum AMA1-specific human monoclonal antibody with growth inhibitory activity

January 13, 2021 - 10:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Melanie Seidel-Greven, Otchere Addai-Mensah, Rolf Fendel, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:37, 11 January 2021

Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite causing malaria, affects populations in many endemic countries threatening mainly individuals with low malaria immunity, especially children. Despite the approval of the first malaria vaccine Mosquirix™ and very promising data using cryopreserved P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ), further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of humoral immunity for the development of next-generation vaccines and alternative malaria therapies including antibody therapy. A high prevalence of antibodies against AMA1 in immune individuals has made this antigen one of the major blood-stage vaccine candidates.

Monitoring mosquito nuisance for the development of a citizen science approach for malaria vector surveillance in Rwanda

January 13, 2021 - 10:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Marilyn Milumbu Murindahabi, Willem Takken, Constantianus J. M. Koenraadt, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:36, 10 January 2021

Many countries, including Rwanda, have mosquito monitoring programmes in place to support decision making in the fight against malaria. However, these programmes can be costly, and require technical (entomological) expertise. Involving citizens in data collection can greatly support such activities, but this has not yet been thoroughly investigated in a rural African context.

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