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Scientific Articles

Investigation on potential malaria vectors (Anopheles spp.) in the Province of Trento, Italy

May 3, 2019 - 17:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Valentina Tagliapietra, Daniele Arnoldi, Marco Di Luca, Luciano Toma and Annapaola Rizzoli
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:151, 29 April 2019

Background

Europe and Italy were declared malaria free since the 1970s although the presence of competent vectors and the high number of yearly imported malaria cases make this disease a potential rising health issue. In September 2017, a cryptic fatal case of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Province of Trento, Italy, raised the concern of health authorities on the possible resurgence of this disease in the Mediterranean Basin.

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Plasmodium knowlesi clinical isolates from Malaysia show extensive diversity and strong differential selection pressure at the merozoite surface protein 7D (MSP7D)

May 3, 2019 - 17:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Md. Atique Ahmed and Fu-Shi Quan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:150, 29 April 2019

Background

The high proportion of human cases due to the simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi in Malaysia is a cause of concern, as they can be severe and even fatal. Merozoite surface protein 7 (MSP7) is a multigene family which forms a non-covalent complex with MSP-1 prior to receptor-ligand recognition in Plasmodium falciparum and thus an important antigen for vaccine development. However, no study has been done in any of the ortholog family members in P. knowlesi from clinical samples. This study investigates the level of polymorphism, haplotypes, and natural selection acting at the pkmsp-7D gene in clinical samples from Malaysia.

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Two cases of long-lasting, sub-microscopic Plasmodium malariae infections in adults from coastal Tanzania

May 3, 2019 - 17:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tobias Schindler, Said Jongo, Claudia Daubenberger, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:149, 29 April 2019

Background

Malaria is endemic in Tanzania with majority of clinical cases caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Additionally, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale spp. are also present and clinical manifestations caused by these infections are not well described. Clinical episodes caused by P. malariae infections are often characterized by a relatively mild illness with a low number of parasites, which can persist for long periods. In this report, two cases of P. malariae infections that were identified during a clinical trial evaluating the P. falciparum malaria vaccine candidate, PfSPZ Vaccine are described. The two participants were followed up and monitored for clinical and laboratory parameters to assess vaccine safety providing the opportunity to study clinical manifestations of P. malariae over 4 months.

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Knowledge engagement in gene drive research for malaria control

April 30, 2019 - 15:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sarah Hartley, Delphine Thizy, Katie Ledingham, Mamadou Coulibaly, Abdoulaye Diabaté, Bakara Dicko, Samba Diop, Jonathan Kayondo, Annet Namukwaya, Barry Nourou, Léa Paré Toé
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(4): e0007233

Gene drive mosquitoes are a novel approach to vector control being developed to help tackle malaria. A gene drive increases the frequency of a desired gene and its phenotypic effect into a mosquito population through reproduction in relatively few generations [1]. Combining gene drive with the precision of gene editing, scientists are able to modify the Anopheles mosquito genome and push modifications through natural vector populations. 

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NOT Open Access | Baseline Ex Vivo and Molecular Responses of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates to Piperaquine before Implementation of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine in Senegal

April 30, 2019 - 15:21 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Marie Gladys Robert, Francis Foguim Tsombeng, Mathieu Gendrot, Silman Diawara, Marylin Madamet, Mame Bou Kounta, Khalifa Ababacar Wade, Mansour Fall, Mamadou Wague Gueye, Nicolas Benoit, Aminata Nakoulima, Raymond Bercion, Rémy Amalvict, Bécaye Fall, Boubacar Wade, Bakary Diatta and Bruno Pradines
Reference: 
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. April 2019 63:e02445-18

Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, which was registered in 2017 in Senegal, is not currently used as the first-line treatment against uncomplicated malaria. A total of 6.6% to 17.1% of P. falciparum isolates collected in Dakar in 2013 to 2015 showed ex vivo-reduced susceptibility to piperaquine. 

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NOT Open Access | Monitoring the Efficacy of Chloroquine-Primaquine Therapy for Uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax Malaria in the Main Transmission Hot Spot of Brazil

April 30, 2019 - 15:20 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Simone Ladeia-Andrade, Maria José Menezes, Taís Nóbrega de Sousa, Ana Carolina R. Silvino, Jaques F. de Carvalho Jr., Laís C. Salla, Odaílton A. Nery, Gladson N. P. de Melo, Rodrigo M. Corder, Priscila T. Rodrigues and Marcelo U. Ferreira
Reference: 
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. April 2019 63:e01965-18

Emerging Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine (CQ) may undermine malaria elimination efforts in South America. CQ-resistant P. vivax has been found in the major port city of Manaus but not in the main malaria hot spots across the Amazon Basin of Brazil, where CQ is routinely coadministered with primaquine (PQ) for radical cure of vivax malaria. Here we randomly assigned 204 uncomplicated vivax malaria patients from Juruá Valley, northwestern Brazil, to receive either sequential (arm 1) or concomitant (arm 2) CQ-PQ treatment.

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NOT Open Access | Mutation Profile of pfdhfr and pfdhps in Plasmodium falciparum among Returned Chinese Migrant Workers from Africa

April 30, 2019 - 15:18 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Chao Xu, Hui Sun, Qingkuan Wei, Jin Li, Ting Xiao, Xiangli Kong, Yongbin Wang, Guihua Zhao, Longjiang Wang, Gongzhen Liu, Ge Yan, Bingcheng Huang and Kun Yin
Reference: 
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. April 2019 63:e01927-18

We evaluated markers of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum among 254 returned migrant workers in China from Africa from 2013 to 2016.

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NOT Open Access | Identification of Antimalarial Compounds That Require CLAG3 for Their Uptake by Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes

April 30, 2019 - 15:17 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sofía Mira-Martínez, Anastasia K. Pickford, Núria Rovira-Graells, Pieter Guetens, Elisabet Tintó-Font, Alfred Cortés and Anna Rosanas-Urgell
Reference: 
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. April 2019 63:e00052-19

During the intraerythrocytic asexual cycle malaria parasites acquire nutrients and other solutes through a broad selectivity channel localized at the membrane of the infected erythrocyte termed the plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC). The protein product of the Plasmodium falciparum clonally variant clag3.1 and clag3.2 genes determines PSAC activity. Switches in the expression of clag3 genes, which are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, are associated with changes in PSAC-dependent permeability that can result in resistance to compounds toxic for the parasite, such as blasticidin S. Here, we investigated whether other antimalarial drugs require CLAG3 to reach their intracellular target and consequently are prone to parasite resistance by epigenetic mechanisms. 

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Antibodies to Peptides in Semiconserved Domains of RIFINs and STEVORs Correlate with Malaria Exposure

April 30, 2019 - 15:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Albert E. Zhou, Andrea A. Berry, Mark A. Travassos, et al.
Reference: 
mSphere March/April 2019 4:e00097-19

The repetitive interspersed family (RIFIN) and the subtelomeric variable open reading frame (STEVOR) family represent two of three major Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigen families involved in malaria pathogenesis and immune evasion and are potential targets in the development of natural immunity. Protein and peptide microarrays populated with RIFINs and STEVORs associated with severe malaria vulnerability in Malian children were probed with adult and pediatric sera to identify epitopes that reflect malaria exposure.

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NOT Open Access | Malaria infection status of European Robins seems to associate with timing of autumn migration but not with actual condition

April 30, 2019 - 15:02 -- NOT Open Access
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Author(s): 
Nóra Ágh, Imre Sándor Piross, Gábor Majoros, Tibor Csörgő, Eszter Szöllősi
Reference: 
Parasitology, Volume 146 / Issue 6, May 2019, pp 814-820

Avian malaria parasites can negatively affect many aspects of the life of the passerines. Though these parasites may strongly affect the health and thus migration patterns of the birds also during autumn, previous studies on avian malaria focused mainly on the spring migration and the breeding periods of the birds. We investigated whether the prevalence of blood parasites varies in relation to biometrical traits, body condition and arrival time in the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) during autumn migration.

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