Due to drug resistance, commonly used anti-Babesia drugs have limited efficacy against babesiosis, and inflict severe side effects. Tafenoquine (TAF) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2018 for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax infection and for malaria prophylaxis. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of TAF for the treatment of Babesia infection and elucidated the suspected mechanisms of TAF activity against Babesia parasites. Parasitemia and survival rates of B. rodhaini-infected BALB/c and SCID mice were used to explore the role of the immune response in Babesia infection after TAF treatment.
In endemic settings where asymptomatic malaria infections are common, malaria infection can complicate fever diagnosis. Factors influencing fever misdiagnosis, including accuracy of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) and the malaria-attributable fraction of fevers (MAF), require further investigation. We conducted facility-based surveillance in Malawi, from January 2012 through December 2013 in settings of high perennial (Chikhwawa), high seasonal (Thoylo), and moderate seasonal (Ndirande) malaria transmission.
Despite its epidemiological importance, the time Plasmodium parasites take to achieve development in the vector mosquito (the extrinsic incubation period, EIP) remains poorly characterized. A novel non-destructive assay designed to estimate EIP in single mosquitoes, and more broadly to study Plasmodium-Anopheles vectors interactions, is presented.
A vaccine for malaria is urgently required but no vaccine has yet shown satisfactory protective efficacy especially for Plasmodium falciparum. P. falciparum infection can progress to cerebral malaria (CM), a neurological syndrome with exceedingly high mortality. Designing effective P. falciparum vaccines require more understanding of the protective immune response while the host immune response to CM and the mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we aim to identify host gene responses to CM and host gene networks associated with CM pathogenesis.
Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most severe complication caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection. The pathophysiological changes caused by parasite virulence factors and the human immune response to parasites contribute to CM. To date, very few parasite virulence proteins have been found to participate in CM. Here, we employed comparative genomics analysis and identified parasite-infected erythrocyte specific protein 2 (PIESP2) to be a CM-related protein. We conducted further experimental investigations and found that PIESP2 is an immunogenic protein.
Malaria is still considered as the major parasitic disease and the development of artemisinin resistance does not improve this alarming situation. Based on the recent identification of relevant malaria targets in the artemisinin resistance context, novel drug combinations were evaluated against artemisinin-sensitive and artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites.
The quest for the development of a novel antimalarial drug informed the decision to subject phytol to in vivo trials following a demonstration of therapeutic potential against chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum under in vitro condition. On this basis, the in vivo anti-Plasmodium berghei activity of phytol including the ameliorative effects of the compound on P. berghei-associated anaemia and organ damage were investigated.
Presently, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line therapy of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. With the emergence of malaria parasites that are resistant to ACT, alternative antimalarial therapies are urgently needed. In line with this, we designed and synthesised a series of novel N-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)-N'-(4,6-diphenylpyrimidin-2-yl)alkanediamine hybrids (6a-7c) and evaluated their inhibitory activity against the NF54 chloroquine-susceptible strain as a promising class of antimalarial compounds.
Vector control is an essential component in prevention and control of malaria in malaria endemic areas. Insecticide treated nets is one of the standard tools recommended for malaria vector control. The objective of the study was to determine physical integrity and insecticidal potency of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) used in control of malaria vector in Kirinyaga County, Kenya.
Prolyl-tRNA synthetase (PRS) is a clinically validated antimalarial target. Screening of a set of PRS ATP-site binders, initially designed for human indications, led to identification of 1-(pyridin-4-yl)pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives representing a novel antimalarial scaffold. Evidence designates cytoplasmic PRS as the drug target. The frontrunner 1 and its active enantiomer 1-S exhibited low-double-digit nanomolar activity against resistant Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) laboratory strains and development of liver schizonts.