The human infectious reservoir for malaria consists of individuals capable of infecting mosquitoes. Oocyst prevalence and density are typical indicators of human infectivity to mosquitoes. However, identification of oocysts is challenging, particularly in areas of low malaria transmission intensity where few individuals may infect mosquitoes, and infected mosquitoes tend to have few oocysts. Here, features that differentiate oocysts from other oocyst-like in mosquito midguts are explained and illustrated. In addition, the establishment and maintenance of infrastructure to perform malaria transmission experiments is described. This work may support other initiatives to set up membrane feeding infrastructure and guide oocyst detection in low transmission settings.
Resistance to all available anti-malarial drugs has emerged and spread including artemisinin derivatives and their partner drugs. Several genes involved in artemisinin and partner drugs resistance, such as pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfK13 or pfpm2, have been identified. However, these genes do not properly explain anti-malarial drug resistance, and more particularly clinical failures observed in Africa. Mutations in genes encoding for Plasmodium falciparum proteins, such as P. falciparum Acetyl-CoA transporter (PfACT), P. falciparum UDP-galactose transporter (PfUGT) and P. falciparum cyclic amine resistance locus (PfCARL) have recently been associated to resistance to imidazolopiperazines and other unrelated drugs.
Malaria remains a very important public health problem in Ethiopia. Currently, only Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are considered in the malaria diagnostic and treatment policies. However, the existence and prevalence of Plasmodium ovale spp. and Plasmodium malariae in Ethiopia have not been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was to use a multiplex IgG antibody detection assay to evaluate evidence for exposure to any of these four human malaria parasites among asymptomatic individuals.
The potential benefits of long-acting injectable chemoprotection (LAI-C) against malaria have been recently recognized, prompting a call for suitable candidate drugs to help meet this need. On the basis of its known pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles after oral dosing, ELQ-331, a prodrug of the parasite mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor ELQ-300, was selected for study of pharmacokinetics and efficacy as LAI-C in mice.
Plasmodium elongatum (cytochrome b lineage pGRW6) is a widespread avian malaria parasite, often causing severe disease in non-adapted hosts. This parasite lineage is of global distribution however, its virulence remains insufficiently understood, particularly in wild birds. Surprisingly, this infection has never been reported in Common starlings Sturnus vulgaris and Common crossbills Loxia curvirostra, common European songbirds which were extensively sampled across Europe. A hypothesis was proposed that these birds might be resistant to the pGRW6 infection. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis.
The Duffy glycoprotein acts as the entry point for merozoites of Plasmodium vivax in the invasion of red blood cells. The host–parasite relationship has revealed new perspectives regarding the association between Duffy polymorphisms that can impact both the parasite density of this Plasmodium and the symptoms of this type of malaria. This study investigates the impact of Duffy polymorphisms on parasite density in patients infected with P. vivax in the Brazilian Amazon region.
The Gambia has successfully reduced malaria transmission. The human reservoir of infection could further decrease if malaria-infected individuals could be identified by highly sensitive, field-based, diagnostic tools and then treated.
Strategies for combatting residual malaria by targeting vectors outdoors are gaining importance as the limitations of primary indoor interventions are reached. Strategies to target ovipositing females or her offspring are broadly applicable because all mosquitoes require aquatic habitats for immature development irrespective of their biting or resting preferences. Oviposition site selection by gravid females is frequently studied by counting early instar larvae in habitats; an approach which is valid only if the number of larvae correlates with the number of females laying eggs. This hypothesis was tested against the alternative, that a higher abundance of larvae results from improved survival of a similar or fewer number of families.
Mutations in the propeller domain of Plasmodium falciparum kelch 13 (Pfk13) gene are associated with artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia.
The MORDOR study, a cluster randomized clinical trial, showed that single-dose azithromycin (20 mg/kg) administered biannually for 2 years to preschool children reduced mortality; a study was conducted to determine its effect on clinical symptomatic episodes of malaria as a potential mechanism for mortality benefit.