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Scientific Articles

Moringa oleifera treatment increases Tbet expression in CD4+ T cells and remediates immune defects of malnutrition in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice

February 10, 2020 - 16:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jennifer Pilotos, Kadra Abdu Ibrahim, Chishimba Nathan Mowa and Michael Makokha Opata
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:62, 7 February 2020

Malaria is a worldwide problem that affects millions of people yearly. In rural areas where anti-malarial drugs are not easily accessible, many people use herbal treatments, such as Moringa oleifera, to treat a variety of diseases and ailments including malaria. While Moringa is reported to possess potent and curative anti-malarial properties, previous studies have mostly been restricted to assessment of parasitaemia. In this study, the effect of Moringa on malaria immunity in a murine model was investigated.

Exposure to Ebola Virus and Risk for Infection with Malaria Parasites, Rural Gabon

February 10, 2020 - 16:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jessica L. Abbate, Pierre Becquart, Eric Leroy, Vanessa O. Ezenwa, Benjamin Roche
Reference: 
Emerging Infectious Diseases, Volume 26, Volume 26, Number 2—February 2020

An association between malaria and risk for death among patients with Ebola virus disease has suggested within-host interactions between Plasmodium falciparum parasites and Ebola virus. To determine whether such an interaction might also influence the probability of acquiring either infection, we used a large snapshot surveillance study from rural Gabon to test if past exposure to Ebola virus is associated with current infection with Plasmodium spp. during nonepidemic conditions.

A 2-month intervention study of preventive clothing against mosquito bites among malnourished and well-nourished children under 5 years of age living on the Atlantic Ocean Coast of Lagos, Southwest Nigeria

February 10, 2020 - 16:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bamgboye M. Afolabi, Titilola M. Afolabi, Abiodun Ogunwale and Adewunmi Aiyesetenikan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:61, 5 February 2020

Malnutrition is appreciated as a global leading paediatric burden that indirectly or directly contributes to child mortality. In children, malnutrition has profound effects on health and development; and has been associated with poor outcomes in paediatric diseases. However, it is not clear if malnourished children are at an increased risk of having malaria. This study was conducted to evaluate the risk of malaria infection in children with malnutrition.

Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenases in Myanmar isolates

February 10, 2020 - 16:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jinyoung Lee, Tae Im Kim, Byoung-Kuk Na, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:60, 4 February 2020

Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) is a major target in diagnosing the erythrocytic stage of malaria parasites because it is highly expressed during blood-stage parasites and is distinguished from human LDH. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria use pLDH as a target antigen; however, genetic variations in pLDH within the natural population threaten the efficacy of pLDH-based RDTs.

Molecular surveillance of Pfcrt and k13 propeller polymorphisms of imported Plasmodium falciparum cases to Zhejiang Province, China between 2016 and 2018

February 10, 2020 - 16:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Xiaoxiao Wang, Wei Ruan, Shuisen Zhou, Fang Huang, Qiaoyi Lu, Xinyu Feng and He Yan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:59, 4 February 2020

Resistance to anti-malarial drugs hinders malaria elimination. Monitoring the molecular markers of drug resistance helps improve malaria treatment policies. This study aimed to assess the distribution of molecular markers of imported Plasmodium falciparum infections.

Physical integrity and survivorship of long-lasting insecticidal nets distributed to households of the same socio-cultural community in Benin, West Africa

February 10, 2020 - 16:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Idelphonse B. Ahogni, Albert S. Salako, Bruno Akinro, Arthur Sovi, Virgile Gnanguenon, Roseric Azondekon, Jean F. Dagnon, Pamela Akogbeto, Filémon Tokponon and Martin C. Akogbeto
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:58, 4 February 2020

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are designed to survive and sustain their physical barrier for 3 years in household conditions. However, studies have shown that most of these nets are usually torn or no longer present in the households in less than 3 years. This study was initiated in Benin to compare the survivorship and physical integrity of seven types of LLINs in a same socio-geographic area.

Sexual forms obtained in a continuous in vitro cultured Colombian strain of Plasmodium falciparum (FCB2)

February 10, 2020 - 16:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Monica Ararat-Sarria, Cesar Camilo Prado, Milena Camargo, Laura Tatiana Ospina, Paola Andrea Camargo, Hernando Curtidor and Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:57, 3 February 2020

The epidemiological control of malaria has been hampered by the appearance of parasite resistance to anti-malarial drugs and by the resistance of mosquito vectors to control measures. This has also been associated with weak transmission control, mostly due to poor control of asymptomatic patients associated with host-vector transmission. This highlights the importance of studying the parasite’s sexual forms (gametocytes) which are involved in this phase of the parasite’s life-cycle. Some African and Asian strains of Plasmodium falciparum have been fully characterized regarding sexual forms’ production; however, few Latin-American strains have been so characterized. This study was aimed at characterizing the Colombian FCB2 strain as a gametocyte producer able to infect mosquitoes.

Plasmodium falciparum pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine development

February 10, 2020 - 16:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jessica Molina-Franky, Laura Cuy-Chaparro, Anny Camargo, César Reyes, Marcela Gómez, David Ricardo Salamanca, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo and Manuel Elkin Patarroyo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:56, 3 February 2020

Worldwide strategies between 2010 and 2017 aimed at controlling malarial parasites (mainly Plasmodium falciparum) led to a reduction of just 18% regarding disease incidence rates. Many biologically-derived anti-malarial vaccine candidates have been developed to date; this has involved using many experimental animals, an immense amount of work and the investment of millions of dollars.

Updates on malaria incidence and profile in Malaysia from 2013 to 2017

February 10, 2020 - 15:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Narwani Hussin, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Pik Pin Goh, Timothy William, Jenarun Jelip and Rose Nani Mudin
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:55, 31 January 2020

To date, most of the recent publications on malaria in Malaysia were conducted in Sabah, East Malaysia focusing on the emergence of Plasmodium knowlesi. This analysis aims to describe the incidence, mortality and case fatality rate of malaria caused by all Plasmodium species between Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak) over a 5-year period (2013–2017).

The extended recovery ring-stage survival assay provides a superior association with patient clearance half-life and increases throughput

February 10, 2020 - 15:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sage Z. Davis, Puspendra P. Singh, Michael T. Ferdig, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:54, 31 January 2020

Tracking and understanding artemisinin resistance is key for preventing global setbacks in malaria eradication efforts. The ring-stage survival assay (RSA) is the current gold standard for in vitro artemisinin resistance phenotyping. However, the RSA has several drawbacks: it is relatively low throughput, has high variance due to microscopy readout, and correlates poorly with the current benchmark for in vivo resistance, patient clearance half-life post-artemisinin treatment. Here a modified RSA is presented, the extended Recovery Ring-stage Survival Assay (eRRSA), using 15 cloned patient isolates from Southeast Asia with a range of patient clearance half-lives, including parasite isolates with and without kelch13 mutations.

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