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Scientific Articles

Prevalence and associated factors of malaria in children under the age of five years in Wogera district, northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

October 16, 2021 - 13:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tsegaye AT, Ayele A, Birhanu S
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Oct 11;16(10):e0257944

Malaria is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, and children are especially vulnerable. In 2019, an estimated 409,000 people died of malaria, most (274,000) were young children and 94% of the cases and deaths were in Africa. Prior studies in Ethiopia focused on the adult population and high transmission areas. Hence, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of malaria in children under five years in low transmission areas.

Controlled human malaria infection with a clone of Plasmodium vivax with high quality genome assembly

October 16, 2021 - 12:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Minassian AM, Themistocleous Y, Draper SJ, et al.
Reference: 
JCI Insight. 2021 Oct 5:e152465

Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) provides a highly informative means to investigate host-pathogen interactions and enable in vivo proof-of-concept efficacy testing of new drugs and vaccines. However, unlike Plasmodium falciparum, well-characterized P. vivax parasites that are safe and suitable for use in modern CHMI models are limited. Here, two healthy malaria-naïve UK adults with universal donor blood group were safely infected with a clone of P. vivax from Thailand by mosquito-bite CHMI. Parasitemia developed in both volunteers and, prior to treatment, each volunteer donated blood to produce a cryopreserved stabilate of infected red blood cells.

Larval ecology and bionomics of Anopheles funestus in highland and lowland sites in western Kenya

October 16, 2021 - 12:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Debrah I, Afrane YA, Yan G, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Oct 11;16(10):e0255321

An. funestus is a major Afrotropical vector of human malaria. This study sought to investigate the larval ecology, sporozoite infection rates and blood meal sources of An. funestus in western Kenya.

Preclinical development of a Pfs230-Pfs48/45 chimeric malaria transmission-blocking vaccine

October 16, 2021 - 12:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Singh SK, Plieskatt J, Theisen M, et al.
Reference: 
NPJ Vaccines. 2021 Oct 12;6(1):120

The Plasmodium falciparum Pfs230 and Pfs48/45 proteins are leading candidates for a malaria transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV). Previously, we showed that a Pfs230-Pfs48/45 fusion protein elicits higher levels of functional antibodies than the individual antigens, but low yields hampered progression to clinical evaluation. Here we identified a modified construct (ProC6C) with a circumsporozoite protein (CSP) repeat-linker sequence that enhances expression.

NOT Open Access | Ultraviolet/Visible and Near-Infrared Dual Spectroscopic Method for Detection and Quantification of Low-Level Malaria Parasitemia in Whole Blood

October 16, 2021 - 12:20 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Adegoke JA, De Paoli A, Afara IO, Kochan K, Creek DJ, Heraud P, Wood BR
Reference: 
Anal Chem. 2021 Oct 5;93(39):13302-13310

The scourge of malaria infection continues to strike hardest against pregnant women and children in Africa and South East Asia. For global elimination, testing methods that are ultrasensitive to low-level ring-staged parasitemia are urgently required. In this study, we used a novel approach for diagnosis of malaria infection by combining both electronic ultraviolet-visible (UV/vis) spectroscopy and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to detect and quantify low-level (1-0.000001%) ring-staged malaria-infected whole blood under physiological conditions uisng Multiclass classification using logistic regression, which showed that the best results were achieved using the extended wavelength range, providing an accuracy of 100% for most parasitemia classes.

Modular synthesis of antimalarial quinoline-based PGM metallarectangles

October 16, 2021 - 12:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Golding TM, Mbaba M, Smith GS
Reference: 
Dalton Trans. 2021 Oct 11

A new ditopic, quinoline-based ligand L (7-chloro-4-(pyridin-4-yl)quinoline) was synthesized via a Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. The ligand was utilized to synthesize the corresponding half-sandwich iridium(III) and ruthenium(II) binuclear complexes (1c and 1d) and the subsequent metallarectangles (2c, 2d, 3c, and 3d), via [2 + 2] coordination-driven self-assembly. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirmed the proposed molecular structure of the binuclear complex [{IrCl2(Cp*)}2(μ-L)] (1c) and DFT calculations were used to predict the optimized geometry of the rectangular nature of [{Ir(μ-Cl)(Cp*)}4(μ-L)2](CF3SO3)4 (2c).

Relative Burdens of the COVID-19, Malaria, Tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS Epidemics in Sub-Saharan Africa

October 16, 2021 - 12:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bell D, Schultz Hansen K
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Oct 11:tpmd210899

COVID-19 has had considerable global impact; however, in sub-Saharan Africa, it is one of several infectious disease priorities. Prioritization is normally guided by disease burden, but the highly age-dependent nature of COVID-19 and that of other infectious diseases make comparisons challenging unless considered through metrics that incorporate life-years lost and time lived with adverse health.

Spatio-temporal analysis and prediction of malaria cases using remote sensing meteorological data in Diebougou health district, Burkina Faso, 2016-2017

October 16, 2021 - 11:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bationo CS, Gaudart J, Moiroux N, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Oct 8;11(1):20027

Malaria control and prevention programs are more efficient and cost-effective when they target hotspots or select the best periods of year to implement interventions. This study aimed to identify the spatial distribution of malaria hotspots at the village level in Diébougou health district, Burkina Faso, and to model the temporal dynamics of malaria cases as a function of meteorological conditions and of the distance between villages and health centres (HCs). Case data for 27 villages were collected in 13 HCs. Meteorological data were obtained through remote sensing.

Not Open Access | Molecular surveillance of malaria scales up

October 16, 2021 - 11:39 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Schwabl P, Neafsey DE
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 5:S1471-4922(21)00235-X

Parasite and vector genetic data can guide malaria control, and technological advances are enabling more informative genetic data generation at unprecedented scales.

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