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Scientific Articles

Use of Insecticides in Agriculture and the Prevention of Vector-Borne Diseases: Population Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Beliefs in Elibou, South Côte d'Ivoire

March 9, 2020 - 14:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
N'Dri BP, Heitz-Tokpa K, Chouaïbou M, Raso G, Koffi AJ, Coulibaly JT, Yapi RB, Müller P, Utzinger J
Reference: 
Trop Med Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 1; 5(1). pii: E36

People’s knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs (KAPB) pertaining to malaria are generally well described. However, little is known about population knowledge and awareness of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. The aim of this study was to investigate KAPB related to insecticide resistance in malaria vectors due to the use of insecticides in agriculture and the prevention against mosquitoes. In mid-2017, we carried out a cross-sectional survey in Elibou, South Côte d’Ivoire, employing a mixed methods approach.

Molecular characterization of Plasmodium falciparum antifolate resistance markers in Thailand between 2008 and 2016

March 9, 2020 - 14:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rungniran Sugaram, Kanokon Suwannasin, Chanon Kunasol, Vivek Bhakta Mathema, Nicholas P. J. Day, Prayuth Sudathip, Preecha Prempree, Arjen M. Dondorp and Mallika Imwong
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:107, 4 March 2020

Resistance to anti-malarials is a major threat to the control and elimination of malaria. Sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) anti-malarial treatment was used as a national policy for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Thailand from 1973 to 1990. In order to determine whether withdrawal of this antifolate drug has led to restoration of SP sensitivity, the prevalence of genetic markers of SP resistance was assessed in historical Thai samples.

Costs of insecticide-treated bed net distribution systems in sub-Saharan Africa

March 9, 2020 - 14:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sara S. Scates, Timothy P. Finn, Janna Wisniewski, David Dadi, Renata Mandike, Mwinyi Khamis, George Greer, Naomi Serbantez, Sylvester Segbaya, Prince Owusu, Jules Mihigo, Lilia Gerberg, Angela Acosta, Hannah Koenker and Joshua Yukich
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:105, 4 March 2020

Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are one of the most cost-effective measures for preventing malaria. The World Health Organization recommends both large-scale mass distribution campaigns and continuous distributions (CD) as part of a multifaceted strategy to achieve and sustain universal access to ITNs. A combination of these strategies has been effective for scaling up ITN access. For policy makers to make informed decisions on how to efficiently implement CD or combined strategies, information on the costs and cost-effectiveness of these delivery systems is necessary, but relatively few published studies of the cost continuous distribution systems exist.

From malaria control to elimination within a decade: lessons learned from Timor Leste, a newly independent country

March 9, 2020 - 14:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
A. M. G. Manel Yapabandara, Maria do Rosario de Fatima Mota, Raul Sarmento, Johanes don Bosco and Rajitha Wickremasinghe
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:104, 4 March 2020

Timor Leste has made remarkable progress from malaria control to malaria elimination in a span of 10 years during which organized malaria control efforts were instituted. The good practices and possible factors that have contributed to the remarkable transition from malaria control to elimination in a newly independent country devastated by civil unrest which left the entire administrative structure including the health sector in a disrupted non-functional state are highlighted.

Impact of seasonal malaria chemoprevention on hospital admissions and mortality in children under 5 years of age in Ouelessebougou, Mali

March 9, 2020 - 13:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Djibrilla Issiaka, Amadou Barry, Tiangoua Traore, Boubacar Diarra, David Cook, Mohamed Keita, Issaka Sagara, Patrick Duffy, Michal Fried and Alassane Dicko
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:103, 3 March 2020

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention is widely implemented in Sahel and sub-Sahel countries in Africa. Few studies have assessed the impact of the SMC on hospital admission and death when it is implemented in the health system. This retrospective study assessed the impact of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) on hospitalizations and deaths of children under 5 years of age during the second year of implementation of SMC in the health district of Ouelessebougou in Mali.

Applied mathematical modelling to inform national malaria policies, strategies and operations in Tanzania

March 9, 2020 - 13:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Manuela Runge, Fabrizio Molteni, Renata Mandike, Robert W. Snow, Christian Lengeler, Ally Mohamed and Emilie Pothin
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:101, 2 March 2020

More than ever, it is crucial to make the best use of existing country data, and analytical tools for developing malaria control strategies as the heterogeneity in malaria risk within countries is increasing, and the available malaria control tools are expanding while large funding gaps exist. Global and local policymakers, as well as funders, increasingly recognize the value of mathematical modelling as a strategic tool to support decision making. This case study article describes the long-term use of modelling in close collaboration with the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) in Tanzania, the challenges encountered and lessons learned.

Coverage and effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) on adverse pregnancy outcomes in the Mount Cameroon area, South West Cameroon

March 9, 2020 - 13:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Judith K. Anchang-Kimbi, Laken N. Kalaji, Harry F. Mbacham, Godlove B. Wepnje, Tobias O. Apinjoh, Irene U. Ngole Sumbele, Jodie Dionne-Odom, Alan T. N. Tita and Eric A. Achidi
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:100, 2 March 2020

Growing concerns about the waning efficacy of IPTp-SP warrants continuous monitoring and evaluation. This study determined coverage of IPTp-SP and compared the effectiveness of the 3-dose to 2-dose regimen on placental malaria (PM) infection and low birth weight (LBW) in the Mount Cameroon area.

First evidence of the deletion in the pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes in Plasmodium falciparum from Equatorial Guinea

March 9, 2020 - 13:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pedro Berzosa, Vicenta González, Laura Taravillo, Alfredo Mayor, María Romay-Barja, Luz García, Policarpo Ncogo, Matilde Riloha and Agustín Benito
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:99, 2 March 2020

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) as a good alternative malaria-diagnosis method in remote parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of commercial RDTs currently available detect the Plasmodium falciparum protein histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2). There have also been recent reports of pfhrp2 gene deletions being found in parasites collected from several African countries. The WHO has concluded that lacking the pfhrp2 gene must be monitored in Africa. The purpose of the study was to analyse why the samples that were positive by PCR were negative by RDTs and, therefore, to determine whether there have been deletions in the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes.

Plasmodium vivax Malaria Viewed through the Lens of an Eradicated European Strain

March 9, 2020 - 13:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
van Dorp L, Gelabert P, Rieux A, de Manuel M, de-Dios T, Gopalakrishnan S, Carøe C, Sandoval-Velasco M, Fregel R, Olalde I, Escosa R, Aranda C, Huijben S, Mueller I, Marquès-Bonet T, Balloux F, Gilbert MTP, Lalueza-Fox C
Reference: 
Molecular Biology and Evolution, Volume 37, Issue 3, March 2020, Pages 773–785

The protozoan Plasmodium vivax is responsible for 42% of all cases of malaria outside Africa. The parasite is currently largely restricted to tropical and subtropical latitudes in Asia, Oceania, and the Americas. Though, it was historically present in most of Europe before being finally eradicated during the second half of the 20th century.

NOT Open Access | A Novel Antiparasitic Compound Kills Ring-Stage Plasmodium falciparum and Retains Activity Against Artemisinin-Resistant Parasites

March 9, 2020 - 13:41 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Clements RL, Streva V, Dumoulin P, Huang W, Owens E, Raj DK, Burleigh B, Llinás M, Winzeler EA, Zhang Q, Dvorin JD
Reference: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 221, Issue 6, 15 March 2020, Pages 956–962

Spreading antimalarial resistance threatens effective treatment of malaria, an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. We identified a compound, BCH070, that inhibits asexual growth of multiple antimalarial-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 1–2 µM), suggesting that BCH070 acts via a novel mechanism of action.

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