Together, these results contribute substantially toward the understanding of malaria parasite-recognition mechanisms. More importantly, our finding that proteins and carbohydrate polymers are able to confer stimulatory activity to an otherwise inactive parasite DNA have important implications for the development of a vaccine against malaria.
In Madagascar, P. vivax has broken through its dependence on the Duffy antigen for establishing human blood-stage infection and disease. Further studies are necessary to identify the parasite and host molecules that enable this Duffy-independent P. vivax invasion of human erythrocytes.
We show that PF10_0164 is expressed in sporozoites and blood stages of P. falciparum, where it localizes to the parasitophorous vacuole, and is also exported to the host erythrocyte.
Population genetic tests have been employed to detect natural selection at suspected An. gambiae anti-malaria genes, but these tests have generally been compromised by the lack of demographically correct null models. Here, we used a coalescent simulation approach within a maximum likelihood framework to fit population growth, bottleneck and migration models to polymorphism data from Cameroonian An. gambiae.
In this colorful Chinese poster, dating from the period of the Cultural Revolution, we see a young peasant woman spraying insecticide to kill mosquitoes.
Artemisinin combination therapies are the first-line treatments for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in most malaria-endemic countries. Recently, partial artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum malaria has emerged on the Cambodia–Thailand border.
These results have significant implications in understanding the nature of P. vivax population circulating in Myanmar as well as providing useful information for malaria vaccine development based on this antigen.
To gain insight into early parasite stress response, mRNA expression profiles were determined for a set of 10 antioxidant defence genes in synchronized CQ-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (Dd2) clones under transient IC50 CQ-exposure (Dd2, 200 nM; 3D7, 14 nM).
The objective of this study was to collate data on the relative frequencies of species and forms within the An. gambiae complex and to produce a map of their spatial distribution.
These findings suggest that along the Kenyan coast, seasonality and site specific ecological factors can alter the genetic structure of A. gambiae s.s. populations.