Symptomatic malaria is predominantly a disease of childhood in areas of higher transmission (i.e. much of sub-Saharan Africa). Most cases of severe malaria occur in children less than 5 years of age. In these regions both malaria and sepsis are major causes of childhood death, yet the clinical distinction between the two is difficult, particularly if there is no obvious focus of infection. Furthermore, severe malaria predisposes to bacterial infections, particularly with Salmonella sp, so a very sick child may have both.
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The long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) are major malaria vector control strategies in Mali. The success of control strategies depends on a better understanding of the status of malaria vectors with respect to the insecticides used. In this study we evaluate the level of resistance of Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato) to bendiocarb and the molecular mechanism that underlies it.
Sugar-feeding provides energy for mosquitoes. Facilitated glucose transporters (GLUTs) are responsible for the uptake of glucose in animals. However, knowledge of GLUTs function in Anopheles spp. is limited.
The Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter gene (pfcrt) is known to be involved in chloroquine and amodiaquine resistance, and more particularly the mutations on the loci 72 to 76 localized within the second exon. Additionally, new mutations (T93S, H97Y, C101F, F145I, M343L, C350R and G353V) were recently shown to be associated with in vitro reduced susceptibility to piperaquine in Asian or South American P. falciparum strains. However, very few data are available on the prevalence of these mutations and their effect on parasite susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs, and more particularly piperaquine in Africa.
Red blood cell (RBC) polymorphisms are suggested to influence the course of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Whereas some variants have been found to be protective, others have been found to enhance parasite development. This study evaluated the effect of variant haemoglobin (Hb) and ABO blood groups on P. falciparum merozoite invasion, multiplication rates as well as gametocyte development.
Most field entomology research projects require active participation by local community members. Since 2012, Target Malaria, a not-for-profit research consortium, has been working with residents in the village of Bana, in Western Burkina Faso, in various studies involving mosquito collections, releases and recaptures. The long-term goal of this work is to develop innovative solutions to combat malaria in Africa with the help of mosquito modification technologies. Since the start of the project, Bana residents have played an important role in research activities, yet the motivations and expectations that drive their participation remain under-investigated. This study examines the factors that motivate some members of the local community to contribute to the implementation of Target Malaria’s activities, and, more broadly, explores the reasons that animate citizen participation in entomological research work in malaria-endemic regions.
In the past decade, national malaria control efforts in Papua New Guinea (PNG) have received renewed support, facilitating nationwide distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), as well as improvements in access to parasite-confirmed diagnosis and effective artemisinin-combination therapy in 2011–2012.
The European region achieved interruption of malaria transmission during the 1970s. Since then, malaria control programs were replaced by surveillance systems in order to prevent possible re-emergence of this disease. Sporadic cases of non-imported malaria were recorded in several European countries in the past decade and locally transmitted outbreaks of Plasmodium vivax, most probably supported by Anopheles sacharovi, have been repeatedly reported from Greece since 2009. The possibility of locally-transmitted malaria has been extensively studied in Italy where the former malaria vector An. labranchiae survived the control campaign which led to malaria elimination. In this study, we present paradigmatic cases that occurred during a 2017 unusual cluster, which caused strong concern in public opinion and were carefully investigated after the implementation of the updated malaria surveillance system.