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Scientific Articles

Not Open Access | Optimizing iron supplementation for children with severe malaria

March 10, 2020 - 16:26 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Suchdev PS, Trehan I
Reference: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, nqaa041

The safe and efficacious provision of iron supplementation in areas of high infectious disease burden is a critical and sometimes controversial global health issue. Iron deficiency anemia remains the leading cause of years lived with disability in much of sub-Saharan Africa, so improvements in anemia control programs are needed, including ensuring that iron supplementation is safely and optimally administered in settings of high infection burden.

NOT Open Acceess | Clonocoprogens A, B and C, new antimalarial coprogens from the Okinawan fungus Clonostachys compactiuscula FKR-0021

March 10, 2020 - 16:24 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ouchi T, Watanabe Y, Ōmura S, et al.
Reference: 
J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2020 Mar 6

Three new antimalarial compounds, clonocoprogens A, B, and C, were isolated from the static culture of an Okinawan fungus, Clonostachys compactiuscula FKR-0021.

NOT Open Access | Functional homo- and heterodimeric actin capping proteins from the malaria parasite

March 10, 2020 - 16:23 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bendes ÁÁ, Chatterjee M, Götte B, Kursula P, Kursula I
Reference: 
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2020 Mar 2. pii: S0006-291X(20)30400-9

Actin capping proteins belong to the core set of proteins minimally required for actin-based motility and are present in virtually all eukaryotic cells. They bind to the fast-growing barbed end of an actin filament, preventing addition and loss of monomers, thus restricting growth to the slow-growing pointed end.

Screening the Medicines for Malaria Venture Pathogen Box for invasion and egress inhibitors of the blood stage of Plasmodium falciparum reveals several inhibitory compounds

March 10, 2020 - 16:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dans MG, Weiss GE, Wilson DW, Sleebs BE, Crabb BS, de Koning-Ward TF, Gilson PR
Reference: 
Int J Parasitol. 2020 Mar 2. pii: S0020-7519(20)30033-3

With emerging resistance to frontline treatments, it is vital that new drugs are identified to target Plasmodium falciparum. One of the most critical processes during the parasites’ asexual lifecycle is the invasion and subsequent egress of red blood cells (RBCs). Many unique parasite ligands, receptors and enzymes are employed during egress and invasion that are essential for parasite proliferation and survival, therefore making these processes druggable targets.

Factors affecting the electrocardiographic QT interval in malaria: A systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data

March 10, 2020 - 16:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chan XHS, Win YN, White NJ, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Mar 5;17(3):e1003040

Electrocardiographic QT interval prolongation is the most widely used risk marker for ventricular arrhythmia potential and thus an important component of drug cardiotoxicity assessments. Several antimalarial medicines are associated with QT interval prolongation. However, interpretation of electrocardiographic changes is confounded by the coincidence of peak antimalarial drug concentrations with recovery from malaria. We therefore reviewed all available data to characterise the effects of malaria disease and demographic factors on the QT interval in order to improve assessment of electrocardiographic changes in the treatment and prevention of malaria.

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma - an aggressive childhood cancer linked to Plasmodium falciparum exposure, but not to exposure to other malaria parasites

March 10, 2020 - 16:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Quintana MDP, Smith-Togobo C, Moormann A, Hviid L
Reference: 
APMIS. 2020 Mar 4. doi: 10.1111/apm.13018

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive non‐Hodgkin lymphoma. The prevalence of BL is ten‐fold higher in areas with stable transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, where it is the most common childhood cancer, and is referred to as endemic BL (eBL). In addition to its association with exposure to P. falciparum infection, eBL is strongly associated with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection (>90%).

Triple hit against Plasmodium

March 10, 2020 - 16:14 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Hofer U
Reference: 
Nat Rev Microbiol. 2020 Mar 4

With rising rates of antimalarial drug resistance, new compounds with novel targets and mechanisms of action are urgently needed. Screening a library of aspartic protease inhibitors has now identified compounds that target two essential proteases of Plasmodium falciparum: plasmepsin IX and X. Further in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that the inhibitors block liver, blood and mosquito stages of Plasmodium spp.

Possible influence of Plasmodium/Trypanosoma co-infections on the vectorial capacity of Anopheles mosquitoes

March 10, 2020 - 16:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fofana M, Mitri C, Diallo D, Rotureau B, Diagne CT, Gaye A, Ba Y, Dieme C, Diallo M, Dia I
Reference: 
BMC Res Notes. 2020 Mar 4;13(1):127

In tropical Africa, trypanosomiasis is present in endemic areas with many other diseases including malaria. Because malaria vectors become more anthropo-zoophilic under the current insecticide pressure, they may be exposed to trypanosome parasites. By collecting mosquitoes in six study sites with distinct malaria infection prevalence and blood sample from cattle, we tried to assess the influence of malaria-trypanosomiasis co-endemicity on the vectorial capacity of Anopheles.

The fidelity of implementation of recommended care for children with malaria by community health workers in Nigeria

March 10, 2020 - 16:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Adeoti O, Spiegelman D, Afonne C, Falade CO, Jegede AS, Oshiname FO, Gomes M, Ajayi IO
Reference: 
Implement Sci. 2020 Mar 4;15(1):13

In the context of task shifting, a promoted approach to healthcare delivery in resource-poor settings, trained community health workers (CHWs) have been shown to be effective in delivering quality care of malaria for febrile under-5 children. While their effectiveness has been documented, the fidelity of implementation (FOI) has not been adequately studied. By understanding and measuring whether an intervention has been performed with fidelity, researchers and practitioners gain a better understanding of how and why an intervention works, and the extent to which outcomes can be improved. The objective of this study was to assess the FOI of a recommended protocol for malaria care by CHWs in a resource-poor setting in Nigeria.

Variation of prevalence of malaria, parasite density and the multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infection throughout the year at three different health centers in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo

March 10, 2020 - 16:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mayengue PI, Kouhounina Batsimba D, Niama RF, Ibara Ottia R, Malonga-Massanga A, Fila-Fila GPU, Ahombo G, Kobawila SC, Parra HJ
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 4;20(1):190

In the Republic of Congo, hot temperature and seasons distortions observed may impact the development of malaria parasites. We investigate the variation of malaria cases, parasite density and the multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infection throughout the year in Brazzaville.

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