The South Pacific countries Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Papua New Guinea (PNG) adopted artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in 2008.
Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites, which invade and replicate in erythrocytes.
Malaria transmission varies in intensity amongst Solomon Island villages where Anopheles farauti is the only vector. This variation in transmission intensity might be explained by density-dependent processes during An. farauti larval development, as density dependence can impact adult size with associated fitness costs and daily survivorship.
Recent reductions in malaria burden have been attributed largely to long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). In March–June 2017, approximately 3 years after a national LLIN distribution campaign, a cross-sectional community survey was conducted to investigate factors associated with malaria parasitaemia and anaemia, in advance of Uganda’s 2017–2018 LLIN campaign.
Routine surveillance on the therapeutic efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been ongoing in Ghana since 2005. The sixth round of surveillance was conducted between 2015 and 2017 to determine the therapeutic efficacy of artesunate–amodiaquine (AS–AQ) and artemether–lumefantrine (AL) in 10 sentinel sites across the country.
Heterogeneity in the immune response to parasite infection is mediated in part by differences in host genetics, gender, and age group. In infants and young children, ongoing immunological maturation often results in increased susceptibility to infection and variable responses to drug treatment, increasing the risk of complications. Even though significant age-associated effects on host cytokine responses to Plasmodium falciparum infection have been identified, age-associated effects on uncomplicated malaria infection and anti-malarial treatment remain poorly understood.
As malaria elimination becomes a goal in malaria-endemic nations, questions of feasibility become critical. This article explores the potential challenges associated with this goal and future strategies for malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Sub-region.
Malaria remains an important public health problem in Latin America, and the development of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors poses a major threat to malaria elimination efforts. Monitoring of insecticide susceptibility and the determination of the mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance are needed to effectively guide the deployment of appropriate vector control measures. Here, molecular assays have been developed to screen for mutations associated with insecticide resistance on the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) and acetylcholinesterase-1 (Ace-1) genes in four malaria vectors from Latin America.
The challenge in anti-malarial chemotherapy is based on the emergence of resistance to drugs and the search for medicines against all stages of the life cycle of Plasmodium spp. as a therapeutic target. Nowadays, many molecules with anti-malarial activity are reported. However, few studies about the cellular and molecular mechanisms to understand their mode of action have been explored. Recently, new primaquine-based hybrids as new molecules with potential multi-acting anti-malarial activity were reported and two hybrids of primaquine linked to quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide (PQ–QdNO) were identified as the most active against erythrocytic, exoerythrocytic and sporogonic stages.
Two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility, analyzed risk of bias, and extracted data. We used risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We stratified by type of insecticide: ‘non‐pyrethroid‐like', as this could improve malaria control better than adding IRS insecticides that have the same way of working as the insecticide on ITNs (‘pyrethroid‐like'). We used subgroup analysis of ITN usage in the trials to explore heterogeneity. We assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach.