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Scientific Articles

NOT Open Access | Associations between aminoquinoline resistance genotypes and clinical presentations of Plasmodium falciparum infection in Uganda

July 14, 2020 - 15:58 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Cuu G, Asua V, Tukwasibwe S, Nsobya S, Mpimbaza A, Rosenthal PJ
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Jul 13:AAC.00721-20

Mutations that mediate resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to aminoquinoline antimalarials are selected by prior drug use and may alter parasite fitness, but associations with clinical presentations are uncertain. We evaluated genotypes in samples from a case control study of determinants of severe malaria in Ugandan children 4 months to 10 years of age. We studied 274 cases with severe malaria matched by age and geography to 275 uncomplicated malaria controls and 179 asymptomatic parasitemic controls.

Safety, pharmacokinetics, and activity of high-dose ivermectin and chloroquine against the liver-stage of Plasmodium cynomolgi infection in Rhesus Macaques

July 14, 2020 - 15:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Vanachayangkul P, Im-Erbsin R, Kobylinski KC, et al.
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Jul 13:AAC.00741-20

Previously, ivermectin (1-10 mg/kg) was shown to inhibit liver-stage development of Plasmodium berghei in orally dosed mice. Here, ivermectin showed inhibition of the in vitro development of Plasmodium cynomolgi schizonts (IC50 = 10.42 μM) and hypnozoites (IC50 = 29.24 μM) in primary macaque hepatocytes when administered in high-dose prophylactically but not when administered in radical cure mode.

The age-specific incidence of hospitalized paediatric malaria in Uganda

July 14, 2020 - 15:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mpimbaza A, Walemwa R, Snow RW, et al.
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 13; 20(1):503

Understanding the relationship between malaria infection risk and disease outcomes represents a fundamental component of morbidity and mortality burden estimations. Contemporary data on severe malaria risks among populations of different parasite exposures are scarce. Using surveillance data, we compared rates of paediatric malaria hospitalisation in areas of varying parasite exposure levels.

Systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy of Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) methods compared to microscopy, PCR, and rapid diagnostic tests, for malaria diagnosis

July 14, 2020 - 15:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Picot S, Cucherat M, Bienvenu AL
Reference: 
Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 10:S1201-9712(20)30551-8

Diagnosis is a challenging issue in the way to malaria elimination. LAMP could be an alternative to conventional methods. Then, it is of interest to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of LAMP for malaria compared to microscopy, PCR, and RDTs.

NOT Open Access | Oral manifestations related to malaria: a systematic review

July 14, 2020 - 15:48 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Shuai Y, Liu B, Zhou G, Rong L, Niu C, Jin L
Reference: 
Oral Dis. 2020 Jul 13

To generalize the oral manifestations related to malaria and discuss their clinical significance for health professionals.

Advances and Roadblocks in the Treatment of Malaria

July 14, 2020 - 15:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hanboonkunupakarn B, White NJ
Reference: 
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2020 Jul 12

The deployment of artesunate for severe malaria and the artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for uncomplicated malaria has been a major advance in antimalarial therapeutics. These drugs have reduced treated mortality, accelerated recovery, and reduced treatment failure rates and transmission from the treated infection. Artemisinin derivatives remain highly effective against falciparum malaria in most malaria endemic areas but significant resistance has emerged in the Greater Mekong subregion of Southeast Asia.

NOT Open Access | Identification of compounds active against quiescent artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites via the quiescent-stage survival assay (QSA)

July 14, 2020 - 15:42 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Reyser T, Paloque L, Ouji M, Nguyen M, Ménard S, Witkowski B, Augereau JM, Benoit-Vical F
Reference: 
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2020 Jul 12:dkaa250

Quiescence is an unconventional mechanism of Plasmodium survival, mediating artemisinin resistance. This phenomenon increases the risk of clinical failures following artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) by slowing parasite clearance and allowing the selection of parasites resistant to partner drugs.

NOT Open Access | Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Plasmodium-infected and Non-infected Red Blood Cells as Targeted Drug Delivery Vehicles

July 14, 2020 - 15:36 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Borgheti-Cardoso LN, Kooijmans SAA, Fernàndez-Busquets X, et al.
Reference: 
Int J Pharm. 2020 Jul 9:119627

Among several factors behind drug resistance evolution in malaria is the challenge of administering overall doses that are not toxic for the patient but that, locally, are sufficiently high to rapidly kill the parasites. Thus, a crucial antimalarial strategy is the development of drug delivery systems capable of targeting antimalarial compounds to Plasmodium with high specificity.

High multiple mutations of Plasmodium falciparum-resistant genotypes to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Lagos, Nigeria

July 14, 2020 - 15:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Quan H, Igbasi U, Oyibo W, Omilabu S, Chen SB, Shen HM, Okolie C, Chen JH, Zhou XN
Reference: 
Infect Dis Poverty. 2020 Jul 11; 9(1):91

Plasmodium falciparum-resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has been largely reported among pregnant women. However, the profile of resistance markers to SP dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) in the general population are varied and not frequently monitored. Currently, SP is used as partner drug for artemisinin combination therapy (SP-artesunate) in some sub-Saharan African countries or as a prophylactic drug in intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy and infants and in seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC). Profiling of P. falciparum-resistant genotypes to SP is dynamic and critical in providing data that would be useful for malaria control programmes. This study assessed the profile of dhfr and dhps genes genotypes among individuals with malaria in Lagos, Nigeria.

What will studies of Fulani individuals naturally exposed to malaria teach us about protective immunity to malaria

July 14, 2020 - 09:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Troye-Blomberg M, Arama C, Quin J, Bujila I, Östlund Farrants AK
Reference: 
Scand J Immunol. 2020 Jul 11:e12932

There are an estimated over 200 million yearly cases of malaria worldwide. Despite concerted international effort to combat the disease, it still causes approximately half a million deaths every year, the majority of which are young children with Plasmodium falciparum infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Successes are largely attributed to malaria prevention strategies, such as insecticide treated mosquito nets and indoor spraying, as well as improved access to existing treatments.

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