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Scientific Articles

NOT Open Access | Distribution and temporal dynamics of P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter mutations associated with piperaquine resistance in Northern Cambodia

February 3, 2021 - 15:27 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Shrestha B, Shah Z, Takala-Harrison S, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 2:jiab055

Newly emerged mutations within the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) can confer piperaquine resistance in the absence of amplified plasmepsin II (pfpm2). In this study, we estimated the prevalence of co-circulating piperaquine resistance mutations in P. falciparum isolates collected in northern Cambodia from 2009-2017.

Events associated with susceptibility to invasive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in BALB/c mice previously infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA

February 3, 2021 - 15:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Moreira YC, Jordão M, Nogueira PA, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Feb 1;11(1):2730

Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain why patients with malaria are more susceptible to bloodstream invasions by Salmonella spp., however there are still several unknown critical factors regarding the pathogenesis of coinfection. From a coinfection model, in which an S. enterica serovar Typhi (S_Typhi) was chosen to challenge mice that had been infected 24 h earlier with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (P.b_ANKA), we evaluated the influence of malaria on cytokine levels, the functional activity of femoral bone marrow-derived macrophages and neutrophils, and intestinal permeability.

Extrafollicular CD4 T cell-derived IL-10 functions rapidly and transiently to support anti-Plasmodium humoral immunity

February 3, 2021 - 15:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Surette FA, Guthmiller JJ, Butler NS, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog. 2021 Feb 2;17(2):e1009288

Immunity against malaria depends on germinal center (GC)-derived antibody responses that are orchestrated by T follicular helper (TFH) cells. Emerging data show that the regulatory cytokine IL-10 plays an essential role in promoting GC B cell responses during both experimental malaria and virus infections. Here we investigated the cellular source and temporal role of IL-10, and whether IL-10 additionally signals to CD4 T-cells to support anti-Plasmodium humoral immunity. Distinct from reports of virus infection, we found that IL-10 expressed by conventional, Foxp3-negative effector CD4 T cells and functioned in a B cell-intrinsic manner only during the first 96 hours of Plasmodium infection to support humoral immunity.

Country size bias in global health: cross-country comparison of malaria policy and foreign aid

February 3, 2021 - 15:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jezek T
Reference: 
Glob Health Res Policy. 2021 Feb 3;6(1):4

Foreign aid has been shown to be favourably biased towards small countries. This study investigated whether country size bias also occurs in national malaria policy and development assistance from international agencies.

NOT Open Access | Biomarkers of disease severity in vivax malaria

February 3, 2021 - 15:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Aqeel S, Naheda A, Raza A, Khan W
Reference: 
Parasitol Res. 2021 Feb 3

Severe complications have been observed and established for Plasmodium falciparum as well as P. vivax infections worldwide. Although P. vivax infection is not fully acknowledged as malignant malaria, recently life-threatening complications have been reported to occur in many studies. The recognition of biomarkers with excellent sensitivity and reliability plays a prime role in disease management. Acute inflammatory response and oxidative stress are observed in malaria due to the production of reactive oxygen species.

NOT Open Access | Host-pathogen interaction in the tissue environment during Plasmodium blood-stage infection

February 3, 2021 - 15:11 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Yui K, Inoue SI
Reference: 
Parasite Immunol. 2021 Feb;43(2):e12763

Human malarial infection occurs after an infectious Anopheles mosquito bites. Following the initial liver-stage infection, parasites transform into merozoites, infecting red blood cells (RBCs). Repeated RBC infection then occurs during the blood-stage infection, while patients experience various malarial symptoms. Protective immune responses are elicited by this systemic infection, but excessive responses are sometimes harmful for hosts.

Hepatic safety of repeated treatment with pyronaridine‐artesunate versus artemether–lumefantrine in patients with uncomplicated malaria: a secondary analysis of the WANECAM 1 data from Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

February 3, 2021 - 15:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yves Daniel Compaoré, Issaka Zongo, Jean Bosco Ouédraogo, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:64, 29 January 2021

The use of pyronaridine-artesunate (PA) has been associated with scarce transaminitis in patients. This analysis aimed to evaluate the hepatic safety profile of repeated treatment with PA versus artemether–lumefantrine (AL) in patients with consecutive uncomplicated malaria episodes in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

NOT Open Access | The Multifaceted Role of Protein Phosphatase 1 in Plasmodium

February 3, 2021 - 15:05 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Khalife J, Fréville A, Gnangnon B, Pierrot C
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Feb;37(2):154-164

Protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) forms a wide range of Ser/Thr-specific phosphatase holoenzymes which contain one catalytic subunit (PP1c), present in all eukaryotic cells, associated with variable subunits known as regulatory proteins. It has recently been shown that regulators take a leading role in the organization and the control of PP1 functions.

NOT Open Access | Machine learning model for predicting malaria using clinical information

February 3, 2021 - 15:04 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Lee YW, Choi JW, Shin EH
Reference: 
Comput Biol Med. 2021 Feb;129:104151

Rapid diagnosing is crucial for controlling malaria. Various studies have aimed at developing machine learning models to diagnose malaria using blood smear images; however, this approach has many limitations. This study developed a machine learning model for malaria diagnosis using patient information.

NOT Open Access | A prospective mechanism and source of cholesterol uptake by Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes co-cultured with HepG2 cells

February 3, 2021 - 14:57 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Hayakawa EH, Kato H, Nardone GA, Usukura J
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2021 Feb;80:102179

Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) parasites still cause lethal infections worldwide, especially in Africa (https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/world-malaria-report-2019). During P. falciparum blood-stage infections in humans, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol levels in the blood become low. Because P. falciparum lacks a de novo cholesterol synthesis pathway, it must import cholesterol from the surrounding environment. However, the origin of the cholesterol and how it is taken up by the parasite across the multiple membranes that surround it is not fully understood.

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