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Scientific Articles

Asymptomatic malaria infections and Pfmdr1 mutations in an endemic area of Nigeria

July 1, 2019 - 16:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Titilope M. Dokunmu, Cynthia U. Adjekukor, Omolara F. Yakubu, Adetutu O. Bello, Jarat O. Adekoya, Olugbenga Akinola, Emmanuel O. Amoo and Abiodun H. Adebayo
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Malaria Journal 2019 18:218, 27 June 2019

Malaria eradication globally is yet to be achieved and transmission is sustained in many endemic countries. Plasmodium falciparum continues to develop resistance to currently available anti-malarial drugs, posing great problems for malaria elimination. This study evaluates the frequencies of asymptomatic infection and multidrug resistance-1 (mdr-1) gene mutations in parasite isolates, which form the basis for understanding persistently high incidence in South West, Nigeria.

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Genetic diversity and drug resistance surveillance of Plasmodium falciparum for malaria elimination: is there an ideal tool for resource-limited sub-Saharan Africa?

July 1, 2019 - 16:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tobias O. Apinjoh, Amed Ouattara, Vincent P. K. Titanji, Abdoulaye Djimde and Alfred Amambua-Ngwa
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:217, 26 June 2019

The intensification of malaria control interventions has resulted in its global decline, but it remains a significant public health burden especially in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA).

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding malaria control among the slash and burn cultivators in Rangamati Hill tracts of Bangladesh

July 1, 2019 - 16:01 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Avijit Saha, Malabika Sarker, Moktadir Kabir, Guangyu Lu and Olaf Müller
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:216, 25 June 2019

Slash and burn cultivators are a significant risk group for malaria in South-East Asia. As envisaged in the National Strategic Plan for Malaria Elimination, Bangladesh aims to achieve zero indigenous malaria transmission by 2030. For the national plan to move from malaria control to malaria elimination, targeting the population of slash and burn cultivators is of overriding importance.

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Improvement of an in vitro drug selection method for generating transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites

July 1, 2019 - 15:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Akira Soga, Takahiro Shirozu, Mami Ko-ketsu and Shinya Fukumoto
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:215, 25 June 2019

Reverse genetics approaches have become powerful tools to dissect the biology of malaria parasites. In a previous study, development of an in vitro drug selection method for generating transgenic parasite of Plasmodium berghei was reported. Using this method, two novel and independent selection markers using the P. berghei heat shock protein 70 promoter was previously established. While the approach permits the easy and flexible genetic manipulation of P. berghei, shortcomings include a low variety in promoter options to drive marker gene expression and increased complexity of the selection procedure. In this study, addressing these issues was attempted.

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Evaluating 18s-rRNA LAMP and selective whole genome amplification (sWGA) assay in detecting asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in blood donors

July 1, 2019 - 15:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Enoch Aninagyei, Stella Smith-Graham, Alex Boye, Alexander Egyir-Yawson and Desmond Omane Acheampong
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:214, 24 June 2019

Undesirable consequences of donor Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia on stored donor blood have been reported. Therefore, it is imperative that all prospective blood donors are screened for P. falciparum infections using sensitive techniques. In this study, the sensitivities of microscopy, rapid diagnostic test (RDT), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay and selective whole genome amplification (sWGA) technique in detecting P. falciparum infections in blood donors was assessed.

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Malaria infection promotes a selective expression of kinin receptors in murine liver

July 1, 2019 - 15:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Priscilla D. S. Ventura, Carolina P. F. Carvalho, Marcos L. Gazarini, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:213, 24 June 2019

Malaria represents a worldwide medical emergency affecting mainly poor areas. Plasmodium parasites during blood stages can release kinins to the extracellular space after internalization of host kininogen inside erythrocytes and these released peptides could represent an important mechanism in liver pathophysiology by activation of calcium signaling pathway in endothelial cells of vertebrate host. Receptors (B1 and B2) activated by kinins peptides are important elements for the control of haemodynamics in liver and its physiology. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the liver host responses (i.e. kinin receptors expression and localization) and the effect of ACE inhibition during malaria infection using a murine model.

A long-term follow-up study on otoacoustic emissions testing in paediatric patients with severe malaria in Gabon

July 1, 2019 - 15:36 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Elisa Reiterer, Simon Reider, Joachim Schmutzhard, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:212, 24 June 2019

In a previous study, severe and cerebral malaria have been connected with acute cochlear malfunction in children, demonstrated by a decrease of transitory evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) reproducibility. This study aims to determine whether cochlear malfunction persists for 4 years after recovery from severe malaria in a subset of the previous study’s collective. Follow-up TEOAEs were performed on site (CERMEL, Hôpital Albert Schweitzer, Lambaréné, Gabon) or at the participants’ homes; 33 out of 90 participants included in the initial investigation by Schmutzhard et al. could be retrieved and were re-examined, 31/33 could be included. Of the 57 missing participants, 51 could not be contacted, 1 had moved away, 4 refused to cooperate, and 1 had died.

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Epidemiological risk factors for clinical malaria infection in the highlands of Western Kenya

July 1, 2019 - 15:31 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Walters M. Essendi, Anne M. Vardo-Zalik, Eugenia Lo, Maxwell G. Machani, Guofa Zhou, Andrew K. Githeko, Guiyun Yan and Yaw A. Afrane
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:211, 24 June 2019

Understanding the complex heterogeneity of risk factors that can contribute to an increased risk of malaria at the individual and household level will enable more effective use of control measures. The objective of this study was to understand individual and household factors that influence clinical malaria infection among individuals in the highlands of Western Kenya.

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The first introduced malaria case reported from Sri Lanka after elimination: implications for preventing the re-introduction of malaria in recently eliminated countries

July 1, 2019 - 15:28 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Vissundara M. Karunasena, Manonath Marasinghe, Dewanee Ranaweera, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:210, 24 June 2019

There has been no local transmission of malaria in Sri Lanka for 6 years following elimination of the disease in 2012. Malaria vectors are prevalent in parts of the country, and imported malaria cases continue to be reported. The country is therefore at risk of malaria being re-established. The first case of introduced vivax malaria in the country is reported here, and the surveillance and response system that contained the further spread of this infection is described.

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Safety and tolerability of single low-dose primaquine in a low-intensity transmission area in South Africa: an open-label, randomized controlled trial

July 1, 2019 - 15:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jaishree Raman, Elizabeth Allen, Lesley Workman, Aaron Mabuza, Hendrik Swanepoel, Gillian Malatje, John Frean, Lubbe Wiesner and Karen I. Barnes
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:209, 24 June 2019

To reduce onward falciparum malaria transmission, the World Health Organization recommends adding single low-dose (SLD) primaquine to artemisinin-based combination treatment in low transmission areas. However, uptake of this recommendation has been relatively slow given concerns about whether individual risks justify potential community benefit. This study was undertaken to generate comprehensive local data on the risk–benefit profile of SLD primaquine deployment in a pre-elimination area in South Africa.

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