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Scientific Articles

Biomarkers to distinguish bacterial from viral pediatric clinical pneumonia in a malaria endemic setting

February 9, 2021 - 09:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gillette MA, Mani DR, Wirth DF, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 3:ciaa1843

Differential etiologies of pediatric acute febrile respiratory illness pose challenges for all populations globally but especially in malaria-endemic settings because the pathogens responsible overlap in clinical presentation and frequently occur together. Rapid identification of bacterial pneumonia with high quality diagnostic tools would enable appropriate, point of care antibiotic treatment. Current diagnostics are insufficient, and the discovery and development of new tools is needed. We report a unique biomarker signature identified in blood samples to accomplish this.

Predictors for the uptake of optimal doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy in Tanzania: further analysis of the data of the 2015–2016 Tanzania demographic and health survey and malaria indicat

February 8, 2021 - 10:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Vivian Mushi, Christopher H. Mbotwa, Abdallah Zacharia, Theresia Ambrose and Fabiola V. Moshi
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:75, 6 February 2021

In Tanzania, the uptake of optimal doses (≥ 3) of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria (IPTp-SP) during pregnancy has remained below the recommended target of 80%. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the predictors for the uptake of optimal IPTp-SP among pregnant women in Tanzania.

Evaluation of health system readiness and coverage of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) in Kambia district to inform national scale-up in Sierra Leone

February 8, 2021 - 10:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Maria Lahuerta, Roberta Sutton, Laura Steinhardt, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:74, 6 February 2021

Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is a proven strategy to protect infants against malaria. Sierra Leone is the first country to implement IPTi nationwide. IPTi implementation was evaluated in Kambia, one of two initial pilot districts, to assess quality and coverage of IPTi services.

Molecular surveillance of pfcrt, pfmdr1 and pfk13-propeller mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolates imported from Africa to China

February 8, 2021 - 10:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fang Huang, He Yan, Jing-Bo Xue, Yan-Wen Cui, Shui-Sen Zhou, Zhi-Gui Xia, Rabindra Abeyasinghe, Pascal Ringwald and Xiao-Nong Zhou
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:73, 6 February 2021

The emergence and spread of multidrug resistance poses a significant risk to malaria control and eradication goals in the world. There has been no indigenous malaria cases reported in China since 2017, and China is approaching national malaria elimination. Therefore, anti-malarial drug resistance surveillance and tracking the emergence and spread of imported drug-resistant malaria cases will be necessary in a post-elimination phase in China.

Low prevalence of highly sulfadoxine‐resistant dihydropteroate synthase alleles in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in Benin

February 8, 2021 - 10:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Samaly Souza Svigel, Adicath Adeothy, Naomi W. Lucchi, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:72, 5 February 2021

In 2004, in response to high levels of treatment failure associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance, Benin changed its first-line malaria treatment from SP to artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Resistance to SP is conferred by accumulation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in P. falciparum genes involved in folate metabolism, dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps), targeted by pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine, respectively. Because SP is still used for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnant women (IPTp) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMCP) in Benin, the prevalence of Pfdhfr and Pfdhps SNPs in P. falciparum isolates collected in 2017 were investigated.

In silico identification of novel open reading frames in Plasmodium falciparum oocyte and salivary gland sporozoites using proteogenomics framework

February 8, 2021 - 10:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sophie Gunnarsson and Sudhakaran Prabakaran
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:71, 5 February 2021

Plasmodium falciparum causes the deadliest form of malaria, which remains one of the most prevalent infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the only licensed vaccine showed limited protection and resistance to anti-malarial drug is increasing, which can be largely attributed to the biological complexity of the parasite’s life cycle. The progression from one developmental stage to another in P. falciparum involves drastic changes in gene expressions, where its infectivity to human hosts varies greatly depending on the stage. Approaches to identify candidate genes that are responsible for the development of infectivity to human hosts typically involve differential gene expression analysis between stages. However, the detection may be limited to annotated proteins and open reading frames (ORFs) predicted using restrictive criteria.

Spatial and temporal village-level prevalence of Plasmodium infection and associated risk factors in two districts of Meghalaya, India

February 8, 2021 - 10:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Anne Kessler, Badondor Shylla, Sandra Albert, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:70, 4 February 2021

Despite declining incidence over the past decade, malaria remains an important health burden in India. This study aimed to assess the village-level temporal patterns of Plasmodium infection in two districts of the north-eastern state of Meghalaya and evaluate risk factors that might explain these patterns.

NOT Open Access | Progress and new horizons toward a VAR2CSA-based placental malaria vaccine

February 8, 2021 - 10:47 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Doritchamou JYA, Suurbaar J, Tuikue Ndam N
Reference: 
Expert Rev Vaccines. 2021 Feb 4:1-12

Several malaria vaccines are under various phases of development with some promising results. In placental malaria (PM) a deliberately anti-disease approach is considered as many studies have underlined the key role of VAR2CSA protein, which therefore represents the leading vaccine candidate. However, evidence indicates that VAR2CSA antigenic polymorphism remains an obstacle to overcome.

Low practice of malaria prevention among migrants and seasonal farmworkers in Metema and west Armacheho districts, Northwest Ethiopia

February 8, 2021 - 10:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Demissie GD, Ayele TA, Wami SD, Sisay MM, Fetene D, Wolde HF, Akalu TY, Gelaye KA
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 4;21(1):145

More than hundreds and thousands of migrants and seasonal farm workers move from the highlands (relatively low malaria endemicity areas) to the lowlands (higher malaria endemicity areas) for the development of the corridor of the Amhara region during planting, weeding, and harvesting seasons in each year. Seasonal migrant workers are at high risk of malaria infection. Therefore, evidence of their knowledge level and practice in the prevention of malaria during their stay would be important.

Objective

The aims of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of malaria prevention and associated factors among migrants and seasonal farm workers in Northwest Ethiopia.

Protective effect of Mediterranean type glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency against Plasmodium vivax malaria

February 8, 2021 - 10:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Awab GR, Aaram F, Jamornthanyawat N, Suwannasin K, Pagornrat W, Watson JA, Woodrow CJ, Dondorp AM, Day NP, Imwong M, White NJ
Reference: 
Elife. 2021 Feb 5;10:e62448

X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy. The severe Mediterranean variant (G6PD Med) found across Europe and Asia is thought to confer protection against malaria, but its effect is unclear. We fitted a Bayesian statistical model to observed G6PD Med allele frequencies in 999 Pashtun patients presenting with acute Plasmodium vivax malaria and 1408 population controls.

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