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Scientific Articles

Open Access | Review: Major effect genes or loose confederations? The development of insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

August 19, 2010 - 14:53 -- Patrick Sampao
Author(s): 
Brooke BD, Koekemoer LL
Reference: 
Parasites & Vectors 2010, 3:74 (17 August 2010)

Insecticide resistance is a common occurrence and has been intensively studied in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, providing a useful model for examining how insecticide resistance develops and what pleiotropic effects are likely to emerge as a consequence of resistance.

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Open Access | The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Americas: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic precis

August 18, 2010 - 15:21 -- Patrick Sampao
Author(s): 
Sinka ME, Rubio-Palis Y, Manguin S, Patil AP, Temperley WH, Gething PW, Van Boeckel T, Kabaria CW, Harbach RE, Hay SI
Reference: 
Parasites & Vectors 2010, 3:72 (16 August 2010)

The results for the nine DVS of the Americas are described in detail here. Nearly 6000 occurrence records were gathered from 25 countries in the region and were complemented by a synthesis of published expert opinion range maps, refined further by a technical advisory group of medical entomologists.

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Host Response and Inflammation: Accumulation of Plasmodium berghei-Infected Red Blood Cells in the Brain Is Crucial for the Development of Cerebral Malaria in Mice

August 18, 2010 - 15:02 -- Patrick Sampao
Author(s): 
Fernanda G. Baptista, Ana Pamplona, Ana C. Pena, Maria M. Mota, Sylviane Pied, and Ana M. Vigário
Reference: 
Infect. Immun., Sep 2010; 78: 4033 - 4039.

Importantly, these results also demonstrated that the experimental cerebral malaria model shares many features with human pathology and might be a relevant model to study its pathogenesis.

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Host Response and Inflammation: Neutralization of Malaria Glycosylphosphatidylinositol In Vitro by Serum IgG from Malaria-Exposed Individuals

August 18, 2010 - 14:28 -- Patrick Sampao
Author(s): 
Brian de Souza J., Manohursingh R., et al
Reference: 
Infect. Immun., Sep 2010; 78: 3920 - 3929.

In conclusion, we have established an in vitro assay to test the toxin-neutralizing activities of antimalarial antibodies and have shown that anti-GPI antibodies from malaria-immune individuals are able to neutralize GPI-induced macrophage activation; however, the clinical relevance of anti-GPI antibodies remains to be proven, given that malarial schizonts contain other proinflammatory moieties, in addition to GPI.

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Discovery of Potent Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Using a Novel Miniaturized High-Throughput Luciferase-Based Assay

August 18, 2010 - 13:09 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Edinson Lucumi, Claire Darling, Doron C. Greenbaum, et al
Reference: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, September 2010, p. 3597-3604, Vol. 54, No. 9

Malaria is a global health problem that causes significant mortality and morbidity, with more than 1 million deaths per year caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Most antimalarial drugs face decreased efficacy due to the emergence of resistant parasites, which necessitates the discovery of new drugs.

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Defining the Role of Mutations in Plasmodium vivax Dihydrofolate Reductase-Thymidylate Synthase Gene Using an Episomal Plasmodium falciparum Transfection System

August 18, 2010 - 13:05 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Alyson M. Auliff, John H. Adams, Michael T. O'Neil, and Qin Cheng
Reference: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, September 2010, p. 3927-3932, Vol. 54, No. 9

Plasmodium vivax resistance to antifolates is prevalent throughout Australasia and is caused by point mutations within the parasite dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-thymidylate synthase. Several unique mutations have been reported in P. vivax DHFR, and their roles in resistance to classic and novel antifolates are not entirely clear due, in part, to the inability to culture P. vivax in vitro.

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Investigations into the Role of the Plasmodium falciparum SERCA (PfATP6) L263E Mutation in Artemisinin Action and Resistance

August 18, 2010 - 12:52 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Stephanie Gaw Valderramos, Daniel Scanfeld, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann, David A. Fidock, and Sanjeev Krishna
Reference: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, September 2010, p. 3842-3852, Vol. 54, No. 9

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are highly effective for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, yet their sustained efficacy is threatened by the potential spread of parasite resistance.

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Amodiaquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Afghanistan Is Associated with the pfcrt SVMNT Allele at Codons 72 to 76

August 18, 2010 - 12:48 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Khalid Beshir, Colin J. Sutherland, Ioannis Merinopoulos, Naeem Durrani, Toby Leslie, Mark Rowland, and Rachel L. Hallett
Reference: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, September 2010, p. 3714-3716, Vol. 54, No. 9

Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum genes pfcrt and pfmdr1 are selected by amodiaquine treatment in Africa.

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Absence of Association between Piperaquine In Vitro Responses and Polymorphisms in the pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfmrp, and pfnhe Genes in Plasmodium falciparum

August 18, 2010 - 12:43 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Sébastien Briolant, Maud Henry, Claude Oeuvray, Rémy Amalvict, Eric Baret, Eric Didillon, Christophe Rogier, and Bruno Pradines
Reference: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, September 2010, p. 3537-3544, Vol. 54, No. 9

We have analyzed the profiles of 23 of Plasmodium falciparum strains for their in vitro chemosusceptibilities to piperaquine (PPQ), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), chloroquine, monodesethylamodiaquine, quinine, mefloquine, lumefantrine, atovaquone, pyrimethamine, and doxycycline (DOX) in association with polymorphisms in genes involved in quinoline resistance (Plasmodium falciparum crt [pfcrt], pfmdr1, pfmrp, and pfnhe).

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Open Access | Combined measurement of soluble and cellular ICAM-1 among children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda

August 18, 2010 - 12:39 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Cserti-Gazdewich CM, Dzik WH, Erdman L, Ssewanyana I, Dhabangi A, Musoke C, Kain KC
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2010, 9:233 (16 August 2010)

In this cohort of children with P. falciparum malaria, sICAM-1 levels were associated with severity-of-illness. Patients with UM had higher monocyte ICAM-1 expression consistent with a role for monocyte ICAM-1 in immune clearance during non-severe malaria.

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