Insecticide resistance is a common occurrence and has been intensively studied in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, providing a useful model for examining how insecticide resistance develops and what pleiotropic effects are likely to emerge as a consequence of resistance.
The results for the nine DVS of the Americas are described in detail here. Nearly 6000 occurrence records were gathered from 25 countries in the region and were complemented by a synthesis of published expert opinion range maps, refined further by a technical advisory group of medical entomologists.
Importantly, these results also demonstrated that the experimental cerebral malaria model shares many features with human pathology and might be a relevant model to study its pathogenesis.
In conclusion, we have established an in vitro assay to test the toxin-neutralizing activities of antimalarial antibodies and have shown that anti-GPI antibodies from malaria-immune individuals are able to neutralize GPI-induced macrophage activation; however, the clinical relevance of anti-GPI antibodies remains to be proven, given that malarial schizonts contain other proinflammatory moieties, in addition to GPI.
Malaria is a global health problem that causes significant mortality and morbidity, with more than 1 million deaths per year caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Most antimalarial drugs face decreased efficacy due to the emergence of resistant parasites, which necessitates the discovery of new drugs.
Plasmodium vivax resistance to antifolates is prevalent throughout Australasia and is caused by point mutations within the parasite dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-thymidylate synthase. Several unique mutations have been reported in P. vivax DHFR, and their roles in resistance to classic and novel antifolates are not entirely clear due, in part, to the inability to culture P. vivax in vitro.
Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are highly effective for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, yet their sustained efficacy is threatened by the potential spread of parasite resistance.
Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum genes pfcrt and pfmdr1 are selected by amodiaquine treatment in Africa.
We have analyzed the profiles of 23 of Plasmodium falciparum strains for their in vitro chemosusceptibilities to piperaquine (PPQ), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), chloroquine, monodesethylamodiaquine, quinine, mefloquine, lumefantrine, atovaquone, pyrimethamine, and doxycycline (DOX) in association with polymorphisms in genes involved in quinoline resistance (Plasmodium falciparum crt [pfcrt], pfmdr1, pfmrp, and pfnhe).
In this cohort of children with P. falciparum malaria, sICAM-1 levels were associated with severity-of-illness. Patients with UM had higher monocyte ICAM-1 expression consistent with a role for monocyte ICAM-1 in immune clearance during non-severe malaria.