Previous studies of Anopheles funestus chromosomal inversion polymorphisms in Burkina Faso showed large departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium among inversions located on different chromosomes, implying the existence of two taxonomic units ("chromosomal forms") with limited genetic flow. One chromosomal form, named Folonzo, is highly polymorphic for alternative rearrangements of 3Ra, 3Rb, 2Ra, and 3La; the other, Kiribina, is predominantly characterized by the standard arrangement of these inversions. To investigate the temporal distribution of these chromosomal forms, further collections were carried out in two villages near Ouagadougou where they are found in sympatry.
Efforts in this study were thus devoted to development and evaluation of a simple, cost-effective and sensitive method for quantification of sulphadoxine in small capillary samples of whole blood dried on filter paper.
Malaria carries high case fatality among children with sickle cell anaemia. In Uganda, chloroquine is used for prophylaxis in these children despite unacceptably high levels of resistance. Intermittent presumptive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has shown great potential for reducing prevalence of malaria and anaemia among pregnant women and infants.
Presumptive treatment with SP was more efficacious than weekly chloroquine in reducing prevalence of malaria in children with sickle cell anaemia. Continued use of chloroquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis in children with sickle cell anaemia in Uganda does not seem to be justified. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCTOO124267
Malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance is suboptimal among French soldiers despite the availability of free malaria chemoprophylaxis and repeated health education before, during and after deployments to malaria endemic areas.
MB2 protein is a sporozoite surface antigen on the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. A preliminary analysis of the human humoral response against MB2 indicates that it may be an additional highly conserved target for immune intervention at the pre-erythrocytic stage of P. falciparum life cycle.
Although the occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the valleys of western Kenya highlands is well documented, knowledge of larval habitats in the uphill sites is lacking. Given that most inhabitants of the highlands actually dwell in the uphill regions, it is important to develop understanding of mosquito breeding habitat stability in these sites in order to determine their potential for larval control.
The occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the hilltop area was uncommon as a result of the low availability and high instability of habitats. To optimize the cost-effectiveness of malaria interventions in the western Kenya highlands, larval control should be focused primarily along the streams, as these are likely the only productive habitats at high altitude.
Pyrethroid resistance is now widespread in Anopheles gambiae, the major vector for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. This resistance may compromise malaria vector control strategies that are currently in use in endemic areas. In this context, a new tool for management of resistant mosquitoes based on the combination of a pyrethroid-treated bed net and carbamate-treated plastic sheeting was developed.
Sherman offers an engaging, accessible history of efforts (so far unsuccessful) to develop an effective malaria vaccine.
Malaria is currently highly prevalent and restricted to the north of Brazil, and its dynamics are severely affected by human environmental changes, such as the large dam construction recently approved by the Brazilian Government in Rondônia. We studied the mosquito fauna and behavior before hydroelectric construction. Mosquitoes were captured by human landing catches on the riversides of the Madeira River in Porto Velho, Rondônia.
The Anopheles annularis group mosquitoes, subgenus Cellia Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae), includes five recognized species: An. annularis Van der Wulp, An. nivipes Theobald, An. pallidus Theobald, An. philippinensis Ludlow and An. schueffneri Stanton. From these five, the three most common species found in Orissa were considered for this study because of their remarkable vectorial and behavioral variation and the important role they play in malaria transmission. To identify and understand their role in malaria transmission we developed a single multiplex PCR-based assay. This one-step PCR-based method constitutes a very powerful tool in large surveys of anopheline populations.