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Scientific Articles

Research Brief: Disruption of lipid rafts by lidocaine inhibits erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum

October 25, 2009 - 15:26 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
Author(s): 
Ichiro Koshino, Yuichi Takakuwa
Reference: 
Experimental Parasitology, Volume 123, Issue 4, December 2009, Pages 381-383, doi:10.1016/j.exppara.2009.08.019

Membrane lipid rafts have been implicated in erythrocyte invasion process by Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we examined the effect of lidocaine, a local anesthetic, which disrupts lipid rafts reversibly without affecting membrane cholesterol content on parasite invasion. Our findings show that disruption of lipid rafts in the context of normal cholesterol content markedly inhibits parasite invasion and confirm an important role for lipid rafts in invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum.

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Review: Dispersible formulation of artemether/lumefantrine: specifically developed for infants and young children

October 25, 2009 - 15:25 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Salim Abdulla, Issaka Sagara
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2009, 8(Suppl 1):S7 (12 October 2009)

 

Ahead of a call from WHO for child-friendly medicines, Novartis, working in partnership with Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV), started the development of a new formulation of AL for infants and young children: Coartem® Dispersible. 

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Suggestive evidence for Darwinian selection against asparagine-linked glycans of Plasmodium and Toxoplasma

October 25, 2009 - 15:19 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
Author(s): 
G. Guy Bushkin et al.
Reference: 
Eukaryot. Cell. published 16 October 2009, 10.1128/EC.00197-09

We conclude that possible selection against N-glycans in protists with apicoplasts occurs by eliminating N-glycans (Theileria), reducing their length (Plasmodium), or by reducing the number of N-glycan sites (Toxoplasma). In addition, occupation of N-glycan sites is markedly reduced in apicoplast proteins versus some secretory proteins in both Plasmodium and Toxoplasma.

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Review: Safety profile of Coartem®: the evidence base

October 25, 2009 - 15:17 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Catherine Falade, Christine Manyando
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2009, 8(Suppl 1):S6 (12 October 2009)

This article reviews the comprehensive data on the safety and tolerability from over 6,300 patients who have taken artemether/lumefantrine (Coartem®) as part of Novartis-sponsored or independently-sponsored clinical trials.

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Review: The clinical efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine (Coartem®)

October 25, 2009 - 15:12 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Michael Makanga, Srivicha Krudsood
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2009, 8(Suppl 1):S5 (12 October 2009)

 Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria recommend the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Artemether/lumefantrine is an ACT prequalified by the WHO for efficacy, safety and quality, approved by Swissmedic in December 2008 and recently approved by the USA FDA. Coartem® is a fixed-dose combination of artemether and lumefantrine.

 

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Review: Understanding the pharmacokinetics of Coartem®

October 25, 2009 - 15:03 -- Bart G.J. Knols
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Author(s): 
Abdoulaye Djimdé, Gilbert Lefèvre
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2009, 8(Suppl 1):S4 (12 October 2009)

In conclusion, knowledge of the pharmacokinetic profiles of artemether and lumefantrine is increasing within a range of settings, including infants and children. However, additional data would be warranted to better characterize artemether and lumefantrine pharmacokinetics in patients with hepatic impairment, in pregnant women, and in patients undergoing HIV/AIDS chemotherapy.

 

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Mechanisms of Resistance: Plasmodium falciparum Drug Resistance in Madagascar: Facing the Spread of Unusual pfdhfr and pfmdr-1 Haplotypes and the Decrease of Dihydroartemisinin Susceptibility

October 25, 2009 - 15:02 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
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Author(s): 
Valérie Andriantsoanirina et al.
Reference: 
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2009 53: 4588-4597, doi:10.1128/AAC.00610-09

The aim of this study was to provide the first comprehensive spatiotemporal picture of Plasmodium falciparum resistance in various geographic areas in Madagascar. Additional data about the antimalarial resistance in the neighboring islands of the Comoros archipelago were also collected.

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Review: Coartem®: the journey to the clinic

October 25, 2009 - 14:58 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Zulfiqarali G Premji
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2009, 8(Suppl 1):S3 (12 October 2009)

Artemisinin, from which the artemether component of Coartem®(artemether/lumefantrine, AL) is derived, is obtained from the plant sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) which has been used for over 2,000 years as a Chinese herbal remedy. Artemisinin was first identified by Chinese researchers as the active anti-malarial constituent of A. annua and its derivatives were found to be the most potent of all anti-malarial drugs.

 

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Review: Ongoing challenges in the management of malaria

October 25, 2009 - 14:51 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Gilbert Kokwaro
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2009, 8(Suppl 1):S2 (12 October 2009)

This article gives an overview of some of the ongoing challenges that are faced in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malaria.

 

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Introduction: Malaria management - progress made and challenges still to face

October 25, 2009 - 14:45 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Bernhards R Ogutu
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2009, 8(Suppl 1):S1 (12 October 2009)

This supplement reviews the contribution made by AL as an ACT to the tremendous progress made in the control of malaria and establishes effective treatment as a cornerstone in the foundation of effective, quality patient care for infants, children and adults with malaria.

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