Membrane lipid rafts have been implicated in erythrocyte invasion process by Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we examined the effect of lidocaine, a local anesthetic, which disrupts lipid rafts reversibly without affecting membrane cholesterol content on parasite invasion. Our findings show that disruption of lipid rafts in the context of normal cholesterol content markedly inhibits parasite invasion and confirm an important role for lipid rafts in invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum.
Ahead of a call from WHO for child-friendly medicines, Novartis, working in partnership with Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV), started the development of a new formulation of AL for infants and young children: Coartem® Dispersible.
We conclude that possible selection against N-glycans in protists with apicoplasts occurs by eliminating N-glycans (Theileria), reducing their length (Plasmodium), or by reducing the number of N-glycan sites (Toxoplasma). In addition, occupation of N-glycan sites is markedly reduced in apicoplast proteins versus some secretory proteins in both Plasmodium and Toxoplasma.
This article reviews the comprehensive data on the safety and tolerability from over 6,300 patients who have taken artemether/lumefantrine (Coartem®) as part of Novartis-sponsored or independently-sponsored clinical trials.
Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria recommend the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Artemether/lumefantrine is an ACT prequalified by the WHO for efficacy, safety and quality, approved by Swissmedic in December 2008 and recently approved by the USA FDA. Coartem® is a fixed-dose combination of artemether and lumefantrine.
In conclusion, knowledge of the pharmacokinetic profiles of artemether and lumefantrine is increasing within a range of settings, including infants and children. However, additional data would be warranted to better characterize artemether and lumefantrine pharmacokinetics in patients with hepatic impairment, in pregnant women, and in patients undergoing HIV/AIDS chemotherapy.
The aim of this study was to provide the first comprehensive spatiotemporal picture of Plasmodium falciparum resistance in various geographic areas in Madagascar. Additional data about the antimalarial resistance in the neighboring islands of the Comoros archipelago were also collected.
Artemisinin, from which the artemether component of Coartem®(artemether/lumefantrine, AL) is derived, is obtained from the plant sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) which has been used for over 2,000 years as a Chinese herbal remedy. Artemisinin was first identified by Chinese researchers as the active anti-malarial constituent of A. annua and its derivatives were found to be the most potent of all anti-malarial drugs.
This article gives an overview of some of the ongoing challenges that are faced in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malaria.
This supplement reviews the contribution made by AL as an ACT to the tremendous progress made in the control of malaria and establishes effective treatment as a cornerstone in the foundation of effective, quality patient care for infants, children and adults with malaria.