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Scientific Articles

Insecticide resistance and its association with target-site mutations in natural populations of Anopheles gambiae from eastern Uganda

October 25, 2009 - 17:27 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Urvashi Ramphul, Thomas Boase, Chris Bass, Loyce M. Okedi, Martin J. Donnelly, Pie Müller
Reference: 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 103, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 1121-1126, doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.02.014

Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae threatens the success of malaria vector control programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to manage insecticide resistance successfully, it is essential to assess continuously the target mosquito population. Here, we collected baseline information on the distribution and prevalence of insecticide resistance and its association with target-site mutations in eastern Uganda.

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Distribution of pyrethroid and DDT resistance and the L1014F kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Burkina Faso (West Africa)

October 25, 2009 - 17:23 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
K.R. Dabiré, A. Diabaté, M. Namountougou, K.H. Toé, A. Ouari, P. Kengne, C. Bass, T. Baldet
Reference: 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 103, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 1113-1120, doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.01.008

This study reports on the distribution of pyrethroid and DDT resistance and the L1014F knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from 21 localities in three different climatic zones of Burkina Faso from August to October 2006. These results have practical significance for malaria vector control programs.

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Agent-based modelling of mosquito foraging behaviour for malaria control

October 25, 2009 - 17:15 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Weidong Gu, Robert J. Novak
Reference: 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 103, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 1105-1112, doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.01.006

Traditional environmental management programmes require extensive coverage of larval habitats to reduce drastically the emergence of adult mosquitoes. Recent studies have highlighted the impact of reduced availability of aquatic habitats on mosquito foraging for hosts and oviposition sites. In this study, we developed an agent-based model to track the status and movement of mosquitoes individually.

Preliminary examination of integrated vector management in a tropical rainforest area of Cameroon

October 25, 2009 - 17:09 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
G.A. Matthews, H.M. Dobson, P.B. Nkot, T.L. Wiles, M. Birchmore
Reference: 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 103, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 1098-1104, doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.03.003

In a malaria-endemic area, a pilot study examined different mosquito control interventions applied to entire villages to assess their impact on vectors, malaria incidence and the quality of life of the communities. Malaria incidence several months after treatments was not significantly different from pre-treatment levels. Blackfly adult populations were reduced for several weeks following larvicide application but recovered when treatment was halted.

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Extreme Polymorphism in a Vaccine Antigen and Risk of Clinical Malaria: Implications for Vaccine Development

October 25, 2009 - 17:04 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Shannon L. Takala et al.
Reference: 
Science Translational Medicine. 2009; 1:2ra5

Vaccines directed against the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum malaria are intended to prevent the parasite from invading and replicating within host cells. No blood-stage malaria vaccine has shown clinical efficacy in humans. Most malaria vaccine antigens are parasite surface proteins that have evolved extensive genetic diversity, and this diversity could allow malaria parasites to escape vaccine-induced immunity. We examined the extent and within-host dynamics of genetic diversity in the blood-stage malaria vaccine antigen apical membrane antigen–1 in a longitudinal study in Mali. 

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Distillery: Therapeutic: Plasmepsin (Plasmodium falciparum)

October 25, 2009 - 17:01 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
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Reference: 
Science-Business eXchange 2, (15 October 2009) doi:10.1038/scibx.2009.1508

In vitro studies identified a plasmepsin inhibitor that could aid in the development of new treatments for malaria. Further details on the research, next steps and licensing status are discussed in the article.

 

Special Focus Review: A biologist’s perspective on malaria vaccine development

October 25, 2009 - 16:57 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
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Author(s): 
Robert Sinden
Reference: 
Human Vaccines, Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2010

A vaccine to reduce human suffering caused by malarial parasites has been the holy grail of malaria research. Early studies in the 1940’s indicated that attenuated parasites could induce useful immunity. Since that time the genomic revolution led inevitably to the idea of cheap production of safe recombinant vaccines using either expressed protein or DNA vector technologies.

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Review: Embryotoxicity of the artemisinin antimalarials and potential consequences for use in women in the first trimester

October 25, 2009 - 16:56 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Robert L. Clark
Reference: 
Reproductive Toxicology, Volume 28, Issue 3, November 2009, Pages 285-296, doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2009.05.002

Single oral doses of artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, arteether and artemether administered to rats during a sensitive period of organogenesis caused embryo deaths and malformations (malformed long bones and ventricular septal defects). Extended oral dosing (12 days or more) of monkeys once daily with 12 mg/kg-d artesunate also caused embryo deaths. The initial embryotoxic effect in both species was to kill primitive erythroblasts which are present in the embryo for a few days of gestation in rats and several weeks in primates.

 

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Special Focus Review: Malaria vaccine development: An endemic country perspective

October 25, 2009 - 16:52 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
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Author(s): 
Kwadwo A. Koram and Ben A. Gyan
Reference: 
Human Vaccines, Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2010

The quest for an effective vaccine as an additional strategy in the control of malaria and to significantly impact the disease burden has progressed tremendously over the past decade and there is a very high probability that that a malaria vaccine will be available for use in the near future. The introduction of any malaria vaccine will be confronted by some cultural issues and it is essential to understand how these factors will ultimately affect its utilization. These and other challenges related to the development and deployment of an effective malaria vaccine especially as they concern endemic countries are discussed.

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Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Malaria: Cytochemical Detection of Heterozygous G6PD Deficiency in Women

October 25, 2009 - 16:51 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Anna L. Peters and Cornelis J.F. Van Noorden
Reference: 
J. Histochem. Cytochem. 2009; 57:1003-1011

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a X-chromosomally transmitted disorder of the erythrocyte that affects 400 million people worldwide. Diagnosis of heterozygously-deficient women is complicated: as a result of lyonization, these women have a normal and a G6PD-deficient population of erythrocytes. The cytochemical assay is the only reliable assay to discriminate between heterozygously-deficient women and non-deficient women or homozygously-deficient women. G6PD deficiency is mainly found in areas where malaria is or has been endemic.

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