Due to the fact that the life cycle of malaria parasites is complex, undergoing both an extracellular and intracellular phases in its host, the human immune system has to mobilize both the humoral and cellular arms of immune responses to fight against this parasitic infection.
To demonstrate that the model can be used to make clinically relevant predictions, we experimentally tested one of the identified drug targets, nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase, using a recently discovered small-molecule inhibitor.
During the survey, 9,491 blood samples were collected and examined by microscopy for Plasmodium species and density, with a subset also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs).
These new results on PfEMP1 antigen expression indicate that a re-evaluation of the molecular mechanisms involved in P. falciparum adhesion and of the accepted paradigm of absolutely mutually exclusive var gene transcription is required.
Every so often, the tide turns in a field of science. In malaria research, for a while an approach called "rational design" held sway, with great optimism that new drugs would emerge from understanding the biology of the malaria parasite at the molecular level.
Recent reports of increased tolerance to artemisinin derivatives--the most recently adopted class of antimalarials--have prompted a need for new treatments.
Malaria, a disease caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, remains a serious healthcare problem in developing countries worldwide.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has long been recognized to promote malaria parasite killing, but also to contribute to the development of severe malaria disease. The precise molecular mechanisms that influence these different outcomes in malaria patients are not well understood, but the virulence and drug-resistance phenotype of malaria parasites and the genetic background and age of patients are likely to be important determinants.
Considering that cherry was the preferred flavour, and that the novel A-L dispersible tablet demonstrated similar pharmacokinetic performances to the tablet administered crushed, a cherry-flavoured A-L dispersible tablet formulation was selected for further development and testing in a large efficacy and safety study in African children with malaria.
Environmental data retrieved from high spatial resolution SPOT satellite images were associated with An. arabiensis densities in Dakar urban setting, which allowed to generate malaria transmission risk maps.