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Scientific Articles

Identification of Plasmodium malariae, a Human Malaria Parasite, in Imported Chimpanzees

October 25, 2009 - 15:51 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Hayakawa T, Arisue N, Udono T, Hirai H, Sattabongkot J, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 4(10): e7412. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007412

It is widely believed that human malaria parasites infect only man as a natural host. However, earlier morphological observations suggest that great apes are likely to be natural reservoirs as well. To identify malaria parasites in great apes, we screened 60 chimpanzees imported into Japan.

 

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Book review: Review of "Primate Parasite Ecology: The dynamics and study of host-parasite relationships" by Michael A. Huffman and Colin A. Chapman (Eds.)

October 25, 2009 - 15:45 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Poinar G
Reference: 
Parasites & Vectors 2009, 2:49 (16 October 2009)

Book review of "Primate Parasite Ecology: The dynamics and study of host-parasite relationships" by Michael A. Huffman and Colin A. Chapman (Eds.)

LA-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci in three west African ethnic groups: Genetic relationship with sub-Saharan African and European populations

October 25, 2009 - 15:44 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
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Author(s): 
Patrizia Lulli et al.
Reference: 
Human Immunology, Volume 70, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 903-909, doi:10.1016/j.humimm.2009.07.025

The Fulani of west Africa have been shown to be less susceptible to malaria and to mount a stronger immune response to malaria than sympatric ethnic groups. The analysis of HLA diversity is useful for the assessment of the genetic distance between the Fulani and sympatric populations, which represents the necessary theoretical background for the investigation of genetic determinants of susceptibility to malaria.

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Review: Impact of the large-scale deployment of artemether/lumefantrine on the malaria disease burden in Africa: case studies of South Africa, Zambia and Ethiopia

October 25, 2009 - 15:39 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Karen I Barnes, Pascalina Chanda, Gebre Ab Barnabas
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2009, 8(Suppl 1):S8 (12 October 2009)

 

Malaria can be controlled in endemic countries by using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in combination with indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). At least 40 malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa now recommend the use of ACT as first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria as a cornerstone of their malaria case management.

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Effective size of the hierarchically structured populations of the agent of malaria: a coalescent-based model

October 25, 2009 - 15:37 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
Author(s): 
F Prugnolle, P Durand, F Renaud, F Rousset
Reference: 
Heredity (7 October 2009), doi:10.1038/hdy.2009.127

Using the coalescence theory, we derived a simple expression for the asymptotic inbreeding effective population size of Plasmodium falciparum, the most malignant agent of malaria, in relationship to F-statistics at different hierarchical levels. The logic of the derivation of effective size presented in this study is applicable to any organism showing the same levels of subdivision.

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Research Brief: Disruption of lipid rafts by lidocaine inhibits erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum

October 25, 2009 - 15:26 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
Author(s): 
Ichiro Koshino, Yuichi Takakuwa
Reference: 
Experimental Parasitology, Volume 123, Issue 4, December 2009, Pages 381-383, doi:10.1016/j.exppara.2009.08.019

Membrane lipid rafts have been implicated in erythrocyte invasion process by Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we examined the effect of lidocaine, a local anesthetic, which disrupts lipid rafts reversibly without affecting membrane cholesterol content on parasite invasion. Our findings show that disruption of lipid rafts in the context of normal cholesterol content markedly inhibits parasite invasion and confirm an important role for lipid rafts in invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum.

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Review: Dispersible formulation of artemether/lumefantrine: specifically developed for infants and young children

October 25, 2009 - 15:25 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Salim Abdulla, Issaka Sagara
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2009, 8(Suppl 1):S7 (12 October 2009)

 

Ahead of a call from WHO for child-friendly medicines, Novartis, working in partnership with Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV), started the development of a new formulation of AL for infants and young children: Coartem® Dispersible. 

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Suggestive evidence for Darwinian selection against asparagine-linked glycans of Plasmodium and Toxoplasma

October 25, 2009 - 15:19 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
Author(s): 
G. Guy Bushkin et al.
Reference: 
Eukaryot. Cell. published 16 October 2009, 10.1128/EC.00197-09

We conclude that possible selection against N-glycans in protists with apicoplasts occurs by eliminating N-glycans (Theileria), reducing their length (Plasmodium), or by reducing the number of N-glycan sites (Toxoplasma). In addition, occupation of N-glycan sites is markedly reduced in apicoplast proteins versus some secretory proteins in both Plasmodium and Toxoplasma.

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Review: Safety profile of Coartem®: the evidence base

October 25, 2009 - 15:17 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Catherine Falade, Christine Manyando
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2009, 8(Suppl 1):S6 (12 October 2009)

This article reviews the comprehensive data on the safety and tolerability from over 6,300 patients who have taken artemether/lumefantrine (Coartem®) as part of Novartis-sponsored or independently-sponsored clinical trials.

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Review: The clinical efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine (Coartem®)

October 25, 2009 - 15:12 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Michael Makanga, Srivicha Krudsood
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2009, 8(Suppl 1):S5 (12 October 2009)

 Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria recommend the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Artemether/lumefantrine is an ACT prequalified by the WHO for efficacy, safety and quality, approved by Swissmedic in December 2008 and recently approved by the USA FDA. Coartem® is a fixed-dose combination of artemether and lumefantrine.

 

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