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Scientific Articles

Predicting the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission: the devil is in the detail

November 26, 2009 - 11:41 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
Author(s): 
Weidong Gu, Robert J Novak
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2009, 8:256 (16 November 2009)

This study highlights that increased ITN coverage led to significant reduction in risk exposure and malaria incidence only when treated nets yielded high killing effects. It is necessary to test efficacy of treated nets on local dominant vector mosquitoes, at least in laboratory, for monitoring and evaluation of ITN programmes.

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Methodology: Is flow cytometry better in counting malaria pigment-containing leukocytes compared to microscopy?

November 26, 2009 - 11:34 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
Author(s): 
Thomas Hänscheid, Rosangela Frita, Matthias Längin, Peter G Kremsner, Martin P Grobusch
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2009, 8:255 (16 November 2009)

Numbers of Hz-containing leukocytes from a malaria patient obtained with a flow cytometer counting 50.000 gated events were compared with thin film microscopy as applied under field conditions.

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Placental malaria among HIV-infected and uninfected women receiving anti-folates in a high transmission area of Uganda

November 26, 2009 - 11:15 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
Author(s): 
Patrick M Newman, Humphrey Wanzira, Gabriel Tumwine, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Sarah Waldman, Jane Achan, Diane Havlir, Philip J Rosenthal, Grant Dorsey, Tamara D Clark, Deborah Cohan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2009, 8:254 (14 November 2009)

This was a cross sectional study comparing the prevalence of placental malaria between HIV-infected women prescribed TS and HIV-uninfected women prescribed intermittent preventive therapy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPT-SP) in a high malaria transmission area in Uganda.

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Human vaccine research in the European Union

November 26, 2009 - 07:35 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Ole F. Olesen, Anna Lonnroth, Bernard Mulligan
Reference: 
Vaccine, Volume 27, Issue 5, 29 January 2009, Pages 640-645, doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.11.064

Taken together, around 581 research groups from 52 countries are participating in the vaccine activities of FP6. This impressive number signals a new spirit of collaborative research, which will facilitate the exploitation of the immense possibilities in modern vaccinology.

Conference report: MALVAC 2008: Measures of efficacy of malaria vaccines in phase 2b and phase 3 trials—Scientific, regulatory and public health perspectives

November 26, 2009 - 07:32 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Vasee S. Moorthya, Zarifah Reedb, and Peter G. Smithc
Reference: 
Vaccine, Volume 27, Issue 5, 29 January 2009, Pages 624-628, doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.11.034

The WHO Initiative for Vaccine Research and Global Malaria Programme convened a joint scientific forum in June 2008 to discuss scientific, regulatory and public health perspectives on the measurement of efficacy in malaria vaccine field efficacy trials. Participants included clinical trialists, statisticians and epidemiologists from both developed and developing countries, vaccine researchers and developers from academia and industry, and representatives of regulatory agencies.

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Society Meeting Paper: Mode of action and choice of antimalarial drugs for intermittent preventive treatment in infants

November 26, 2009 - 07:26 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Matthew Cairns, Roly Gosling, Samwel Gesase, Jacklin Mosha, Brian Greenwood, Daniel Chandramohan
Reference: 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 103, Issue 12, December 2009, Pages 1199-1201, doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.06.007

Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) is an effective and safe malaria control strategy. However, it remains unclear what antimalarials should be used to replace sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) when and where SP is no longer an effective drug for IPTi.

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Prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smears examination: A 1-year retrospective study from the Serbo Health Center, Kersa Woreda, Ethiopia

November 26, 2009 - 07:25 -- Patrick Sampao
Author(s): 
Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi, Mammo Bekele
Reference: 
Journal of Infection and Public Health, Volume 2, Issue 4, 2009, Pages 171-176, doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2009.08.005

Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Thus, a retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examination from the Serbo Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases treated between July 2007 and June 2008 were carefully reviewed and analyzed.

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Accuracy of a multispecies rapid diagnostic test kit for detection of malarial parasite at the point of care in a low endemicity region

November 26, 2009 - 07:24 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
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Author(s): 
M. Meena, D. Joshi, R. Joshi, S. Sridhar, S. Waghdhare, N. Gangane, S.P. Kalantri
Reference: 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 103, Issue 12, December 2009, Pages 1237-1244, doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.04.011

Although highly accurate rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for Plasmodium falciparum [based on identification of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2)] have been developed, the accuracy of non-falciparum tests is relatively poor. Recently, a Plasmodium vivax-specific RDT [based on identification of species-specific lactate dehydrogenase (PvLDH)] became available, which along with PfHRP2 may improve malaria diagnosis by identifying the species correctly.

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Traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies in herbal markets in southern Ghana

November 26, 2009 - 07:20 -- Patrick Sampao
Author(s): 
Alex Asase, Gloria Oppong-Mensah.
Reference: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 126, Issue 3, 10 December 2009, Pages 492-499, doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.008

Ethnopharmacological relevance. Although traditional antimalarial plant remedies in herbal markets are a very important component of the health care system in Ghana this has not been previously studied to allow for the formulation of effective strategy for malaria control in Ghana. Aim of study The main objective of the present study was to collect and analyse data on the antimalarial plant remedies in herbal markets in southern Ghana.

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Short communication: El Niño and variations in the prevalence of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum in Vanuatu

November 26, 2009 - 07:20 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
M. Gilbert, R. Brindle
Reference: 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 103, Issue 12, December 2009, Pages 1285-1287, doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.10.048

As P. vivax is more prevalent in seasonal climates and P. falciparum in areas of more consistent rainfall, it is postulated that there will be a correlation between the ratio of vivax:falciparum and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which affects sea surface temperatures and rainfall.

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