There is challenge and urgency to synthesize cost-effective chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of malarianext term after the widespread development of resistance to CQ. In the present study, we synthesized a new series of hybrid 9-anilinoacridine triazines using the cheap chemicals 6,9-dichloro-2-methoxy acridine and cyanuric chloride.
Screening our in-house compound collection using a cell based Plasmodium falciparum proliferation assay we discovered a known pan-kinase inhibitor scaffold as a hit. Further optimization of this series led us to a novel benzamide scaffold which was devoid of human kinase activity while retaining its antiplasmodial activity. The evolution of this compound series leading to optimized candidates with good cellular potency against multiple strains as well as decent in vivo profile is described in this Letter.
Artemisinin derivatives are well-tolerated anti-malaria drugs that also exert anti-cancer activity. Here, we investigated artemisinin and its derivatives dihydroartemisinin and artesunate in a panel of chemosensitive and chemoresistant human neuroblastoma cells as well as in primary neuroblastoma cultures.
Cassiarin A 1, a tricyclic alkaloid, isolated from the leaves of Cassia siamea (Leguminosae), shows powerful antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro as well as P. berghei in vivo, which may be valuable leads for novel antimalarials.
The growth inhibitory activity of imidazoquines, antimalarial imidazolidin-4-ones derived from primaquine, on human cancer cell lines HT-29, Caco-2, and MCF-7 has been evaluated.
Plasmodium falciparum is a purine auxotroph. The transport of purine nucleosides and nucleobases from the host erythrocyte to the parasite cytoplasm is essential to support parasite growth. P. falciparum equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (PfENT1) is a major route for purine transport across the parasite plasma membrane. Malarial parasites are sensitive to inhibitors of purine salvage pathway enzymes. The immucillin class of purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors and the adenosine analog, tubercidin, block growth of P. falciparum under in vitro culture conditions. We sought to determine whether these inhibitors utilize PfENT1 to gain access to the parasite cytosol.
We have analyzed the in vitro chemosensitivity profiles of 115 Kenyan isolates for chloroquine (CQ), piperaquine, lumefantrine (LM), and dihydroartemisinin in association with polymorphisms in pfcrt at codon 76 and pfmdr1 at codon 86, as well as with variations of the copy number of pfmdr1.
Quinine has been employed in the treatment of malaria for centuries and is still used against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, its interactions with the parasite remain poorly understood and subject to debate. In this study, we used the Saccharomyces cerevisiae eukaryotic model to better understand quinine's mode of action and the mechanisms underlying the cell response to the drug.
Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine–pyrimethamine has led to the recent adoption of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) as the first line of treatment against malaria. ACTs comprise semisynthetic artemisinin derivatives paired with distinct chemical classes of longer acting drugs. These artemisinins are exceptionally potent against the pathogenic asexual blood stages of Plasmodium parasites and also act on the transmissible sexual stages.
The evolution of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum against safe and affordable drugs such as chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is a major global health threat. Investigating the dynamics of resistance against these antimalarial drugs will lead to approaches for addressing the problem of resistance in malarial parasites that are solidly based in evolutionary genetics and population biology. In this article, we discuss current developments in population biology modeling and evolutionary genetics.