We discuss how the application of molecular techniques has led to the identification of submicroscopic gametocyte carriage and to a reassessment of the human infectious reservoir.
In this study, we determined the arrangement of mt rRNA gene fragments in 23 Plasmodium species, including two newly determined mt genome sequences from P. gallinaceum and P. vinckei vinckei, as well as Leucocytozoon caulleryi, an outgroup of Plasmodium.
Plasmodium knowlesi, a malaria parasite originally thought to be restricted to macaques in Southeast Asia, has recently been recognized as a significant cause of human malaria.
The Fulani ethnic group from West Africa is relatively better protected against Plasmodium falciparum malaria as compared to other sympatric ethnic groups, such as the Dogon.
Nowadays, artemisinins are the mainstay of malaria treatment, but initial indications of resistance against clinically used derivatives are present.
This small-scale protocol provides significant advantages, namely reduction of parasite sample, laboratory consumables and mice for transfection experiments.
In this report, we have reviewed work on the in vivo efficacy and in vitro activity of quinine, and discussed recent data on genetic markers of resistance to this drug.
This new assay provides an important tool to efficiently screen compounds for gametocytocidal activity.
These data imply that antimalarial drug resistance can result from defective MMR.
These data point towards the need for addressing the exact role of TLRs in contributing to human genetic factors in malaria susceptibility/resistance/severity within different malaria settings in the world.