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Scientific Articles

Clinical trials to assess adjuvant therapeutics for severe malaria

July 27, 2020 - 12:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rosauro Varo, Clara Erice, Sydney Johnson, Quique Bassat and Kevin C. Kain
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:268, 24 July 2020

Despite potent anti-malarial treatment, mortality rates associated with severe falciparum malaria remain high. To attempt to improve outcome, several trials have assessed a variety of potential adjunctive therapeutics, however none to date has been shown to be beneficial. This may be due, at least partly, to the therapeutics chosen and clinical trial design used. Here, we highlight three themes that could facilitate the choice and evaluation of putative adjuvant interventions for severe malaria, paving the way for their assessment in randomized controlled trials.

NOT Open Access | Doses of primaquine administered to children with Plasmodium vivax according to an age-based dose regimen

July 27, 2020 - 12:33 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Vieira MVDF, Matos Lopes TR, Mello AGNC, de Sena LWP, Commons RJ, Vieira JLF.
Reference: 
Pathog Glob Health. 2020 Jul 24:1-5

Primaquine is still the first-line drug to eliminate hypnozoites of Plasmodium vivax. The therapeutic efficacy is related to the total dose administered. In several endemic areas, the drug is administered for children in an age-based regimen, which can lead to inadequate exposure, increasing the rates of recurrence of the infection. The present study aims to describe the mg/kg total dose of primaquine administered to children for treatment for vivax malaria when an age-based regimen is used and to measure the plasma concentrations of primaquine and carboxyprimaquine.

NOT Open Access | Impact of Malaria in Pregnancy on Risk of Malaria in Young Children: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

July 27, 2020 - 12:31 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Park S, Nixon CE, Miller O, Choi NK, Kurtis JD, Friedman JF, Michelow IC
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 23; 222(4):538-550

Our objective was to quantify the risk of acquiring malaria among progeny of women with malaria during pregnancy.

NOT Open Access | Interactions Between Antenatal Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Drug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Parasites, and Delivery Outcomes in Malawi

July 27, 2020 - 12:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Taylor SM, Levitt B, Freedman B, Madanitsa M, Thwai KL, Kalilani-Phiri L, Khairallah C, Mwapasa V, Ter Kuile FO, Meshnick SR
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 23; 222(4):661-669

Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is used as intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp) for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The resistance marker dhps A581G has been associated with reduced IPTp-SP efficacy and enhanced morbidity in SP recipients.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium falciparum Isolates Carrying pfk13 Polymorphisms Harbor the SVMNT Allele of pfcrt in Northwestern Indonesia

July 27, 2020 - 12:26 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Lubis IND, Wijaya H, Lubis M, Lubis CP, Beshir KB, Sutherland CJ
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Jul 22; 64(8):e02539-19

Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line antimalarial regimen in Indonesia. Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin is falling in the Greater Mekong subregion, but it is not known whether the efficacy of current combinations is also threatened in nearby Sumatera. We evaluated the genetic loci pfcrt, pfmdr1, and pfk13, considered to be under selection by artemisinin combination therapy, among 404 P. falciparum infections identified by PCR detection in a cross-sectional survey of 3,731 residents of three regencies.

The Plasmodium falciparum eIK1 kinase (PfeIK1) is central for melatonin synchronization in the human malaria parasite. Melatotosil blocks melatonin action on parasite cell cycle

July 27, 2020 - 12:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dias BKM, Nakabashi M, Alves MRR, Portella DP, Matheus Dos Santos B, Costa da Silva Almeida F, Ribeiro RY, Schuck D, Jordão AK, Garcia CRS
Reference: 
J Pineal Res. 2020 Jul 23:e12685

Melatonin and its indoles derivatives are central in the synchronization of malaria parasites. In this research, we discovered that melatonin is unable to increase the parasitemia in the human malaria Plasmodium falciparum that lacks the kinase PfeIK1. The PfeIK1 knockout strain is a valuable tool in the screening of indol-related compound that blocks the melatonin effect in wild type parasite (WT) development.

One-step PCR: A novel protocol for determination of pfhrp2 deletion status in Plasmodium falciparum

July 27, 2020 - 12:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jones S, Subramaniam G, Plucinski MM, Patel D, Padilla J, Aidoo M, Talundzic E
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(7): e0236369

Histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have played an important role in enabling prompt malaria diagnosis in remote locations. However, emergence of pfhrp2 deleted parasites is threatening the efficacy of RDTs, and the World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted surveillance of these deletions as a priority. Nested PCR is used to confirm pfhrp2 deletion but is costly and laborious.

NOT Open Access | Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and Risk Factors for Severe Disease in Hubei Province, China

July 27, 2020 - 12:18 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Xia J, Wu D, Liu S, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jul 20

This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and identify risk factors for severe disease in Hubei Province, China, using a case-based survey of retrospective data from 2013 to 2018. From 2013 to 2018, a total of 763 imported malaria cases were reported in Hubei Province; 69.2% (528/763) cases were caused by P. falciparum species.

NOT Open Access | Malaria Transmission, Infection, and Disease following Sustained Indoor Residual Spraying of Insecticide in Tororo, Uganda

July 27, 2020 - 12:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Nankabirwa JI, Arinaitwe E, Dorsey G, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jul 20

Tororo, a district in Uganda with historically high malaria transmission intensity, has recently scaled up control interventions, including universal long-lasting insecticidal net distribution in 2013 and 2017, and sustained indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide since December 2014. We describe the burden of malaria in Tororo 5 years following the initiation of IRS.

NOT Open Access | Hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 Therapy: Protection Versus Proarrhythmia

July 27, 2020 - 12:13 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Stremmel C, Kellnar A, Massberg S, Kääb S
Reference: 
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2020 Jul 23:1074248420935740

In recent months, the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as a worldwide threat with about 4.2 million confirmed cases and almost 300 000 deaths. Its major clinical presentation is characterized by respiratory symptoms ranging from mild cough to serve pneumonia with fever and potentially even death. Until today, there is no known medication to improve clinical symptoms or even prevent or fight the infection.

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