To assess whether intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and azithromycin (AZI) in a malaria-endemic area leads to sustained gains in linear growth and development in their offspring.
Around 27% of South Americans live in central and southern Brazil. Of 19,400 human malaria cases in Brazil in 2018, some were from the southern and southeastern states. High abundance of malaria vectors is generally positively associated with malaria incidence. Expanding geographic distributions of Anopheles vector mosquito species (e.g. A. cruzii) in the face of climate change processes would increase risk of such malaria transmission; such risk is of particular concern in regions that hold human population concentrations near present limits of vector species' geographic distributions.
The decline in malaria across Africa has been largely attributed to vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, this intervention has prompted widespread insecticide resistance (IR) and been associated with changes in mosquito behaviour that reduce their contact with LLINs. The relative importance and rate at which IR and behavioural adaptations emerge are poorly understood. We conducted surveillance of mosquito behaviour and IR at 12 sites in Burkina Faso to assess the magnitude and temporal dynamics of insecticide, biting and resting behaviours in vectors in the 2-year period following mass LLIN distribution. Insecticide resistance was present in all vector populations and increased rapidly over the study period. In contrast, no longitudinal shifts in LLIN-avoidance behaviours (earlier or outdoor biting and resting) were detected.
Current clinical evidences do not support any specific treatment against SARS-CoV-2. Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are typically used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and malaria; they have been considered for off-label and compassionate use in several countries against moderate to severe cases of COVID-19 and there's actually a massive demand of these two drugs. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the published literature, summarizing evidences about audiological implications after CQ and HCQ treatment.
Through the regional control programme, Malaysia has been successfully reducing the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. However, the incidence of zoonotic malaria Plasmodium knowlesi infection is increasing and now has been the major cause of malaria in Malaysia especially Malaysian Borneo. The emergence of knowlesi infection has threatened the malaria elimination programme which the government aims to reduce the overall malaria infections by 2020. Unlike other benign human Plasmodium spp., P. knowlesi can cause fatal infections.
A layer of glycocalyx covers the vascular endothelium serving important protective and homeostatic functions. The objective of this study was to determine if breakdown of the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC) occurs during malaria infection in children. Measures of eGC integrity, endothelial activation, and microvascular reactivity were prospectively evaluated in 146 children: 44 with moderately severe malaria (MSM), 42 with severe malaria (SM), and 60 healthy controls (HC).
In order to be successful in global health today, all the long-established European tropical research institutes had to undergo a transition which can be described as "hunter-gatherer" and descriptive approaches during colonial and postcolonial times to a deeper understanding of infection biology and finally to public health interventions from which populations at large can benefit. During the 1980s and 1990s, the Swiss Tropical Institute (today: Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Swiss TPH) based in Basel too has changed its focus from individual medicine to a public health context.
Malaria is the deadliest parasitic disease in tropical and subtropical areas around the world, with considerable morbidity and mortality, particularly due to the life-threatening Plasmodium falciparum. The present in silico investigation was performed to reveal the biophysical characteristics and immunogenic epitopes of the six pre-erythrocytic proteins of the P. falciparum using comprehensive immunoinformatics approaches.
Malaria is among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity among children in Ghana. Therefore, identifying the predictors of malaria prevalence in children under-five is among the priorities of the global health agenda. In Ghana, the paradigm shifts from using traditional statistics to machine learning techniques to identifying predictors of malaria prevalence are scarce.
From 2004 to 2019, insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) have been the most effective tool for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, however, the decline in malaria cases and deaths has stalled. Some suggest that this inertia is due to increasing resistance in malaria vectors to the pyrethroid insecticides used for treating ITNs.