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Scientific Articles

Child growth and neurodevelopment after maternal antenatal antibiotic treatment

September 7, 2021 - 15:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Videman K, Hallamaa L, Heimonen O, Mangani C, Luntamo M, Maleta K, Ashorn P, Ashorn U
Reference: 
Arch Dis Child. 2021 Sep 3:archdischild-2021-322043

To assess whether intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and azithromycin (AZI) in a malaria-endemic area leads to sustained gains in linear growth and development in their offspring.

NOT Open Access | Climate change impacts on Anopheles (K.) cruzii in urban areas of Atlantic Forest of Brazil: challenges for malaria diseases

September 7, 2021 - 15:28 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Marques R, Krüger RF, Cunha SK, Silveira AS, Alves DMCC, Rodrigues GD, Peterson AT, Jiménez-García D
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2021 Sep 1:106123

Around 27% of South Americans live in central and southern Brazil. Of 19,400 human malaria cases in Brazil in 2018, some were from the southern and southeastern states. High abundance of malaria vectors is generally positively associated with malaria incidence. Expanding geographic distributions of Anopheles vector mosquito species (e.g. A. cruzii) in the face of climate change processes would increase risk of such malaria transmission; such risk is of particular concern in regions that hold human population concentrations near present limits of vector species' geographic distributions.

Insecticide resistance and behavioural adaptation as a response to long-lasting insecticidal net deployment in malaria vectors in the Cascades region of Burkina Faso

September 7, 2021 - 15:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sanou A, Nelli L, Guelbéogo WM, Cissé F, Tapsoba M, Ouédraogo P, Sagnon N, Ranson H, Matthiopoulos J, Ferguson HM
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Sep 2;11(1):17569

The decline in malaria across Africa has been largely attributed to vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, this intervention has prompted widespread insecticide resistance (IR) and been associated with changes in mosquito behaviour that reduce their contact with LLINs. The relative importance and rate at which IR and behavioural adaptations emerge are poorly understood. We conducted surveillance of mosquito behaviour and IR at 12 sites in Burkina Faso to assess the magnitude and temporal dynamics of insecticide, biting and resting behaviours in vectors in the 2-year period following mass LLIN distribution. Insecticide resistance was present in all vector populations and increased rapidly over the study period. In contrast, no longitudinal shifts in LLIN-avoidance behaviours (earlier or outdoor biting and resting) were detected.

NOT Open Access | Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine ototoxicity; potential implications for SARS-CoV-2 treatment. A brief review of the literature

September 1, 2021 - 17:38 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
De Luca P, Scarpa A, De Bonis E, Cavaliere M, Viola P, Gioacchini FM, Ralli M, Ettore C, Claudia C
Reference: 
Am J Otolaryngol. 2021 Sep-Oct;42(5):102640

Current clinical evidences do not support any specific treatment against SARS-CoV-2. Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are typically used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and malaria; they have been considered for off-label and compassionate use in several countries against moderate to severe cases of COVID-19 and there's actually a massive demand of these two drugs. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the published literature, summarizing evidences about audiological implications after CQ and HCQ treatment.

High incidence of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria compared to other human malaria species in several hospitals in Malaysia

September 1, 2021 - 17:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lai MY, Rafieqin N, Lau YL, et al.
Reference: 
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):248-253

Through the regional control programme, Malaysia has been successfully reducing the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. However, the incidence of zoonotic malaria Plasmodium knowlesi infection is increasing and now has been the major cause of malaria in Malaysia especially Malaysian Borneo. The emergence of knowlesi infection has threatened the malaria elimination programme which the government aims to reduce the overall malaria infections by 2020. Unlike other benign human Plasmodium spp., P. knowlesi can cause fatal infections.

Not Open Access | Degradation of endothelial glycocalyx in Tanzanian children with falciparum malaria

September 1, 2021 - 17:34 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bush MA, Florence SM, Yeo TW, Kalingonji AR, Chen Y, Granger DL, Rubach MP, Anstey NM, Mwaikambo ED, Weinberg JB
Reference: 
FASEB J. 2021 Sep;35(9):e21805

A layer of glycocalyx covers the vascular endothelium serving important protective and homeostatic functions. The objective of this study was to determine if breakdown of the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC) occurs during malaria infection in children. Measures of eGC integrity, endothelial activation, and microvascular reactivity were prospectively evaluated in 146 children: 44 with moderately severe malaria (MSM), 42 with severe malaria (SM), and 60 healthy controls (HC).

A brief history of selected malaria vaccine and medical interventions pursued by the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and partners, 1943-2021

September 1, 2021 - 17:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Meier L, Casagrande G, Abdulla S, Masanja H
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2021 Aug 28:106115

In order to be successful in global health today, all the long-established European tropical research institutes had to undergo a transition which can be described as "hunter-gatherer" and descriptive approaches during colonial and postcolonial times to a deeper understanding of infection biology and finally to public health interventions from which populations at large can benefit. During the 1980s and 1990s, the Swiss Tropical Institute (today: Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Swiss TPH) based in Basel too has changed its focus from individual medicine to a public health context.

NOT Open Access | In silico analysis and prediction of immunogenic epitopes for pre-erythrocytic proteins of the deadly Plasmodium falciparum

September 1, 2021 - 17:28 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Asghari A, Nourmohammadi H, Majidiani H, Shariatzadeh SA, Shams M, Montazeri F
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2021 Sep;93:104985

Malaria is the deadliest parasitic disease in tropical and subtropical areas around the world, with considerable morbidity and mortality, particularly due to the life-threatening Plasmodium falciparum. The present in silico investigation was performed to reveal the biophysical characteristics and immunogenic epitopes of the six pre-erythrocytic proteins of the P. falciparum using comprehensive immunoinformatics approaches.

A predictive model, and predictors of under-five child malaria prevalence in Ghana: How do LASSO, Ridge and Elastic net regression approaches compare

September 1, 2021 - 17:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Aheto JMK, Duah HO, Agbadi P, Nakua EK
Reference: 
Prev Med Rep. 2021 Jun 27;23:101475

Malaria is among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity among children in Ghana. Therefore, identifying the predictors of malaria prevalence in children under-five is among the priorities of the global health agenda. In Ghana, the paradigm shifts from using traditional statistics to machine learning techniques to identifying predictors of malaria prevalence are scarce.

Threats to the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bednets for malaria control: thinking beyond insecticide resistance

September 1, 2021 - 17:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lindsay SW, Thomas MB, Kleinschmidt I
Reference: 
Lancet Glob Health. 2021 Sep;9(9):e1325-e1331

From 2004 to 2019, insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) have been the most effective tool for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, however, the decline in malaria cases and deaths has stalled. Some suggest that this inertia is due to increasing resistance in malaria vectors to the pyrethroid insecticides used for treating ITNs.

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