Ongoing efforts to fight Plasmodium falciparum malaria has reduced malaria in many areas, but new tools are needed to monitor further progress, including indicators of decreasing exposure to parasite infection. Sero-surveillance is considered promising to monitor exposure, transmission and immunity.
In the Amazon basin, indigenous forest-dwelling communities typically suffer from a high burden of infectious diseases, including malaria. Difficulties in accessing these isolated ethnic groups, such as the semi-nomadic Yanomami, make official malaria data largely underestimated. In the current study, we longitudinally surveyed microscopic and submicroscopic malaria infection in four Yanomami villages of the Marari community in the northern-most region of the Brazilian Amazon.
Support vector machine (SVM) and general regression neural network (GRNN) were used to develop classification models for predicting the antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Only 15 molecular descriptors were used to build the classification models for the antimalarial activities of 4750 compounds, which were divided into a training set (3887 compounds) and a test set (863 compounds).
Malaria antigen detection through rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) is widely used to diagnose malaria and estimate prevalence. To support more sensitive next-generation RDT development and screen asymptomatic malaria, we developed and evaluated the Q-Plex™ Human Malaria Array, which quantifies the antigens commonly used in RDTs—Plasmodium falciparum–specific histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), P. falciparum-specific lactate dehydrogenase (Pf LDH), P. vivax –specific LDH (Pv LDH), and Pan malaria lactate dehydrogenase (Pan LDH), and human C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of severity in malaria.
Invasion of human erythrocytes by merozoites of Plasmodium knowlesi involves interaction between the P. knowlesi Duffy binding protein alpha region II (PkDBPαII) and Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARCs) on the erythrocytes. Information is scarce on the binding level of PkDBPαII to different Duffy antigens, Fya and Fyb.
Malaria is a major public health problem in West Africa. Previous studies have shown that climate variability significantly affects malaria transmission. The lack of continuous observed weather station data and the absence of surveillance data for malaria over long periods have led to the use of reanalysis data to drive malaria models.
Effective case management is central for malaria control, but not all of those affected by malaria have access to prompt, effective treatment. In Kenya, free malaria treatment has been implemented since 2006. However, questions remain regarding effective treatment. We conducted cross-sectional epidemiological and questionnaire surveys in four counties in western Kenya in 2004, 2010, and 2016, and antimalarial availability surveys in 2016.
Malaria clinical studies entailing the experimental infection of healthy volunteers with Plasmodium parasites by bites from infected mosquitos, injection of cryopreserved sporozoites, or injection of blood-stage parasites provide valuable information for vaccine and drug development.
Surveillance activities that are well developed in one area may act as driving forces for strengthening surveillance activities in other areas.
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum traffics the virulence protein P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) to the surface of infected red blood cells (RBCs) via membranous organelles, known as the Maurer’s clefts. We developed a method for efficient enrichment of Maurer’s clefts and profiled the protein composition of this trafficking organelle. We identified 13 previously uncharacterized or poorly characterized Maurer’s cleft proteins.