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Scientific Articles

Enhanced Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of a Campylobacter jejuni Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Liposomes Containing Monophosphoryl Lipid A and QS-21

July 16, 2019 - 16:15 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Amritha Ramakrishnan, Nina M. Schumack, Renee M. Laird, et al.
Reference: 
mSphere May/June 2019 4:e00101-19

Campylobacter jejuni is among the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide and efforts to develop protective measures against the pathogen are ongoing.

Internalization of Erythrocyte Acylpeptide Hydrolase Is Required for Asexual Replication of Plasmodium falciparum

July 16, 2019 - 16:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rubayet Elahi, Christie Dapper and Michael Klemba
Reference: 
mSphere May/June 2019 4:e00077-19

The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum causes disease as it replicates within the host’s erythrocytes.

Primaquine at alternative dosing schedules for preventing relapse in people with Plasmodium vivax malaria

July 16, 2019 - 16:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rachael Milligan, André Daher, Patricia M Graves
Reference: 
Cochrane Systematic Review, 05 July 2019

Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax requires treatment of the blood‐stage infection and treatment of the hypnozoites that develop in the liver. This is a challenge to effective case management of P vivax malaria, as well as being a more general substantial impediment to malaria control. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a 14‐day drug course with primaquine, an 8‐aminoquinoline, at 0.25 mg/kg/day in most of the world (standard course), or 0.5 mg/kg/day in East Asia and Oceania (high‐standard course). This long treatment course can be difficult to complete, and primaquine can cause dangerous haemolysis in individuals with glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, meaning that physicians may be reluctant to prescribe in areas where G6PD testing is not available. This Cochrane Review evaluated whether more patient‐friendly alternative regimens are as efficacious as the standard regimen for radical cure ofP vivax malaria.

In vitro and in vivo characterization of anti-malarial acylphenoxazine derivatives prepared from basic blue 3

July 15, 2019 - 16:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Takahiro Tougan, Kazunori Takahashi, Mayumi Ikegami-Kawai, Masako Horiuchi, Shiho Mori, Maiko Hosoi, Toshihiro Horii, Masataka Ihara and Masayoshi Tsubuki
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:237, 15 July 2019

Basic blue 3 is a promising anti-malarial lead compound based on the π-delocalized lipophilic cation hypothesis. Its derivatives with nitrogen atoms bonded to carbon atoms at the 3- and 7-positions on the phenoxazine ring were previously shown to exert potent antiprotozoal activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, and Leishmania donovani parasites in vitro. However, compounds with nitrogen modification at the 10-position on the phenoxazine ring were not evaluated.

Quality of fixed dose artemether/lumefantrine products in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia

July 15, 2019 - 16:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sileshi Belew, Sultan Suleman, Bart De Spiegeleer, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:236, 15 July 2019

Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum is among the major public health problems in most endemic areas of the world. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been recommended as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria almost in all endemic regions. Since ineffectively regulated medicines in resource limited settings could favour infiltration of poor quality anti-malarial medicines into pharmaceutical supply chain and jeopardize a positive treatment outcome, regular monitoring of the quality of anti-malarial medicines is critical. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of fixed dose combination (FDC) artemether (ART)/lumefantrine (LUM) tablets available in Jimma zone, Ethiopia.

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Structures of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase in malaria parasites reveal a unique structural relay mechanism for activation

July 15, 2019 - 16:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Majida El Bakkouri, Imène Kouidmi, Raymond Hui, et al.
Reference: 
PNAS July 9, 2019 116 (28) 14164-14173

The cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) was identified >25 y ago; however, efforts to obtain a structure of the entire PKG enzyme or catalytic domain from any species have failed.

Atomic view into Plasmodium actin polymerization, ATP hydrolysis, and fragmentation

July 15, 2019 - 15:17 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Esa-Pekka Kumpula, Andrea J. Lopez, Leila Tajedin, Huijong Han, Inari Kursula
Reference: 
PLoS Biol 17(6): e3000315

Plasmodium actins form very short filaments and have a noncanonical link between ATP hydrolysis and polymerization. Long filaments are detrimental to the parasites, but the structural factors constraining Plasmodium microfilament lengths have remained unknown.

Monitoring and evaluation of intervals from onset of fever to diagnosis before “1-3-7” approach in malaria elimination: a retrospective study in Shanxi Province, China from 2013 to 2018

July 15, 2019 - 15:14 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Ting Wang, Shui-Sen Zhou, Jun Feng, Myo Minn Oo, Jing Chen, Chang-Fu Yan, Yi Zhang and Ping Tie
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:235, 12 July 2019

China’s 1-3-7 approach was extensively implemented to monitor the timeframe of case reporting, case investigation and foci response in the malaria elimination. However, activities before diagnosis and reporting (before ‘1’) would counteract the efficiency of 1-3-7 approach but few data have evaluated this issue. This study aims to evaluate the timelines between onset of fever and diagnosis at healthcare facilities in Shanxi Province.

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A non-lethal malarial infection results in reduced drug metabolizing enzyme expression and drug clearance in mice

July 15, 2019 - 15:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sylvie M. Mimche, Choon-myung Lee, Edward T. Morgan, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:234, 12 July 2019

Given the central importance of anti-malarial drugs in the treatment of malaria, there is a need to understand the effect of Plasmodium infection on the broad spectrum of drug metabolizing enzymes. Previous studies have shown reduced clearance of quinine, a treatment for Plasmodium infection, in individuals with malaria.

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