The species-specific mode of action for DEET and many other mosquito repellents is often unclear. Confusion may arise for many reasons. First, the response of a single mosquito species is often used to represent all mosquito species. Second, behavioural studies usually test the effect of repellents on mosquito attraction towards human odorants, rather than their direct repulsive effect on mosquitoes. Third, the mosquito sensory neuron responses towards repellents are often not directly examined.
There is an urgent need for an effective vaccine to control and eradicate malaria, one of the most serious global infectious diseases. Plasmodium merozoite surface protein 4 (MSP4) has been listed as a blood-stage subunit vaccine candidate for malaria. Infection with Plasmodium ovale species including P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi, is also a source of malaria burden in tropical regions where it is sometimes mixed with other Plasmodium species. However, little is known about P. ovale MSP4.
Despite huge investments and implementation of effective interventions for malaria, progress has stalled, with transmission being increasingly localized among difficult-to-reach populations and outdoor-biting vectors. Targeting difficult pockets of transmission will require the development of tailored and targeted approaches suited to local context, drawing from insights close to the frontlines.
Following guidance from the US President’s Malaria Initiative, durability monitoring of DawaPlus® 2.0 brand of long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distributed during the 2015/16 mass campaign was set up in three ecologically different states: Zamfara, Ebonyi and Oyo.
Malaria surveillance requires powerful tools and strategies to achieve malaria elimination. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDTs) are easily deployed on a large scale and are helpful sources of parasite DNA. The application of sensitive molecular techniques to these RDTs is a modern tool for improving malaria case detection and drug resistance surveillance. Several studies have made it possible to extract the DNA of Plasmodium falciparum from RDTs. The knowledge of gametocyte carriage in the population is important to better assess the level of parasite transmission in elimination settings. The aim of this study was to detect P. falciparum gametocytes from used RDTs by quantitative PCR for molecular monitoring of malaria transmission.
Atypical memory B cells (aMBCs) are found in elevated numbers in individuals exposed to malaria. A key question is whether malaria induces aMBCs as a result of exposure to antigen, or non‐antigen specific mechanisms. We identified Plasmodium and bystander tetanus toxoid (TT) specific B cells in individuals from areas of previous and persistent exposure to malaria using tetramers.
A key drawback to monitoring the emergence and spread of antimalarial drug resistance in sub-Saharan Africa is early detection and containment. Next-generation sequencing methods offer the resolution, sensitivity, and scale required to fill this gap by surveilling for molecular markers of drug resistance.
MMV390048 is a novel antimalarial compound that inhibits Plasmodium phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase. The safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic profile, and antimalarial activity of MMV390048 were determined in healthy volunteers in three separate studies. A first-in-human, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-ascending-dose study was performed. Additionally, a volunteer infection study investigated the antimalarial activity of MMV390048 using the Plasmodium falciparum induced blood-stage malaria (IBSM) model.
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) experience some operational problems that reduce their effectiveness, such as limited spaces for hanging, biting of mosquitoes outdoors, a shift of key biting time from midnight to dawn or dusk, and development of pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes. The concept of spatial repellency may be a countermeasure to overcome the above issues.
Drug repositioning offers an effective alternative to de novo drug design to tackle the urgent need for novel antimalarial treatments. The antiamoebic compound emetine dihydrochloride has been identified as a potent in vitro inhibitor of the multidrug-resistant strain K1 of Plasmodium falciparum (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 47 nM ± 2.1 nM [mean ± standard deviation]).