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Scientific Articles

Evaluation of pilot implementation of seasonal malaria chemoprevention on morbidity in young children in Northern Sahelian Ghana

November 23, 2021 - 09:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Patrick O. Ansah, Nana A. Ansah, Abraham R. Oduro, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:440, 18 November 2021

In Sahelian Africa, the risk of malaria increases with the arrival of the rains, particularly in young children. Following successful trials, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the use of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) in areas with seasonal peak in malaria cases. This study evaluated the pilot implementation of SMC in Northern Ghana.

Insights from modelling malaria vaccines for policy decisions: the focus on RTS,S

November 23, 2021 - 09:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Katya Galactionova, Thomas A. Smith and Melissa A. Penny
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:439, 18 November 2021

Mathematical models are increasingly used to inform decisions throughout product development pathways from pre-clinical studies to country implementation of novel health interventions.

Analysis of the potential for a malaria vaccine to reduce gaps in malaria intervention coverage

November 23, 2021 - 09:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
H. Juliette T. Unwin, Lazaro Mwandigha, Peter Winskill, Azra C. Ghani and Alexandra B. Hogan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:438, 17 November 2021

The RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine is currently being evaluated in a cluster-randomized pilot implementation programme in three African countries. This study seeks to identify whether vaccination could reach additional children who are at risk from malaria but do not currently have access to, or use, core malaria interventions.

Acceptability of peer learning and education approach on malaria prevention (PLEA-malaria) through primary schools communities in rural Ethiopia: peer educators’ perspectives

November 23, 2021 - 09:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fira Abamecha, Alemayehu Deressa, Morankar Sudhakar, Lakew Abebe, Yohannes Kebede, Dejene Tilahun, Firanbon Teshome and Zewdie Birhanu
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:437, 15 November 2021

Evidence on peer educators’ experiences of implementing the school-based educational interventions on malaria prevention would be used as inputs for malaria eliminating efforts. This study explored the acceptability of the school-based peer-learning and education approach on malaria prevention (PLEA-malaria) among peer educators in Ethiopia.

Assessment of genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein in Sudan: the RTS,S leading malaria vaccine candidate

November 23, 2021 - 09:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nouh Saad Mohamed, Hanadi AbdElbagi, Rihab Ali Omer, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:436, 10 November 2021

The currently used malaria vaccine, RTS,S, is designed based on the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP). The pfcsp gene, besides having different polymorphic patterns, can vary between P. falciparum isolates due to geographical origin and host immune response. Such aspects are essential when considering the deployment of the RTS,S vaccine in a certain region. Therefore, this study assessed the genetic diversity of P. falciparum in Sudan based on the pfcsp gene by investigating the diversity at the N-terminal, central repeat, and the C-terminal regions.

Longitudinal analysis of FcRL5 expression and clonal relationships among classical and atypical memory B cells following malaria

November 23, 2021 - 09:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
S. Jake Gonzales, Sebastiaan Bol, Ashley E. Braddom, Richard Sullivan, Raphael A. Reyes, Isaac Ssewanyana, Erica Eggers, Bryan Greenhouse and Evelien M. Bunnik
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:435, 10 November 2021

Chronic and frequently recurring infectious diseases, such as malaria, are associated with expanded populations of atypical memory B cells (MBCs). These cells are different from classical MBCs by the lack of surface markers CD21 and CD27 and increased expression of inhibitory receptors, such as FcRL5. While the phenotype and conditions leading to neogenesis of atypical MBCs in malaria-experienced individuals have been studied extensively, the origin of these cells remains equivocal. Functional similarities between FcRL5+ atypical MBCs and FcRL5+ classical MBCs have been reported, suggesting that these cells may be developmentally related.

Absence of Plasmodium falciparum artemisinin resistance gene mutations eleven years after the adoption of artemisinin-based combination therapy in Nigeria

November 20, 2021 - 14:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Moses Ikegbunam, Johnson A. Ojo, Kossiwa Kokou, Ugonna Morikwe, Chukwuemeka Nworu, Chibuzo Uba, Charles Esimone, Thirumalaisamy P. Velavan and Olusola Ojurongbe
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:434, 10 November 2021

The occurrence of artemisinin resistance (ART)-associated polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum K13-propeller (pfk13) gene before and after the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in two regions of Nigeria was investigated in this study. Regular surveillance is necessary to make a definite conclusion on the emergence and pattern of possible resistance to ART.

A colorimetric test for the evaluation of the insecticide content of LLINs used on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

November 20, 2021 - 14:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Harparkash Kaur, Elizabeth Louise Allan, Teunis A. Eggelte, Guillermo A. García and Feliciano Monti
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:433, 10 November 2021

Insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying of insecticides are used as the vector control interventions in the fight against malaria. Measuring the actual amount of deposits of insecticides on bed nets and walls is essential for evaluating the quality and effectiveness of the intervention. A colorimetric “Test Kit” designed for use as a screening tool, able to detect the type II pyrethroids on fabrics and sprayed walls, was used for the first time to detect deltamethrin on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) deployed on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

Efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Madagascar, 2018

November 20, 2021 - 14:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Catherine M. Dentinger, Tovonahary Angelo Rakotomanga, C. Arsène Ratsimbasoa, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:432, 3 November 2021

Since 2005, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been recommended to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Madagascar. Artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) are the first- and second-line treatments, respectively. A therapeutic efficacy study was conducted to assess ACT efficacy and molecular markers of anti-malarial resistance.

Malaria Trigram: improving the visualization of recurrence data for malaria elimination

November 20, 2021 - 14:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cleber Matos de Morais, Kayo Henrique de Carvalho Monteiro, Jose Diego Brito-Sousa, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Vanderson Souza Sampaio, Patricia Takako Endo and Judith Kelner
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:431, 30 October 2021

Although considerable success in reducing the incidence of malaria has been achieved in Brazil in recent years, an increase in the proportion of cases caused by the harder-to-eliminate Plasmodium vivax parasite can be noted. Recurrences in P. vivax malaria cases are due to new mosquito-bite infections, drug resistance or especially from relapses arising from hypnozoites. As such, new innovative surveillance strategies are needed. The aim of this study was to develop an infographic visualization tool to improve individual-level malaria surveillance focused on malaria elimination in the Brazilian Amazon.

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