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Scientific Articles

Insect repellents mediate species-specific olfactory behaviours in mosquitoes

March 31, 2020 - 15:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ali Afify and Christopher J. Potter
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:127, 30 March 2020

The species-specific mode of action for DEET and many other mosquito repellents is often unclear. Confusion may arise for many reasons. First, the response of a single mosquito species is often used to represent all mosquito species. Second, behavioural studies usually test the effect of repellents on mosquito attraction towards human odorants, rather than their direct repulsive effect on mosquitoes. Third, the mosquito sensory neuron responses towards repellents are often not directly examined.

Immunogenicity analysis of conserved fragments in Plasmodium ovale species merozoite surface protein 4

March 31, 2020 - 15:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Juliette Uwase, Ruilin Chu, Kokouvi Kassegne, Yao Lei, Feihu Shen, Haitian Fu, Yifan Sun, Yinghua Xuan, Jun Cao and Yang Cheng
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:126, 30 March 2020

There is an urgent need for an effective vaccine to control and eradicate malaria, one of the most serious global infectious diseases. Plasmodium merozoite surface protein 4 (MSP4) has been listed as a blood-stage subunit vaccine candidate for malaria. Infection with Plasmodium ovale species including P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi, is also a source of malaria burden in tropical regions where it is sometimes mixed with other Plasmodium species. However, little is known about P. ovale MSP4.

District-level approach for tailoring and targeting interventions: a new path for malaria control and elimination

March 31, 2020 - 15:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Roly Gosling, John Chimumbwa, Petrina Uusiku, Sara Rossi, Henry Ntuku, Kelly Harvard, Chris White, Allison Tatarsky, Daniel Chandramohan and Ingrid Chen
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:125, 30 March 2020

Despite huge investments and implementation of effective interventions for malaria, progress has stalled, with transmission being increasingly localized among difficult-to-reach populations and outdoor-biting vectors. Targeting difficult pockets of transmission will require the development of tailored and targeted approaches suited to local context, drawing from insights close to the frontlines.

Monitoring the physical and insecticidal durability of the long-lasting insecticidal net DawaPlus® 2.0 in three States in Nigeria

March 31, 2020 - 15:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Emmanuel Obi, Festus Okoh, Albert Kilian, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:124, 30 March 2020

Following guidance from the US President’s Malaria Initiative, durability monitoring of DawaPlus® 2.0 brand of long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distributed during the 2015/16 mass campaign was set up in three ecologically different states: Zamfara, Ebonyi and Oyo.

Molecular detection and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes carriage in used RDTs in malaria elimination settings in northern Senegal

March 31, 2020 - 15:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kiswendsida Thierry Guiguemde, Yakou Dieye, Babacar Faye, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:123, 30 March 2020

Malaria surveillance requires powerful tools and strategies to achieve malaria elimination. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDTs) are easily deployed on a large scale and are helpful sources of parasite DNA. The application of sensitive molecular techniques to these RDTs is a modern tool for improving malaria case detection and drug resistance surveillance. Several studies have made it possible to extract the DNA of Plasmodium falciparum from RDTs. The knowledge of gametocyte carriage in the population is important to better assess the level of parasite transmission in elimination settings. The aim of this study was to detect P. falciparum gametocytes from used RDTs by quantitative PCR for molecular monitoring of malaria transmission.

NOT Open Access | Malaria exposure drives both cognate and bystander human B cells to adopt an atypical phenotype

March 31, 2020 - 15:15 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Aye R, Sutton HJ, Nduati EW, Kai O, Mwacharo J, Musyoki J, Otieno E, Wambua J, Bejon P, Cockburn IA, Ndungu FM
Reference: 
Eur J Immunol. 2020 Mar 29

Atypical memory B cells (aMBCs) are found in elevated numbers in individuals exposed to malaria. A key question is whether malaria induces aMBCs as a result of exposure to antigen, or non‐antigen specific mechanisms. We identified Plasmodium and bystander tetanus toxoid (TT) specific B cells in individuals from areas of previous and persistent exposure to malaria using tetramers.

NOT Open Access | Antimalarial Drug Resistance Profiling of Plasmodium falciparum Infections in Ghana Using Molecular Inversion Probes and Next-Generation Sequencing

March 30, 2020 - 10:49 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Mensah BA, Aydemir O, Myers-Hansen JL, Opoku M, Hathaway NJ, Marsh PW, Anto F, Bailey J, Abuaku B, Ghansah A
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Mar 24;64(4). pii: e01423-19

A key drawback to monitoring the emergence and spread of antimalarial drug resistance in sub-Saharan Africa is early detection and containment. Next-generation sequencing methods offer the resolution, sensitivity, and scale required to fill this gap by surveilling for molecular markers of drug resistance.

Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Antimalarial Activity of the Novel Plasmodium Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase Inhibitor MMV390048 in Healthy Volunteers

March 30, 2020 - 10:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sinxadi P, Donini C, Johnstone H, Langdon G, Wiesner L, Allen E, Duparc S, Chalon S, McCarthy JS, Lorch U, Chibale K, Möhrle J, Barnes KI
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Mar 24;64(4). pii: e01896-19

MMV390048 is a novel antimalarial compound that inhibits Plasmodium phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase. The safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic profile, and antimalarial activity of MMV390048 were determined in healthy volunteers in three separate studies. A first-in-human, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-ascending-dose study was performed. Additionally, a volunteer infection study investigated the antimalarial activity of MMV390048 using the Plasmodium falciparum induced blood-stage malaria (IBSM) model.

Effect of Metofluthrin-Impregnated Spatial Repellent Devices Combined with New Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (Olyset® Plus) on Pyrethroid-Resistant Malaria Vectors and Malaria Prevalence: Field Trial in South-Eastern Malawi

March 30, 2020 - 10:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kawada H, Nakazawa S, Shimabukuro K, Ohashi K, Kambewa EA, Foster Pemba D
Reference: 
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 24;73(2):124-131

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) experience some operational problems that reduce their effectiveness, such as limited spaces for hanging, biting of mosquitoes outdoors, a shift of key biting time from midnight to dawn or dusk, and development of pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes. The concept of spatial repellency may be a countermeasure to overcome the above issues.

Lead Optimization of Dehydroemetine for Repositioned Use in Malaria

March 30, 2020 - 10:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Panwar P, Burusco KK, Abubaker M, Matthews H, Gutnov A, Fernández-Álvaro E, Bryce RA, Wilkinson J, Nirmalan N
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Mar 24;64(4). pii: e01444-19

Drug repositioning offers an effective alternative to de novo drug design to tackle the urgent need for novel antimalarial treatments. The antiamoebic compound emetine dihydrochloride has been identified as a potent in vitro inhibitor of the multidrug-resistant strain K1 of Plasmodium falciparum (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 47 nM ± 2.1 nM [mean ± standard deviation]).

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