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Scientific Articles

Value regimes and pricing in the pharmaceutical industry: financial capital inflation (hepatitis C) versus innovation and production capital savings for malaria medicines

January 21, 2021 - 15:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cassier M
Reference: 
Biosocieties. 2021 Jan 13:1-19

The idea of this paper is to draw a parallel between two diametrically opposed political economies of medicine that coexist today. The first is embodied in the invention, appropriation, and distribution of antivirals for hepatitis C, particularly sofosbuvir, which was commercialized at an initial price of $85,000 in the United States, €56,000 in France, and $8000 in Brazil.

A chemokine-fusion vaccine targeting immature dendritic cells elicits elevated antibody responses to malaria sporozoites in infant macaques

January 21, 2021 - 15:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Luo K, Gordy JT, Zavala F, Markham RB
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Jan 13;11(1):1220

Infants and young children are the groups at greatest risk for severe disease resulting from Plasmodium falciparum infection. We previously demonstrated in mice that a protein vaccine composed of the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 3α genetically fused to the minimally truncated circumsporozoite protein of P. falciparum (MCSP) elicits high concentrations of specific antibody and significant reduction of liver sporozoite load in a mouse model system.

Anti-malarial efficacy and resistance monitoring of artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine shows inadequate efficacy in children in Burkina Faso, 2017–2018

January 20, 2021 - 08:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Adama Gansané, Leah F. Moriarty, Halidou Tinto, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:48, 19 January 2021

The World Health Organization recommends regularly assessing the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), which is a critical tool in the fight against malaria. This study evaluated the efficacy of two artemisinin-based combinations recommended to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Burkina Faso in three sites: Niangoloko, Nanoro, and Gourcy.

Textile testing to assess the resistance to damage of long-lasting insecticidal nets for malaria control and prevention

January 20, 2021 - 08:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Amy Wheldrake, Estelle Guillemois, Hamidreza Arouni, Vera Chetty and Stephen J. Russell
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:47, 19 January 2021

LLINs are susceptible to forming holes within a short time in use, compromising their ability to provide long-term physical protection against insect-borne vectors of disease. Mechanical damage is known to be responsible for the majority of holes, with most being the result of snagging, tearing, hole enlargement, abrasion and seam failure, which can readily occur during normal household use. To enable an assessment of the ability of LLINs to resist such damage prior to distribution, a new suite of testing methods was developed to reflect the main damage mechanisms encountered during normal use of LLINs.

Development of a single resistance to damage metric for mosquito nets related to physical integrity in the field

January 20, 2021 - 08:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Amy Wheldrake, Estelle Guillemois, Vera Chetty, Albert Kilian and Stephen J. Russell
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:46, 19 January 2021

In common with the majority of personal protective equipment and healthcare products, the ability for long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) to remain in good physical condition during use is a key factor governing fitness for purpose and serviceability. The inherent ability of a product to resist physical deterioration should be known in advance of it being used to ensure it has maximum value to both the end-user and procurer. The objective of this study was to develop a single performance metric of resistance to damage (RD) that can be applied to any LLIN product prior to distribution.

The causes of holes and loss of physical integrity in long‐lasting insecticidal nets

January 20, 2021 - 08:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Amy Wheldrake, Estelle Guillemois, Hamidreza Arouni, Vera Chetty and Stephen J. Russell
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:45, 19 January 2021

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are expected to last for at least 3 years, but whilst this may be achieved from an insecticidal perspective, physical protection is frequently compromised much earlier because of the rapid accumulation of holes during use. To understand why LLINs are so susceptible to loss of physical integrity, thousands of hole damage sites in LLINs retrieved from the field in Africa and Asia were forensically studied to identify the persistent underlying causes.

Quantifying individual variability in exposure risk to mosquito bites in the Cascades region, Burkina Faso

January 20, 2021 - 08:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Federica Guglielmo, Antoine Sanou, Thomas Churcher, Heather M. Ferguson, Hilary Ranson and Ellie Sherrard-Smith
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:44, 18 January 2021

The Cascades region, Burkina Faso, has a high malaria burden despite reported high insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) use. Human and vector activities outside the hours when indoor interventions offer direct protection from infectious bites potentially increase exposure risk to bites from malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes. This work investigated the degree of variation in human behaviour both between individuals and through time (season) to quantify how it impacts exposure to malaria vectors.

Safety and feasibility of apheresis to harvest and concentrate parasites from subjects with induced blood stage Plasmodium vivax infection

January 20, 2021 - 08:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Anand Odedra, Kari Mudie, Fiona Amante, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:43, 14 January 2021

In the absence of a method to culture Plasmodium vivax, the only way to source parasites is ex vivo. This hampers many aspects of P. vivax research. This study aimed to assess the safety of apheresis, a method for selective removal of specific components of blood as a means of extracting and concentrating P. vivax parasites.

NOT Open Access | Antimalarial application of quinones: A recent update

January 20, 2021 - 08:02 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Patel OPS, Beteck RM, Legoabe LJ
Reference: 
Eur J Med Chem. 2021 Jan 15;210:113084

Atovaquone belongs to a naphthoquinone class of drugs and is used in combination with proguanil (Malarone) for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum (including chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum/P. vivax). Numerous quinone-derived compounds have attracted considerable attention in the last few decades due to their potential in antimalarial drug discovery.

NOT Open Access | An insight into the recent development of the clinical candidates for the treatment of malaria and their target proteins

January 20, 2021 - 07:52 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Madhav H, Hoda N
Reference: 
Eur J Med Chem. 2021 Jan 15;210:112955

Malaria is an endemic disease, prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions which cost half of million deaths annually. The eradication of malaria is one of the global health priority nevertheless, current therapeutic efforts seem to be insufficient due to the emergence of drug resistance towards most of the available drugs, even first-line treatment ACT, unavailability of the vaccine, and lack of drugs with a new mechanism of action. Intensification of antimalarial research in recent years has resulted into the development of single dose multistage therapeutic agents which has advantage of overcoming the antimalarial drug resistance.

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