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Scientific Articles

Development of a bispecific immune engager using a recombinant malaria protein

April 7, 2021 - 12:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nordmaj MA, Roberts ME, Salanti A, et al.
Reference: 
Cell Death Dis. 2021 Apr 6;12(4):353

As an immune evasion and survival strategy, the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite has evolved a protein named VAR2CSA. This protein mediates sequestration of infected red blood cells in the placenta through the interaction with a unique carbohydrate abundantly and exclusively present in the placenta. Cancer cells were found to share the same expression of this distinct carbohydrate, termed oncofetal chondroitin sulfate on their surface.

NOT Open Access | Species Composition, Parous Rate, and Infection Rate of Anopheles Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bahir Dar City Administration, Northwest Ethiopia

April 7, 2021 - 12:12 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Getaneh A, Yimer M, Alemu M, Dejazmach Z, Alehegn M, Tegegne B
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2021 Apr 3:tjab034

Anopheles mosquitoes are the main vectors of malaria. There is little information on the current entomological aspects of Anopheles mosquitoes in Amhara region of northwestern Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevailing species composition, parous rate, and infection rate of Anopheles mosquitoes in the Bahir Dar city administration.

Immunofocusing humoral immunity potentiates the functional efficacy of the AnAPN1 malaria transmission-blocking vaccine antigen

April 7, 2021 - 12:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bender NG, Khare P, Dinglasan RR, et al.
Reference: 
NPJ Vaccines. 2021 Apr 6;6(1):49

Malaria transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) prevent the completion of the developmental lifecycle of malarial parasites within the mosquito vector, effectively blocking subsequent infections. The mosquito midgut protein Anopheline alanyl aminopeptidase N (AnAPN1) is the leading, mosquito-based TBV antigen. Structure-function studies identified two Class II epitopes that can induce potent transmission-blocking (T-B) antibodies, informing the design of the next-generation AnAPN1.

A systematic review and meta-analysis of asymptomatic malaria infection in pregnant women in Sub-Saharan Africa: A challenge for malaria elimination efforts

April 7, 2021 - 12:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yimam Y, Nateghpour M, Mohebali M, Abbaszadeh Afshar MJ
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Apr 1;16(4):e0248245

In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where malaria transmission is stable, malaria infection in pregnancy adversely affects pregnant women, fetuses, and newborns and is often asymptomatic. So far, a plethora of primary studies have been carried out on asymptomatic malaria infection in pregnant women in SSA. Nevertheless, no meta-analysis estimated the burden of asymptomatic malaria infection in pregnant women in SSA, so this meta-analysis was carried out to bridge this gap.

Transport mechanisms at the malaria parasite-host cell interface

April 7, 2021 - 12:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Beck JR, Ho CM
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog. 2021 Apr 1;17(4):e1009394

Obligate intracellular malaria parasites reside within a vacuolar compartment generated during invasion which is the principal interface between pathogen and host. To subvert their host cell and support their metabolism, these parasites coordinate a range of transport activities at this membrane interface that are critically important to parasite survival and virulence, including nutrient import, waste efflux, effector protein export, and uptake of host cell cytosol.

NOT Open Access | Erythrocyte membrane proteins involved in the immune response to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infection

April 7, 2021 - 11:58 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Castro-Salguedo C, Mendez-Cuadro D, Moneriz C
Reference: 
Parasitol Res. 2021 Apr 2

Invasion of Plasmodium into the red blood cell involves the interactions of a substantial number of proteins, with red cell membrane proteins as the most involved throughout the process from entry to exit. The objective of this work was to identify proteins of the human erythrocyte membrane capable of generating an antigenic response to P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, with the goal of searching for new molecular targets of interest with an immunological origin to prevent Plasmodium infection.

Functional Food for the Stimulation of the Immune System Against Malaria

April 7, 2021 - 11:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bamgbose T, Anvikar AR, Alberdi P, Abdullahi IO, Inabo HI, Bello M, Cabezas-Cruz A, de la Fuente J
Reference: 
Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2021 Apr 1:1-13

Drug resistance has become a threat to global health, and new interventions are needed to control major infectious diseases. The composition of gut microbiota has been linked to human health and has been associated with severity of malaria.

NOT Open Access | Exploring Heteroaromatic Rings as a Replacement for the Labile Amide of Antiplasmodial Pantothenamides

April 6, 2021 - 14:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Guan J, Spry C, Auclair K, et al.
Reference: 
J Med Chem. 2021 Apr 1

Malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites are developing resistance to antimalarial drugs, providing the impetus for new antiplasmodials. Although pantothenamides show potent antiplasmodial activity, hydrolysis by pantetheinases/vanins present in blood rapidly inactivates them. We herein report the facile synthesis and biological activity of a small library of pantothenamide analogues in which the labile amide group is replaced with a heteroaromatic ring.

Evaluation of Mosquito Magnet and other collection tools for Anopheles mosquito vectors of simian malaria

April 6, 2021 - 14:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jeyaprakasam NK, Pramasivan S, Liew JWK, Van Low L, Wan-Sulaiman WY, Ngui R, Jelip J, Vythilingam I
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Apr 1;14(1):184

Vector surveillance is essential in determining the geographical distribution of mosquito vectors and understanding the dynamics of malaria transmission. With the elimination of human malaria cases, knowlesi malaria cases in humans are increasing in Malaysia. This necessitates intensive vector studies using safer trapping methods which are both field efficient and able to attract the local vector populations. Thus, this study evaluated the potential of Mosquito Magnet as a collection tool for Anopheles mosquito vectors of simian malaria along with other known collection methods.

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