Autodissemination of pyriproxyfen (PPF), i.e. co-opting adult female mosquitoes to transfer the insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen (PPF) to their aquatic habitats has been demonstrated for Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes. This approach, could potentially enable high coverage of aquatic mosquito habitats, including those hard to locate or reach via conventional larviciding. This study demonstrated impacts of autodissemination in crashing a stable and self-sustaining population of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field conditions in Tanzania.
A three-year longitudinal study was conducted in four sentinel sites from different ecological settings in Burkina Faso, between 2008 and 2010 to identify longitudinal changes in insecticide resistance within Anopheles gambiae complex species based on larval collection. During this study, adult mosquitoes were also collected indoor and outdoor using several methods of collection. The present study reports the diversity of malaria vectors and the 1014F-genotype from this adult collection and investigates the association between this 1014F-genotype and sporozoite rate.
Anopheles sinensis is one of the major malaria vectors in China and other southeast Asian countries, including Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand. Vector control is considered to be the critical measure for malaria control, while the increasing prevalence of insecticide resistance caused by long-term use of insecticides, especially pyrethroids, is threatening the successful control of An. sinensis. In order to understand the underlying resistance mechanisms involved and molecular basis, the principal malaria vector, An. sinensis from Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, Southeast China, was investigated.
Northern Tanzania experiences significant malaria‐related morbidity and mortality, but accurate data are scarce. We update the data on patterns of low‐grade Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection among children in northern Tanzania.
Fever is a regulated increase of the body temperature resulting from both infectious and non-infectious causes. Fever is known to play a role in modulating immune responses to infection, but the potential of febrile temperatures in regulating antigen binding affinity to antibodies has not been explored. Here we investigated this process under in vitro conditions using Isothermal titration calorimetry and ELISA.
While traditional epidemiological approaches have supported significant reductions in malaria incidence across many countries, higher resolution information about local and regional malaria epidemiology will be needed to efficiently target interventions for elimination. The application of genetic epidemiological methods for the analysis of parasite genetics has, thus far, primarily been confined to research settings. To illustrate how these technical methods can be used to advance programmatic and operational needs of National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs), and accelerate global progress to eradication, this manuscript presents seven use cases for which genetic epidemiology approaches to parasite genetic data are informative to the decision-making of NMCPs.
Fever associated with malaria is the leading cause of health care-seeking in Mozambique, yet there is limited evidence on the quality of malaria case management. This study evaluated the quality of malaria service provision offered in public health facilities in Mozambique.
Iron supplementation before a first pregnancy may improve the future health of mother and baby by reducing maternal anaemia. Iron supplementation could, however, increase malaria infections, notably in primigravidae who are most susceptible. The pathogenicity of other iron-utilizing pathogens could also increase, causing inflammation leading to increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. This paper reports pre-specified secondary birth outcomes from a safety trial in Burkina Faso in an area of high malaria endemicity. Primary outcomes from that trial had investigated effects of long-term weekly iron supplementation on malaria and genital tract infections in non-pregnant and pregnant women.
Control programmes for high burden countries are tasked with charting effective multi-year strategies for malaria control within significant resource constraints. Synergies between different control tools, in which more than additive benefit accrues from interventions used together, are of interest because they may be used to obtain savings or to maximize health impact per expenditure. One commonly used intervention in sub-Saharan Africa is indoor residual spraying (IRS), typically deployed through a mass campaign. While possible synergies between IRS and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) have been investigated in multiple transmission settings, coordinated synergy between IRS and other mass medical distribution campaigns have not attracted much attention. Recently, a strong timing-dependent synergy between an IRS campaign and a mass drug administration (MDA) was theoretically quantified. These synergistic benefits likely differ across settings depending on transmission intensity and its overall seasonal pattern.
Falcipains are major cysteine proteases of Plasmodium falciparum involved in haemoglobin degradation and remain attractive anti-malarial drug targets. Several inhibitors against these proteases have been identified, yet none of them has been approved for malaria treatment. Other Plasmodium species also possess highly homologous proteins to falcipains. For selective therapeutic targeting, identification of sequence and structure differences with homologous human cathepsins is necessary. The substrate processing activity of these proteins is tightly controlled via a prodomain segment occluding the active site which is chopped under low pH conditions exposing the catalytic site. Current work characterizes these proteases to identify residues mediating the prodomain regulatory function for the design of peptide based anti-malarial inhibitors.