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Scientific Articles

Not Open Access | "Dual-gene" malaria-resistance: Therapeutically-rational exchange (T-REX) of group-O sickle trait and group-O C-trait red blood cells can be evaluated in Benin and Nigeria

February 13, 2020 - 15:00 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Jajosky RP, Jajosky AN, Jajosky PG
Reference: 
Transfus Apher Sci. 2020 Jan 27:102733

Using indicators of disease severity, clinicians can predict which Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria patients being treated with artesunate or quinine are likely to die despite these drugs. Effective "rescue adjuncts" are needed when drugs alone are inadequate. "Therapeutically-rational exchange" (T-REX) of special malaria-resistant red blood cells (RBCs) has been proposed to optimize adjunctive exchange transfusion.

Immunization with full-length Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 is safe and elicits functional cytophilic antibodies in a randomized first-in-human trial

February 11, 2020 - 16:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Antje Blank, Kristin Fürle, Hermann Bujard, et al.
Reference: 
npj Vaccines 5, 10 (2020)

A vaccine remains a priority in the global fight against malaria. Here, we report on a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo and adjuvant-controlled, dose escalation phase 1a safety and immunogenicity clinical trial of full-length Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) in combination with GLA-SE adjuvant. Thirty-two healthy volunteers were vaccinated at least three times with MSP1 plus adjuvant, adjuvant alone, or placebo (24:4:4) to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity.

Malaria-related hospitalization during childhood in Papua, Indonesia: A retrospective cohort study

February 11, 2020 - 16:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nicholas M. Douglas, Enny Kenangalem, Afdhal Hasanuddin, Nicholas M. Anstey, Paulus Sugiarto, Ric N. Price, Jeanne Rini Poespoprodjo
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(1):e0228018

In endemic regions, the age distribution of malaria varies according to the infecting Plasmodium species. We aimed to delineate the pattern of malaria-related hospitalization from birth in Timika, Papua–an area co-endemic for P. falciparum and P. vivax

Vaccination with virosomally formulated recombinant CyRPA elicits protective antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum parasites in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models

February 11, 2020 - 16:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Marco Tamborrini, Julia Hauser, Anja Schäfer, Mario Amacker, Paola Favuzza, Kwak Kyungtak, Sylvain Fleury, Gerd Pluschke
Reference: 
NPJ Vaccines. 2020; 5:9

The Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) cysteine-rich protective antigen (PfCyRPA) has emerged as a promising blood-stage candidate antigen for inclusion into a broadly cross-reactive malaria vaccine. This highly conserved protein among various geographical strains plays a key role in the red blood cell invasion process by P. falciparum merozoites, and antibodies against PfCyRPA can efficiently prevent the entry of the malaria parasites into red blood cells.

Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum Rh2b deletion polymorphism across different transmission areas

February 11, 2020 - 15:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yaw Aniweh, Jonathan Suurbaar, Gordon A. Awandare, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020; 10:1498.

Despite significant progress in controlling malaria, the disease remains a global health burden. The intricate interactions the parasite Plasmodium falciparum has with its host allows it to grow and multiply in human erythrocytes. The mechanism by which P. falciparum merozoites invade human erythrocytes is complex, involving merozoite proteins as well as erythrocyte surface proteins. Members of the P. falciparum reticulocyte binding-like protein homolog (PfRh) family of proteins play a pivotal role in merozoite invasion and hence are important targets of immune responses.

Estimating hospital catchments from in-patient admission records: a spatial statistical approach applied to malaria

February 11, 2020 - 15:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Victor A. Alegana, Cynthia Khazenzi, Samuel O. Akech, Robert W. Snow
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020; 10:1324

Admission records are seldom used in sub-Saharan Africa to delineate hospital catchments for the spatial description of hospitalised disease events. We set out to investigate spatial hospital accessibility for severe malarial anaemia (SMA) and cerebral malaria (CM). Malaria admissions for children between 1 month and 14 years old were identified from prospective clinical surveillance data recorded routinely at four referral hospitals covering two complete years between December 2015 to November 2016 and November 2017 to October 2018.

Molecular characterization of RNase III protein of Asaia sp. for developing a robust RNAi-based paratransgensis tool to affect the sexual life-cycle of Plasmodium or Anopheles fitness

February 11, 2020 - 15:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Majid Asgari, Mahdokht Ilbeigikhamsehnejad, Elham Rismani, Navid Dinparast Djadid, Abbasali Raz
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020; 13:42

According to scientific recommendations, paratransgenesis is one of the solutions for improving the effectiveness of the Global Malaria Eradication Programme. In paratransgenesis, symbiont microorganisms are used for distorting or blocking the parasite life-cycle, affecting the fitness and longevity of vectors or reducing the vectorial competence. It has been revealed recently that bacteria could be used as potent tools for double stranded RNA production and delivery to insects. Moreover, findings showed that RNase III mutant bacteria are more competent for this aim. Asaia spp. have been introduced as potent paratransgenesis candidates for combating malaria and, based on their specific features for this goal, could be considered as effective dsRNA production and delivery tools to Anopheles spp. Therefore, we decided to characterize the rnc gene and its related protein to provide the basic required information for creating an RNase III mutant Asaia bacterium.

Effects of environmental modification on the diversity and positivity of anopheline mosquito aquatic habitats at Arjo-Dedessa irrigation development site, Southwest Ethiopia

February 10, 2020 - 16:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dawit Hawaria, Assalif Demissew, Solomon Kibret, Ming-Chieh Lee, Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Guiyun Yan
Reference: 
Infect Dis Poverty. 2020; 9:9

Irrigated agriculture is key to increase agricultural productivity and ensure food security in Africa. However, unintended negative public health impacts (e.g. malaria) of such environmental modification have been a challenge. This study assessed the diversity and distribution of breeding habitats of malaria vector mosquitoes around Arjo-Dedessa irrigation development site in Southwest Ethiopia.

Larval exposure to a pyrethroid insecticide and competition for food modulate the melanisation and antibacterial responses of adult Anopheles gambiae

February 10, 2020 - 16:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gaël Hauser, Jacob C. Koella
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020; 10:1364.

The insecticides we use for agriculture and for vector control often arrive in water bodies, where mosquito larvae may be exposed to them. Not only will they then likely affect the development of the larvae, but their effects may carry over to the adults, potentially affecting their capacity at transmitting infectious diseases. Such an impact may be expected to be more severe when mosquitoes are undernourished.

Target Product Profile for a mobile app to read rapid diagnostic tests to strengthen infectious disease surveillance

February 10, 2020 - 16:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rigveda Kadam, Wallace White, Nicholas Banks, Zachary Katz, Sabine Dittrich, Cassandra Kelly-Cirino
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(1):e0228311

The essential role of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in disease control is compromised every time a test is not performed correctly or its result is not reported accurately and promptly. A mobile app that utilizes the camera and connectivity of a common smartphone can fill this role of supporting the test’s proper execution and the automatic transmission of results.

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