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Scientific Articles

Molecular variation of Plasmodium vivax dehydrofolate reductase in Mexico and Nicaragua contrasts with that occurring in South America

July 8, 2020 - 15:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
González-Cerón L, Rodríguez MH, Montoya A, Santillán-Valenzuela F, Corzo-Gómez JC
Reference: 
Salud Publica Mex. 2020 Jul-Aug;62(4):364-371

To research mutations associated to pyrimethamine resistance in dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) of Plasmodium vivax from Mexico and Nicaragua and compare it to that reported in the rest of America.

Composition and abundance of anopheline species according to habitat diversity in Mexico

July 8, 2020 - 15:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Villarreal-Treviño C, Ríos-Delgado JC, Penilla-Navarro RP, Rodríguez AD, López JH, Nettel-Cruz JA, Moo-Llanes DA, Fuentes-Maldonado G
Reference: 
Salud Publica Mex. 2020 Jul-Aug;62(4):388-401

To determine the abundance and geographic distribution of the main malaria vectors, which are influenced by habitat characteristics and ecological factors that directly impact adult density and the dynamics of malaria transmission in Mexico.

Defining the combined benefit of intermittent preventive malaria treatment in pregnancy

July 8, 2020 - 15:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Salman S, Davis TME, Moore B
Reference: 
Lancet Glob Health. 2020 Jul;8(7):e871-e872

WHO  has  included  intermittent  preventive  treatment  in  pregnancy  (IPTp)  with  sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine  as  an  important  malaria  intervention  since  2012.1  Although  other candidate therapies remain under investigation and despite  waning  sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine  antimalarial  efficacy  due  to  increasing  parasite  resistance,  IPTp  with  sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine  remains  a  key  component  of   the   management   of   pregnant   women   in   malaria-endemic areas. In areas of high-grade parasite resistance, the   use   of   IPTp   with   sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine   is   associated with improved birth weight, suggesting that there are benefits of beyond antimalarial efficacy.

Overall, anti-malarial, and non-malarial effect of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine on birthweight: a mediation analysis

July 8, 2020 - 15:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Roh ME, Kuile FOT, Rerolle F, Glymour MM, Shiboski S, Gosling R, Gutman J, Kakuru A, Desai M, Kajubi R, L'Ianziva A, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Chico RM
Reference: 
Lancet Glob Health. 2020 Jul;8(7):e942-e953

Trials of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) of malaria in pregnant women that compared dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine with the standard of care, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, showed dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine was superior at preventing malaria infection, but not at improving birthweight. We aimed to assess whether sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine shows greater non-malarial benefits for birth outcomes than does dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, and whether dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine shows greater antimalarial benefits for birth outcomes than does sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine.

Efficient Surveillance of Plasmodium knowlesi Genetic Subpopulations, Malaysian Borneo, 2000-2018

July 8, 2020 - 15:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Divis PCS, Hu TH, Kadir KA, Mohammad DSA, Hii KC, Daneshvar C, Conway DJ, Singh B
Reference: 
Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Jul;26(7):1392-1398

Population genetic analysis revealed that Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Malaysian Borneo are caused by 2 divergent parasites associated with long-tailed (cluster 1) and pig-tailed (cluster 2) macaques. Because the transmission ecology is likely to differ for each macaque species, we developed a simple genotyping PCR to efficiently distinguish between and survey the 2 parasite subpopulations.

Metabolic constraints on the B cell response to malaria

July 8, 2020 - 15:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rodda LB, Pepper M
Reference: 
Nat Immunol. 2020 Jul;21(7):722-724

When confronted with a new pathogen, the humoral immune system works to clear the pathogen and prevent a future infection. How pathogen clearance and memory formation are balanced when Plasmodium yoelii infects mice, a model of human malaria, is unclear. In this issue of Nature Immunology, Vijay et al. suggest that plasmablasts may act as a competitive sink for l-glutamine, thereby constraining the germinal center (GC) response1.

NOT Open Access | Repurposing of well-known medications as antivirals: hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine; from HIV-1 infection to COVID-19

July 7, 2020 - 14:01 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Naghipour S, Ghodousi M, Rahsepar S, Elyasi S
Reference: 
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2020 Jul 7

Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), originally were prescribed for prevention or treatment of malaria, but now successfully are used in several rheumatologic diseases. In addition, in recent decades considering their immunomodulatory effects, high tolerably and low cost, they are evaluated for various viral infections from HIV to COVID-19.

Investigating selected host and parasite factors potentially impacting upon seasonal malaria chemoprevention in Bama, Burkina Faso

July 7, 2020 - 14:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fabrice A. Somé, Thomas Bazié, Hanna Y. Ehrlich, Justin Goodwin, Aine Lehane, Catherine Neya, Kabré Zachari, Martina Wade, Jean-Marie Ouattara, Brian D. Foy, Roch K. Dabiré, Sunil Parikh and Jean-Bosco Ouédraogo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:238, 6 July 2020

Since 2014, seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) with amodiaquine–sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (AQ–SP) has been implemented on a large scale during the high malaria transmission season in Burkina Faso. This paper reports the prevalence of microscopic and submicroscopic malaria infection at the outset and after the first round of SMC in children under 5 years old in Bama, Burkina Faso, as well as host and parasite factors involved in mediating the efficacy and tolerability of SMC.

Defining symptoms of malaria in India in an era of asymptomatic infections

July 7, 2020 - 13:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Anna Maria van Eijk, Asad S. Mannan, Steven A. Sullivan and Jane M. Carlton
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:237, 6 July 2020

Malaria is a major public health problem in India. Data from surveys totaling 3031 participants at three sites revealed a high proportion of asymptomatic infections, complicating diagnosis. The aim of this study was to identify differences in complaints and symptoms between sites, and factors associated with asymptomatic Plasmodium infections.

Fluorescent markers rhodamine B and uranine for Anopheles gambiae adults and matings

July 7, 2020 - 13:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Erica I. Aviles, Rachel D. Rotenberry, C. Mathilda Collins, Ellen. M. Dotson and Mark Q. Benedict
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:236, 6 July 2020

Marking mosquitoes is vital for mark-release-recapture and many laboratory studies, but their small size precludes the use of methods that are available for larger animals such as unique identifier tags and radio devices. Fluorescent dust is the most commonly used method to distinguish released individuals from the wild population. Numerous colours and combinations can be used, however, dust sometimes affects longevity and behaviour so alternatives that do not have these effects would contribute substantially. Rhodamine B has previously been demonstrated to be useful for marking adult Aedes aegypti males when added to the sugar meal. Unlike dust, this also marked the seminal fluid making it possible to detect matings by marked males in the spermatheca of females. Here, marking of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto with rhodamine B and uranine was performed to estimate their potential contribution.

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