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Scientific Articles

HIV infection drives IgM and IgG3 subclass bias in Plasmodium falciparum-specific and total immunoglobulin concentration in Western Kenya

September 10, 2019 - 15:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Eliud O. Odhiambo, Dibyadyuti Datta, Bernard Guyah, George Ayodo, Bartholomew N. Ondigo, Benard O. Abong’o, Chandy C. John and Anne E. P. Frosch
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:297, 30 August 2019

HIV infection is associated with more frequent and severe episodes of malaria and may be the result of altered malaria-specific B cell responses. However, it is poorly understood how HIV and the associated lymphopenia and immune activation affect malaria-specific antibody responses.

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Investigating causal pathways in severe falciparum malaria: A pooled retrospective analysis of clinical studies

September 9, 2019 - 16:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Stije J. Leopold, James A. Watson, Atthanee Jeeyapant, Julie A. Simpson, Nguyen H. Phu, Tran T. Hien, Nicholas P. J. Day, Arjen M. Dondorp, Nicholas J. White
Reference: 
PLoS Med 16(8): e1002858

Severe falciparum malaria is a medical emergency characterised by potentially lethal vital organ dysfunction. Patient fatality rates even with parenteral artesunate treatment remain high. Despite considerable research into adjuvant therapies targeting organ and tissue dysfunction, none have shown efficacy apart from renal replacement therapy. Understanding the causal contributions of clinical and laboratory abnormalities to mortality is essential for the design and evaluation of novel therapeutic interventions.

Not Open Access | Role of a patatin-like phospholipase in Plasmodium falciparum gametogenesis and malaria transmission

September 9, 2019 - 16:45 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Pallavi Singh, Aditi Alaganan, Chetan E. Chitnis, et al.
Reference: 
PNAS August 27, 2019 116 (35) 17498-17508

Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum involves a complex process that starts with the ingestion of gametocytes by female Anopheles mosquitoes during a blood meal.

Antibodies to Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding protein 2b are associated with protection against P. vivax malaria in populations living in low malaria transmission regions of Brazil and Thailand

September 9, 2019 - 16:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wen-Qiang He, Stephan Karl, Ivo Mueller, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(8): e0007596

The Plasmodium vivax Reticulocyte Binding Protein (PvRBP) family is involved in red blood cell recognition and members of this family are potential targets for antibodies that may block P. vivax invasion. To date, the acquisition of immunity against PvRBPs in low malaria transmission settings and in a broad age group of exposed individuals has not been investigated.

NOT Open Access | Acute Kidney Injury in Children with Severe Malaria Is Common and Associated with Adverse Hospital Outcomes

September 9, 2019 - 16:37 -- NOT Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Eunice O Oshomah-Bello, Christopher I Esezobor, Adaobi U Solarin, Fidelis O Njokanma
Reference: 
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, fmz057

The prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in children with severe malaria in sub-Saharan African may have been underestimated. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of AKI in children with severe malaria and its association with adverse hospital outcomes.

Improving Methods for Analyzing Antimalarial Drug Efficacy Trials: Molecular Correction Based on Length-Polymorphic Markers msp-1, msp-2, and glurp

September 9, 2019 - 16:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
S. Jones, K. Kay, E. M. Hodel, S. Chy, A. Mbituyumuremyi, A. Uwimana, D. Menard, I. Felger and I. Hastings
Reference: 
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. August 2019 63:e00590-19

Drug efficacy trials monitor the continued efficacy of front-line drugs against falciparum malaria.

Not Open Access | Role of a patatin-like phospholipase in Plasmodium falciparum gametogenesis and malaria transmission

September 7, 2019 - 15:51 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Pallavi Singh, Aditi Alaganan, Chetan E. Chitnis, et al.
Reference: 
PNAS August 27, 2019 116 (35) 17498-17508

Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum involves a complex process that starts with the ingestion of gametocytes by female Anopheles mosquitoes during a blood meal.

Medical Condition: 

Fipronil and ivermectin treatment of cattle reduced the survival and ovarian development of field-collected Anopheles albimanus in a pilot trial conducted in northern Belize

September 3, 2019 - 15:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Staci M. Dreyer, Donovan Leiva, Marla Magaña, Marie Pott, Jonathan Kay, Alvaro Cruz, Nicole L. Achee, John P. Grieco and Jefferson A. Vaughan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:296, 29 August 2019

Most malaria vector control programmes rely on indoor residual spraying of insecticides and insecticide-treated bed nets. This is effective against vector species that feed indoors at night and rest inside the house afterwards. In Central America, malaria vectors have different behaviours and are typically exophagic (i.e., bite outdoors), exophilic (i.e., remain outdoors after feeding), and zoophagic (i.e., as likely to feed on non-humans as humans). Thus, malaria elimination in Central America may require additional tactics. This pilot study investigated whether commercially-available products used to treat livestock for ticks could also be used to kill and/or sterilize zoophagic malaria vectors that feed on treated cattle in Belize.

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Pairwise growth competitions identify relative fitness relationships among artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum field isolates

September 3, 2019 - 15:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abigail R. Tirrell, Katelyn M. Vendrely, Michael T. Ferdig, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:295, 28 August 2019

Competitive outcomes between co-infecting malaria parasite lines can reveal fitness disparities in blood stage growth. Blood stage fitness costs often accompany the evolution of drug resistance, with the expectation that relatively fitter parasites will be more likely to spread in populations. With the recent emergence of artemisinin resistance, it is important to understand the relative competitive fitness of the metabolically active asexual blood stage parasites. Genetically distinct drug resistant parasite clones with independently evolved sets of mutations are likely to vary in asexual proliferation rate, contributing to their chance of transmission to the mosquito vector.

Medical Condition: 

Gene silencing through RNAi and antisense Vivo-Morpholino increases the efficacy of pyrethroids on larvae of Anopheles stephensi

September 3, 2019 - 15:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Agata Negri, Marco Ferrari, Riccardo Nodari, Edoardo Coppa, Valentina Mastrantonio, Sergio Zanzani, Daniele Porretta, Claudio Bandi, Sandra Urbanelli and Sara Epis
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:294, 28 August 201

Insecticides are still at the core of insect pest and vector control programmes. Several lines of evidence indicate that ABC transporters are involved in detoxification processes against insecticides, including permethrin and other pyrethroids. In particular, the ABCG4 gene, a member of the G subfamily, has consistently been shown to be up-regulated in response to insecticide treatments in the mosquito malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (both adults and larvae).

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