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Scientific Articles

Plasmodium knowlesi as a model system for characterising Plasmodium vivax drug resistance candidate genes

June 11, 2019 - 15:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lisa H. Verzier, Rachael Coyle, Shivani Singh, Theo Sanderson, Julian C. Rayner
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(6): e0007470

Plasmodium vivax causes the majority of malaria outside Africa, but is poorly understood at a cellular level partly due to technical difficulties in maintaining it in in vitro culture conditions.

Linking human behaviours and malaria vector biting risk in south-eastern Tanzania

June 11, 2019 - 15:07 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Marceline F. Finda, Irene R. Moshi, Fredros O. Okumu, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 14(6): e0217414

To accelerate malaria elimination in areas where core interventions such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are already widely used, it is crucial to consider additional factors associated with persistent transmission.

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An ortholog of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of the endolysosomal system in Toxoplasma gondii to facilitate host invasion

June 11, 2019 - 15:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
L. Brock Thornton, Paige Teehan, Zhicheng Dou, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog 15(6): e1007775

Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite with the ability to use foodborne, zoonotic, and congenital routes of transmission that causes severe disease in immunocompromised patients.

Covalent Plasmodium falciparum-selective proteasome inhibitors exhibit a low propensity for generating resistance in vitro and synergize with multiple antimalarial agents

June 11, 2019 - 15:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Barbara H. Stokes, Euna Yoo, David A. Fidock, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog 15(6): e1007722

Therapeutics with novel modes of action and a low risk of generating resistance are urgently needed to combat drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Medical Treatment: 

The contribution of non-malarial febrile illness co-infections to Plasmodium falciparum case counts in health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa

June 11, 2019 - 14:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ursula Dalrymple, Ewan Cameron, Peter W. Gething, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:195, 11 June 2019

The disease burden of Plasmodium falciparum malaria illness is generally estimated using one of two distinct approaches: either by transforming P. falciparum infection prevalence estimates into incidence estimates using conversion formulae; or through adjustment of counts of recorded P. falciparum-positive fever cases from clinics. Whilst both ostensibly seek to evaluate P. falciparum disease burden, there is an implicit and problematic difference in the metric being estimated. The first enumerates only symptomatic malaria cases, while the second enumerates all febrile episodes coincident with a P. falciparum infection, regardless of the fever’s underlying cause.

Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface antigen-specific cytophilic IgG and control of malaria infection in a Beninese birth cohort

June 11, 2019 - 14:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rafiou Adamou, Célia Dechavanne, David Courtin, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:194, 11 June 2019

Substantial evidence indicates that cytophilic IgG responses to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens play a role in protection from malaria. The specific targets mediating immunity remain unclear. Evaluating antibody responses in infants naturally-exposed to malaria will allow to better understand the establishment of anti-malarial immunity and to contribute to a vaccine development by identifying the most appropriate merozoite candidate antigens.

A retrospective analysis on the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax: the case of Adama City, East Shoa Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

June 11, 2019 - 14:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Temesgen File, Hunduma Dinka and Lemu Golassa
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:193, 11 June 2019

Malaria is more often considered a problem of the rural poor and the disease has been overlooked in urban settings for centuries due to the assumption that economic development in urban areas results in better life conditions, such as improved housing, drainage system and environmental changes that makes urban areas not conducive for breeding of the malaria vector. But, for many African countries, including Ethiopia, in most urban areas, although there are rapid developments, they are characterized by poor housing, lack of sanitation and drainage of surface water that would provide favourable conditions for vector breeding. Limited studies have been conducted as far as urban malaria is concerned in Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to assess the status of falciparum and vivax malaria transmission in Adama City, Eastern Shoa Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. Understanding the local epidemiology of malaria will help policy makers and other stakeholders to design and implement tailored cost effective and efficient intervention strategies targeting urban malaria.

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An improved nucleic acid extraction method from dried blood spots for amplification of Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 for detection of artemisinin resistance

June 11, 2019 - 14:40 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Kayvan Zainabadi, Myaing M. Nyunt and Christopher V. Plowe
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:192, 11 June 2019

Mutational analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum kelch 13 (k13) gene is routinely performed to track the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance. Surveillance of resistance markers has been impeded by the difficulty of extracting sufficient DNA from low parasite density infections common in low-transmission settings, such as Southeast Asia. This problem can be overcome by collecting large volumes of venous blood. Efficient methods for extracting and amplifying k13 from dried blood spots (DBS) would facilitate resistance surveillance.

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Can ITN distribution policies increase children’s ITN use? A DHS analysis

June 11, 2019 - 14:38 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Katherine Theiss-Nyland, Jo Lines and Paul Fine
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:191, 8 June 2019

Insecticide-treated nets (ITN) have largely been distributed via mass distribution campaigns. Since 2011, however, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended additional ITN distribution via routine antenatal care (ANC) and expanded programme on immunization (EPI) services. Countries have begun to implement these routine facility-based distribution strategies, but inconsistently, and there is little research on outcomes of these new programmes. This paper investigates the impact of ITN distribution policies on children’s net use, comparing countries with different policies in place.

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Setting the scene and generating evidence for malaria elimination in Southern Mozambique

June 7, 2019 - 17:00 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Pedro Aide, Baltazar Candrinho, Francisco Saúte, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:190, 6 June 2019

Mozambique has historically been one of the countries with the highest malaria burden in the world.

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