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Scientific Articles

Demonstration of indigenous malaria elimination through Track-Test-Treat-Track (T4) strategy in a Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in Mandla, Madhya Pradesh

September 17, 2020 - 13:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Praveen K. Bharti, Harsh Rajvanshi, Altaf A. Lal, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:339, 17 September 2020

Many malaria endemic countries are heading towards malaria elimination through the use of case management and vector control strategies, which employ surveillance, improving access to early diagnosis, prompt treatment., and integrated vector control measures. There is a consensus that elimination of malaria is feasible when rapid detection and prompt treatment is combined with mosquito-human contact interruption in an efficient and sustainable manner at community levels. This paper describes results of an integrated case management and vector control strategy for reducing malaria cases in 1233 villages over 3 years in district Mandla, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Genetic diversity and complexity of Plasmodium falciparum infections in the microenvironment among siblings of the same household in North-Central Nigeria

September 17, 2020 - 13:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Segun Isaac Oyedeji, Peter Usman Bassi, Samuel Adeola Oyedeji, Olusola Ojurongbe and Henrietta Oluwatoyin Awobode
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:338, 16 September 2020

Plasmodium falciparum parasites are known to exhibit extensive genetic diversity in areas of high transmission intensity and infected individuals in such communities often harbour several complex mixtures of parasite clones with different genetic characteristics. However, in the micro-environment, the extent of genetic diversity of P. falciparum parasites remain largely unknown. In this study therefore, the complexity of P. falciparum infections in households was investigated among symptomatic siblings, living under the same roof in north-central Nigeria.

A Sweet Galactose Transfer: Metabolic Oligosaccharide Engineering as a Tool To Study Glycans in Plasmodium Infection

September 17, 2020 - 13:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kitowski A, Bernardes GJL
Reference: 
Chembiochem. 2020 Sep 14;21(18):2696-2700

The introduction of chemical reporter groups into glycan structures through metabolic oligosaccharide engineering (MOE) followed by bio-orthogonal ligation is an important tool to study glycosylation. We show the incorporation of synthetic galactose derivatives that bear terminal alkene groups in hepatic cells, with and without infection by Plasmodium berghei parasites, the causative agent of malaria.

3D imaging of undissected optically cleared Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and midguts infected with Plasmodium parasites

September 17, 2020 - 13:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
De Niz M, Kehrer J, Brancucci NMB, Moalli F, Reynaud EG, Stein JV, Frischknecht F
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Sep 16;15(9):e0238134

Malaria is a life-threatening disease, caused by Apicomplexan parasites of the Plasmodium genus. The Anopheles mosquito is necessary for the sexual replication of these parasites and for their transmission to vertebrate hosts, including humans. Imaging of the parasite within the insect vector has been attempted using multiple microscopy methods, most of which are hampered by the presence of the light scattering opaque cuticle of the mosquito.

Seasonal malaria vaccination: protocol of a phase 3 trial of seasonal vaccination with the RTS,S/AS01(E) vaccine, seasonal malaria chemoprevention and the combination of vaccination and chemoprevention

September 16, 2020 - 13:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chandramohan D, Dicko A, Greenwood B, et al.
Reference: 
BMJ Open. 2020 Sep 15;10(9):e035433

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC), with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine (SP+AQ) is effective but does not provide complete protection against clinical malaria. The RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine provides a high level of protection shortly after vaccination, but this wanes rapidly. Such a vaccine could be an alternative or additive to SMC. This trial aims to determine whether seasonal vaccination with RTS,S/AS01E vaccine could be an alternative to SMC and whether a combination of the two interventions would provide added benefits.

New vectors in northern Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, for the zoonotic malaria parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi

September 16, 2020 - 13:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ang JXD, Kadir KA, Mohamad DSA, Matusop A, Divis PCS, Yaman K, Singh B
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Sep 15;13(1):472

Plasmodium knowlesi is a significant cause of human malaria in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Only one study has been previously undertaken in Sarawak to identify vectors of P. knowlesi, where Anopheles latens was incriminated as the vector in Kapit, central Sarawak. A study was therefore undertaken to identify malaria vectors in a different location in Sarawak.

Distribution pattern of amino acid mutations in chloroquine and antifolate drug resistance associated genes in complicated and uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax isolates from Chandigarh, North India

September 16, 2020 - 13:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kaur H, Sehgal R, Kumar A, Bharti PK, Bansal D, Mohapatra PK, Mahanta J, Sultan AA
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 15;20(1):671

The increasing antimalarial drug resistance is a significant hindrance to malaria control and elimination programs. For the last six decades, chloroquine (CQ) plus pyrimethamine remains the first-line treatment for P. vivax malaria. Regions where both P. falciparum and P. vivax co-exist, P. vivax is exposed to antifolate drugs due to either misdiagnosis or improper treatment that causes selective drug pressure to evolve. Therefore, the present study aims to estimate antimalarial drug resistance among the complicated and uncomplicated P. vivax patients.

Two-Year Scale-Up of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention Reduced Malaria Morbidity among Children in the Health District of Koutiala, Mali

September 16, 2020 - 13:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Maiga H, Gaudart J, Djimde AA, et al.
Reference: 
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Sep 11;17(18):E6639

Previous controlled studies demonstrated seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) reduces malaria morbidity by >80% in children aged 3-59 months. Here, we assessed malaria morbidity after large-scale SMC implementation during a pilot campaign in the health district of Koutiala, Mali.

NOT Open Access | Structure activity studies of truncated latrunculin analogues with anti-malarial activity

September 16, 2020 - 13:05 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Varghese S, Rahmani R, Drew DR, Beeson JG, Baum J, Smith BJ, Baell J
Reference: 
ChemMedChem. 2020 Sep 14

Malarial parasites employ actin dynamics for motility, and any disruption to these dynamics renders the parasites unable to effectively establish infection. Therefore, actin presents a potential target for malarial drug discovery, and naturally occurring actin inhibitors such as latrunculins are a promising starting point.

Caspase-8 mediates inflammation and disease in rodent malaria

September 16, 2020 - 13:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pereira LMN, Assis PA, Gazzinelli RT, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2020 Sep 14;11(1):4596

Earlier studies indicate that either the canonical or non-canonical pathways of inflammasome activation have a limited role on malaria pathogenesis. Here, we report that caspase-8 is a central mediator of systemic inflammation, septic shock in the Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice and the P. berghei-induced experimental cerebral malaria (ECM).

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