Plasmodium vivax has the largest geographic range of human malaria species and is challenging to manage and eradicate due to its ability to establish a dormant liver stage, the hypnozoite, which can reactivate leading to relapse. Until recently, the only treatment approved to kill hypnozoites was the 8-aminoquinoline, primaquine, requiring daily treatment for 14 days. Tafenoquine, an 8-aminoquinoline single-dose treatment with activity against P. vivax hypnozoites, has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration for the radical cure of P. vivax malaria in patients 16 years and older.
Reticulon and REEP family of proteins stabilize the high curvature of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules. P. berghei Yop1 (Pb Yop1) is a REEP5 homolog in Plasmodium . Here we characterize its function using a gene‐knockout (Pb yop1∆). Pb yop1∆ asexual stage parasites display abnormal ER architecture and an enlarged digestive vacuole. The erythrocytic cycle of Pb yop1∆ parasites is severely attenuated and the incidence of experimental cerebral malaria is significantly decreased in Pb yop1∆‐infected mice.
There is limited evidence on whether malaria elimination is feasible in high-transmission areas of Africa. Between 2007 and 2018, we measured the impact of malaria control interventions in young children enrolled in three clinical trials and two observational studies in Tororo, Uganda, a historically high-transmission area. Data were pooled from children aged 0.5–2 years.
A cluster-randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to estimate the protective efficacy (PE) of a spatial repellent (SR) against malaria infection in Sumba, Indonesia. Following radical cure in 1,341 children aged ≥ 6 months to ≤ 5 years in 24 clusters, households were given transfluthrin or placebo passive emanators (devices designed to release vaporized chemical).
Parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs poses a serious threat to malaria control. The WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) aims to provide a collaborative platform to support the global malaria research effort. Here, we describe the “WWARN clinical trials publication library,” an open-access, up-to-date resource to streamline the synthesis of antimalarial safety and efficacy data.
Anaemia and malaria are both major contributors to maternal and child mortality, and morbidity, with some of the worst outcomes occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. Point of care tests (POCT), if used appropriately, provide a simple, inexpensive form of diagnostic testing, as a reliable alternative when laboratory tests are not readily available. In such resource limited settings, clinical staff tend to rely on symptom-based diagnosis and presumptive treatment. This study uses qualitative methods to identify the current practice of POCT use for malaria and anaemia, to explore the enablers and barriers to effective implementation of these POCT, and to determine how relationships between each of the stakeholder groups may impact on POCT use.
Microscopic examination of peripheral blood smear produces reliable results both about the malaria infection status and level of parasitemia. However, test results are affected by skill of the laboratory personnel, workload, condition of microscopes and quality of laboratory supplies. Therefore, continuous monitoring of the performance of laboratories is of pivotal importance in order to make timely correction.
High levels of storage iron may increase malaria susceptibility. This risk has not been investigated in semi-immune adolescents. We investigated whether baseline iron status of non-pregnant adolescent girls living in a high malaria transmission area in Burkina Faso affected malaria risk during the following rainy season. For this prospective study, we analysed data from an interim safety survey, conducted six months into a randomised iron supplementation trial.
Despite the increase in malaria control and elimination efforts, weather patterns and ecological factors continue to serve as important drivers of malaria transmission dynamics. This study examined the statistical relationship between weather variables and malaria incidence in Abuja, Nigeria.
Mosquitoes can transmit many infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies are failing to reduce the severity of outbreaks that still cause high human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Great expectations have been placed on genetic control methods. Among other methods, genetic modification of the bacteria colonizing different mosquito species and expressing anti-pathogen molecules may represent an innovative tool to combat mosquito-borne diseases.