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Scientific Articles

Drug-Resistant Malaria Detected in Africa Will Require Monitoring

June 16, 2021 - 15:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kuehn BM
Reference: 
JAMA. 2021 Jun 15;325(23):2335

Evidence in Africa that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has developed genetic variants that confer partial resistance to the antimalarial drug artemisinin is a warning of potential treatment failure on the horizon, a drug-resistance monitoring study suggested.

NOT Open Access | Diversity of Anopheles Gambiae s.l., Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) Larval Habitats in Urban Areas and Malaria Transmission in Bouake, Cote d'Ivoire

June 16, 2021 - 15:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Adja AM, Zoh DD, Sagna AB, Kpan DMS, Guindo-Coulibaly N, Yapi A, Chandre F
Reference: 
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2021 Jun 14

Malaria vectors are supposedly uncommon in urban areas owing to the lack of suitable breeding sites for their development. However, the maintenance in urban areas of traditional rural practices along with humanitarian crisis can create favorable conditions for malaria transmission. This study aimed to provide relevant entomological data on the risk of malaria transmission in the city of Bouaké, after the military-political crisis from 2002 to 2011 in Côte d'Ivoire.

A cross-country comparison of malaria policy as a premise for contextualized appropriation of foreign aid in global health

June 16, 2021 - 15:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jezek T, Bamodu OA
Reference: 
Health Res Policy Syst. 2021 Jun 14;19(1):93

Foreign aid continues to play an essential role in health sector development in low-resource countries, particularly in terms of providing a vital portion of their health expenditures. However, the relationship between foreign aid allocation and malaria policy formulation and/or implementation among state aid recipients remains unknown.

The power and promise of genetic mapping from Plasmodium falciparum crosses utilizing human liver-chimeric mice

June 16, 2021 - 15:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Button-Simons KA, Kumar S, Cheeseman IH, et al.
Reference: 
Commun Biol. 2021 Jun 14;4(1):734

Genetic crosses are most powerful for linkage analysis when progeny numbers are high, parental alleles segregate evenly and numbers of inbred progeny are minimized. We previously developed a novel genetic crossing platform for the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, an obligately sexual, hermaphroditic protozoan, using mice carrying human hepatocytes (the human liver-chimeric FRG NOD huHep mouse) as the vertebrate host. We report on two genetic crosses-(1) an allopatric cross between a laboratory-adapted parasite (NF54) of African origin and a recently patient-derived Asian parasite, and (2) a sympatric cross between two recently patient-derived Asian parasites.

NOT Open Access | Deconstructing the parasite multiplication rate of Plasmodium falciparum

June 16, 2021 - 15:11 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Gnangnon B, Duraisingh MT, Buckee CO
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Jun 9:S1471-4922(21)00110-0

Epidemiological indicators describing population-level malaria transmission dynamics are widely used to guide policy recommendations. However, the determinants of malaria outcomes within individuals are still poorly understood. This conceptual gap partly reflects the fact that there are few indicators that robustly predict the trajectory of individual infections or clinical outcomes.

Interactions of primaquine and chloroquine with PEGylated phosphatidylcholine liposomes

June 16, 2021 - 15:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Miatmoko A, Nurjannah I, Nehru NF, Rosita N, Hendradi E, Sari R, Ekowati J
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12420

This study aimed to analyze the interaction of primaquine (PQ), chloroquine (CQ), and liposomes to support the design of optimal liposomal delivery for hepatic stage malaria infectious disease. The liposomes were composed of hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(methoxy[polyethyleneglycol]-2000), prepared by thin film method, then evaluated for physicochemical and spectrospic characteristics. The calcein release was further evaluated to determine the effect of drug co-loading on liposomal membrane integrity.

Pyronaridine-artesunate real-world safety, tolerability, and effectiveness in malaria patients in 5 African countries: A single-arm, open-label, cohort event monitoring study

June 16, 2021 - 15:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tona Lutete G, Mombo-Ngoma G, Ramharter M, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2021 Jun 15;18(6):e1003669

In Phase II/III randomized controlled clinical trials for the treatment of acute uncomplicated malaria, pyronaridine–artesunate demonstrated high efficacy and a safety profile consistent with that of comparators, except that asymptomatic, mainly mild-to-moderate transient increases in liver aminotransferases were reported for some patients. Hepatic safety, tolerability, and effectiveness have not been previously assessed under real-world conditions in Africa.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium falciparum Pf77 and male development gene 1 as vaccine antigens that induce potent transmission-reducing antibodies

June 16, 2021 - 14:59 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Tripathi AK, Oakley MS, Kumar S, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Transl Med. 2021 Jun 9;13(597):eabg2112

Malaria vaccines that disrupt the Plasmodium life cycle in mosquitoes and reduce parasite transmission in endemic areas are termed transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs). Despite decades of research, there are only a few Plasmodium falciparum antigens that indisputably and reproducibly demonstrate transmission-blocking immunity. So far, only two TBV candidates have advanced to phase 1/2 clinical testing with limited success.

Sickle-trait hemoglobin reduces adhesion to both CD36 and EPCR by Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

June 16, 2021 - 14:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Petersen JEV, Saelens JW, Freedman E, Turner L, Lavstsen T, Fairhurst RM, Diakité M, Taylor SM
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog. 2021 Jun 11;17(6):e1009659

Sickle-trait hemoglobin protects against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Severe malaria is governed in part by the expression of the Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) that are encoded by var genes, specifically those variants that bind Endothelial Protein C Receptor (EPCR). In this study, we investigate the effect of sickle-trait on parasite var gene expression and function in vitro and in field-collected parasites.

Infectivity of patent Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriers to mosquitoes: establishing capacity to investigate the infectious reservoir of malaria in a low-transmission setting in The Gambia

June 16, 2021 - 14:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ahmad A, Soumare HM, Camara MM, Jadama L, Gaye PM, Bittaye H, Bradley J, Achan J, Bousema T, D'Alessandro U, Drakeley C, Moreno M
Reference: 
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jun 9:trab087

Understanding the human malaria infectious reservoir is important for elimination initiatives. Here, we implemented mosquito membrane feeding experiments to prepare for larger studies to quantify the transmission potential and relative contribution of the human infectious reservoir.

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