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Scientific Articles

NOT Open Access | Pharmacogenetic assessment of tafenoquine efficacy in patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria

May 21, 2020 - 06:50 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
St Jean PL, Koh GCKW, Green JA, et al.
Reference: 
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2020 May 19

Plasmodium vivax has the largest geographic range of human malaria species and is challenging to manage and eradicate due to its ability to establish a dormant liver stage, the hypnozoite, which can reactivate leading to relapse. Until recently, the only treatment approved to kill hypnozoites was the 8-aminoquinoline, primaquine, requiring daily treatment for 14 days. Tafenoquine, an 8-aminoquinoline single-dose treatment with activity against P. vivax hypnozoites, has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration for the radical cure of P. vivax malaria in patients 16 years and older.

NOT Open Access | A Plasmodium homolog of ER tubule-forming proteins is required for parasite virulence

May 21, 2020 - 06:48 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Shi X, Hai L, Govindasamy K, Gao J, Coppens I, Hu J, Wang Q, Bhanot P
Reference: 
Mol Microbiol. 2020 May 20

Reticulon and REEP family of proteins stabilize the high curvature of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules. P. berghei  Yop1 (Pb Yop1) is a REEP5 homolog in Plasmodium . Here we characterize its function using a gene‐knockout (Pb yop1∆). Pb yop1∆ asexual stage parasites display abnormal ER architecture and an enlarged digestive vacuole. The erythrocytic cycle of Pb yop1∆ parasites is severely attenuated and the incidence of experimental cerebral malaria is significantly decreased in Pb yop1∆‐infected mice.

The Impact of Control Interventions on Malaria Burden in Young Children in a Historically High-Transmission District of Uganda: A Pooled Analysis of Cohort Studies from 2007 to 2018

May 21, 2020 - 06:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kamya MR, Kakuru A, Dorsey G, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 May 18

There is limited evidence on whether malaria elimination is feasible in high-transmission areas of Africa. Between 2007 and 2018, we measured the impact of malaria control interventions in young children enrolled in three clinical trials and two observational studies in Tororo, Uganda, a historically high-transmission area. Data were pooled from children aged 0.5–2 years.

Efficacy of a Spatial Repellent for Control of Malaria in Indonesia: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

May 21, 2020 - 06:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Syafruddin D, Asih PBS, Achee NL, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 May 18

A cluster-randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to estimate the protective efficacy (PE) of a spatial repellent (SR) against malaria infection in Sumba, Indonesia. Following radical cure in 1,341 children aged ≥ 6 months to ≤ 5 years in 24 clusters, households were given transfluthrin or placebo passive emanators (devices designed to release vaporized chemical).

The WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network Clinical Trials Publication Library: A Live, Open-Access Database of Plasmodium Treatment Efficacy Trials

May 21, 2020 - 06:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Takata J, Sondo P, Humphreys GS, Burrow R, Maguire B, Hossain MS, Das D, Commons RJ, Price RN, Guerin PJ
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 May 18

Parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs poses a serious threat to malaria control. The WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) aims to provide a collaborative platform to support the global malaria research effort. Here, we describe the “WWARN clinical trials publication library,” an open-access, up-to-date resource to streamline the synthesis of antimalarial safety and efficacy data.

Improving the effectiveness of point of care tests for malaria and anaemia: a qualitative study across three Ghanaian antenatal clinics

May 21, 2020 - 06:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Palmer T, Aiyenigba AO, Bates I, Okyere DD, Tagbor H, Ampofo GD
Reference: 
BMC Health Serv Res. 2020 May 19; 20(1):444

Anaemia and malaria are both major contributors to maternal and child mortality, and morbidity, with some of the worst outcomes occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. Point of care tests (POCT), if used appropriately, provide a simple, inexpensive form of diagnostic testing, as a reliable alternative when laboratory tests are not readily available. In such resource limited settings, clinical staff tend to rely on symptom-based diagnosis and presumptive treatment. This study uses qualitative methods to identify the current practice of POCT use for malaria and anaemia, to explore the enablers and barriers to effective implementation of these POCT, and to determine how relationships between each of the stakeholder groups may impact on POCT use.

Performance of malaria microscopy external quality assessment and networking among health facilities in west Amhara region, Ethiopia

May 21, 2020 - 06:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tegegne B, Ejigu K, Alemu G, Fetene Y, Endaylalu K, Melese M
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 May 19; 20(1):355

Microscopic examination of peripheral blood smear produces reliable results both about the malaria infection status and level of parasitemia. However, test results are affected by skill of the laboratory personnel, workload, condition of microscopes and quality of laboratory supplies. Therefore, continuous monitoring of the performance of laboratories is of pivotal importance in order to make timely correction.

Iron Status of Burkinabé Adolescent Girls Predicts Malaria Risk in the Following Rainy Season

May 21, 2020 - 06:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Brabin L, Roberts SA, Tinto H, Gies S, Diallo S, Brabin B
Reference: 
Nutrients. 2020 May 16; 12(5):E1446

High levels of storage iron may increase malaria susceptibility. This risk has not been investigated in semi-immune adolescents. We investigated whether baseline iron status of non-pregnant adolescent girls living in a high malaria transmission area in Burkina Faso affected malaria risk during the following rainy season. For this prospective study, we analysed data from an interim safety survey, conducted six months into a randomised iron supplementation trial.

Statistical Modelling of the Effects of Weather Factors on Malaria Occurrence in Abuja, Nigeria

May 21, 2020 - 06:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Segun OE, Shohaimi S, Nallapan M, Lamidi-Sarumoh AA, Salari N
Reference: 
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 May 16;17(10):E3474

Despite the increase in malaria control and elimination efforts, weather patterns and ecological factors continue to serve as important drivers of malaria transmission dynamics. This study examined the statistical relationship between weather variables and malaria incidence in Abuja, Nigeria.

Inhibition of Asaia in Adult Mosquitoes Causes Male-Specific Mortality and Diverse Transcriptome Changes

May 21, 2020 - 06:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mancini MV, Damiani C, Favia G, et al.
Reference: 
Pathogens. 2020 May 15; 9(5):E380

Mosquitoes can transmit many infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies are failing to reduce the severity of outbreaks that still cause high human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Great expectations have been placed on genetic control methods. Among other methods, genetic modification of the bacteria colonizing different mosquito species and expressing anti-pathogen molecules may represent an innovative tool to combat mosquito-borne diseases.

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