Cerebral malaria and malaria-associated acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome areamong the most severe complications ofPlasmodiuminfection. While these disease manifestations aremultifactorial, platelets have been described to play a role in the development of both syndromes inhumans1,2and mice.3,4Although the impact of platelets on malaria has been well studied, questionsremain with regard to their contribution to parasite control and immunopathogenesis.
A series of 1H-1,2,3-triazole/acylhydrazide-tethered tetrahydro-β-carboline-4-aminoquinoline conjugates was synthesized with an aim to study their anti-plasmodial structure-activity relationship.
Despite being in the midst of a global pandemic of infections caused by the pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, a vaccine capable of inducing protective immunity remains elusive. Given the C. trachomatis mucosal port of entry, a formulation compatible with mucosal administration and capable of eliciting potent genital tract immunity is highly desirable. While subunit vaccines are considered safer and better tolerated, these are typically poorly immunogenic and require co-formulation with immune-potentiating adjuvants.
Motivated by the One Health paradigm, we found the expected changes in temperature and UV radiation (UVR) to be a common trigger for enhancing the risk that viruses, vectors, and diseases pose to human and animal health. We compared data from the mosquito field collections and medical studies with regional climate model projections to examine the impact of climate change on the spreading of one malaria vector, the circulation of West Nile virus (WNV), and the incidence of melanoma.
It has long been clear that the “monkey-malaria” species, Plasmodium knowlesi, is capable of infecting humans. Its name comes from Robert Knowles, the British parasitologist who first demonstrated experimental monkey–human transmission and pioneered its use as “malaria therapy” for syphilis and leprosy from as early as 1932 .
Malaria is a deadly infectious disease caused by parasites of the Plasmodium spp. that takes an estimated 435,000 lives each year, primarily among young African children. For most children, malaria is a febrile illness that resolves with time, but in ∼1% of cases, for reasons we do not understand, malaria becomes severe and life threatening. Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most common form of severe malaria, accounting for the vast majority of childhood deaths from malaria despite highly effective antiparasite chemotherapy.
As globalization and climate change progress, the expansion and introduction of vector-borne diseases (VBD) from endemic regions to non-endemic regions is expected to occur. Mathematical and statistical models can be useful in predicting when and where these changes in distribution may happen. Our objective was to conduct a scoping review to identify and characterize predictive and importation models related to vector-borne diseases that exist in the global literature.
Antibodies can be produced as polyclonal (pAb) or monoclonal (mAb) liquid formulations with limited shelf-life. For pAbs, unlike mAbs, only little is known about excipients and lyophilization affecting antibody stability upon reconstitution. We used a model pAb directed against Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) pyridoxal 5′-phosphate synthase 2 (Pdx2) to systemically study effects of bulking agents (amino acids, phosphate buffers, salt solutions), sugar(alcohols), surfactants and protein additions (bovine serum albumin, BSA) in liquid pAb formulations (isolated or in combinations) on the activity to detect the antigen in Pf extracts by Western blots.
Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are complex glycolipids present on the surfaces of Plasmodium parasites that may act as toxins during the progression of malaria. GPIs can activate the immune system during infection and induce the formation of anti-GPI antibodies that neutralize their activity. Therefore, an antitoxic vaccine based on GPI glycoconjugates may prevent malaria pathogenesis. To evaluate the role of three key modifications on Plasmodium GPI glycan in the activity of these glycolipids, we synthesized and investigated six structurally distinct GPI fragments from Plasmodium falciparum.
Malaysia aims to eliminate malaria by 2020. However, while cases of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax have decreased substantially, the incidence of zoonotic malaria from Plasmodium knowlesi continues to increase, presenting a major challenge to regional malaria control efforts. Here we report incidence of all Plasmodium species in Sabah, including zoonotic P. knowlesi, during 2015–2017.