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The MalariaWorld Journal

Case report: Peculiarities of a malaria case imported from Myanmar to Moscow (Russian Federation)

May 2, 2013 - 08:55 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Anatoly Kondrashin, Susanna Rabinovich, Vladimir Sergiev, Anatoly Tokmalaev
Reference: 
MWJ 2013, 4, 3

An imported case of presumably Chesson strain Plasmodium vivax from Myanmar to Moscow is presented. In the absence of radical treatment with primaquine the patient experienced a series of 5 subsequent relapses after treatment with Delagil (chloroquine). The period between relapses ranged from 47-61 days. It is concluded that importation of Chesson-like strains with high relapse frequencies, in conjunction with their relative tolerance to primaquine and the absence of adequate treatment with this drug, might result in the re-establishment of local transmission in areas free of malaria but with high receptivity.

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Book review: ‘Improving the US Presidential Malaria Initiative’

March 28, 2013 - 21:45 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Bart GJ Knols
Reference: 
MWJ 2013, 4, 2

This is a review of Bill Jobin's book 'Improving the US Presidential Malaria Initiative'. It is mainly a review of PMI's first campaign in Angola in 2005/6. Jobin was directly involved in organising a large-scale indoor residual spraying campaign in the south of Angola and writes about the intricacies of getting such a campaign off the ground based on poor data, delays, and a myriad of other challenges. To come to a stunning conclusion: there was hardly any malaria in the region that was sprayed and essentially 2.1 million dollars of the first PMI campaign had gone to waste. Jobin adds a list of essential recommendations to improve the outcome of such campaigns in future. A must-read that can be ordered at Amazon.com.

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Research: Community perception of malaria and its influence on health-seeking behaviour in rural Ghana: a descriptive study

January 8, 2013 - 10:02 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Alexander Suuk Laar, Amos Kankponang Laar, Philip Ayizem Dalinjong
Reference: 
MWJ 2013, 4, 1

This article is the outcome of a descriptive cross-sectional study that assessed local perceptions on malaria and health seeking behaviour among inhabitants in the Kassena-Nankana district in the Upper East Region of Ghana. A total of 120 respondents were included in the study through a systematic random sampling procedure of households. The majority (65%) of respondents had awareness about malaria and linked it to mosquito bites.

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Research: Formulation of quinine suppository for initiation of early treatment of malaria – a preliminary study

December 10, 2012 - 10:04 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Rebecca O. Soremekun, Boladale O. Silva, Fola Tayo, Cecilia I. Igwilo
Reference: 
MWJ 2012, 3, 14

The aim of this study was to develop a quinine suppository with adequate release properties that also meets the dual conditions of affordability and ease of administration. Cocoa butter and FattibaseTM were used in the preparation of suppositories containing 200 mg quinine bisulphate. Release profiles of formulations with varying concentrations of polysorbate 80 (0 – 5%) were evaluated by in vitro dissolution in pH 8 buffer medium. Formulations with the two bases released quinine in adequate quantities for the management of malaria.

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Book review: ‘Artemisia annua, Artemisinin, ACTs & Malaria Control in Africa: Tradition, Science and Public Policy’

December 6, 2012 - 10:24 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Wallace Peters
Reference: 
MWJ 2012, 3, 13

This book describes the fascinating history of one of the most important malaria drugs ever: artemisinin. Its review was written by Emeritus Professor Wallace Peters, one of the scientists involved in the early stages of Artemisia annua drug development. According to Prof. Peters this book 'is truly a masterpiece'.

The pdf of the entire book is attached below.

Research: The role of pre-shipment batch testing in ensuring good medicine quality

December 5, 2012 - 16:50 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Roger Bate, Kimberly Hess
Reference: 
MWJ 2012, 3, 12

Most donor agencies only procure drugs approved by a Stringent Regulatory Authority or the World Health Organization (WHO) Prequalification Programme in an effort to ensure high quality. This study compares the quality of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) produced by WHO-approved manufacturers with non-approved manufacturers and suggests policy changes to improve quality of donor-procured drugs. The results of this study suggest that ACTs produced by WHO-approved manufacturers perform nearly five times better than those of non-approved manufacturers, but some approved ACTs have too little active pharmaceutical ingredient. The US President’s Malaria Initiative tests every batch of every drug it procures before distribution to recipient countries. Other donors should follow suit to ensure that drugs purchased with taxpayer dollars are of the highest quality.

[The official response to this article from the World Health Organization Prequalification of Medicines Programme was published in December 2012 and is attached below]

Research: Community health workers’ perceptions of barriers to utilisation of malaria interventions in Lilongwe, Malawi: a qualitative study

November 22, 2012 - 13:31 -- Serge Christiaans
Author(s): 
Edson Dembo
Reference: 
MWJ 2012, 3:11

Beliefs and perceptions about malaria interventions may greatly affect the implementation of interventions at community level. This study explored the perception of community health workers in Lilongwe on barriers to effective malaria control service delivery and utilisation at the community level and identified a number of factors that health workers cited as barriers and challenges to effective implementation of malaria interventions in Lilongwe.

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Research: Duration of the mosquitocidal effect of ivermectin

October 23, 2012 - 15:43 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Guido J.H. Bastiaens, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Jo Hooghof, Steve W. Lindsay, Chris Drakeley, Thomas S. Churcher, Jan Peter Verhave, Clemens H.M. Kocken, Robert W. Sauerwein, Teun Bousema
Reference: 
MWJ 2012, 3, 10

Ivermectin (IVM) reduces the lifespan of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes after feeding on humans treated with IVM but limited data are available on the exact duration of the mosquitocidal effect of IVM. Daily mosquito feeding assays were conducted to determine this. Mosquito mortality was 70-100% when mosquitoes fed on mice, rats, or cynomolgus monkeys 1-2 days after the last IVM administration. The findings reported here, of a pronounced but short-lived mosquitocidal effect, makes the timing of IVM administration crucial to form a useful addition to anti-malarial drugs.

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Research: Perceptions and practices of the Konso community (South-west Ethiopia) relating to malaria: implications for control

October 17, 2012 - 13:46 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Geme Urge Dori, Wakgari Deressa, Fulvio Esposito, Annette Habluetzel
Reference: 
MWJ 2012, 3, 9

Using a structured questionnaire, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, this study aimed to gain deeper insight on how the Konso community in Ethiopia perceives malaria and manages the disease. Although knowledge about malaria was above average it surfaced that the use of herbal home remedies is widespread. It is argued that this practice warrants further investigation to validate the efficacy and safety of plant preparations that are employed.

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PhD thesis: Effect of preventive supplementation with zinc and other micronutrients on malaria and diarrhoeal morbidity in African children

September 5, 2012 - 09:13 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Jacobien Veenemans
Reference: 
MWJ 2012, 3, 8

Multi-nutrient supplementation may be unsafe in malaria-endemic areas, particularly in young children with iron deficiency. Thus the recommendation by the World Health Organization that iron supplements should be administered routinely to iron-deficient infants in settings with adequate access to anti-malarial treatment is insufficiently supported by evidence and should be reconsidered. The results presented in this PhD thesis underscore that supplementation or home fortification, even when targeting deficient subgroups in settings with access to adequate primary care, should not be recommended in malaria-endemic areas until their safety has been demonstrated.

[Note: Full copy of PhD thesis attached]

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