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Research: Comparative assessment of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) in Ibadan, Nigeria

November 3, 2017 - 09:44 -- MalariaWorld Journal
Rose I. Ilesanmi, Oluwasogo A. Olalubi, Oluwasegun T. Adetunde, Ayodele O. Ilesanmi, Hyacinth Effedua, Abimbola O. Amoo
Article type: 
We undertook a comparative assessment of sensitivity, specificity and efficiency of three popular brands of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) available in Nigerian market alongside with traditional microscopy.
 525 samples of patients that presented with acute uncomplicated malaria through clinical diagnosis were evaluated with the various tests. Total WBC count and haematocrit were also measured. Of the 525 samples, 300 (57.1%) were found positive by Giemsa microscopy. SD Bioline had a positivity rate of 49.5% (260/525), while the positivity rate for Acon was significantly lower (38.1%; 200/525) and Paracheck (28.6%; 150/525). The sensitivity, specificity and efficiency of the three RDTs were: SD Bioline (86.3%, 99.6%, 92%); Paracheck (50%, 97.7%, 70.4%) and Acon (66.7%, 100%, 80.9%), respectively. Pre-teens aged 6-12 yrs had the highest mean malaria parasite densities with 6,631.26 at p< 0.01. The dominant malaria species was Plasmodium falciparum with 280 (93.3%) cases. Co-infections of P. falciparum/vivax (15; 5.0%) and P. falciparum/malariae (5; 1.7%) were detected and confirmed with microscopy. Haematocrit values correlated inversely with parasite density (r = -0.744; p< 0.01). Microscopy still remains the reference standard for malaria diagnosis in limited resource settings in endemic areas. In furtherance to this, there is need for consistent monitoring of RDT product quality as part of the distribution process to end- users across Nigeria.

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