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  • Reply to: Modern Explanation for Plasmodium vivax Malarial Recurrences   13 hours 12 min ago

    In defence of people who did not cotton on to the dual Plasmodium vivax malarial recurrence idea:

    Many or most malariologists are epidemiologists, clinicians, cell biologists, mathematicians, biochemists, molecular biologists, etc., not experienced parasitologists.

  • Reply to: Covid, Africa and Schistosomiasis   18 hours 47 min ago

    In our reccent weblog "Covid, Africa and Schistosomiasis" we documented that eosinopenia is common in helminthic diseases and in malaria.

    WUHAN STUDIES ON COVID AND EOSINOPENIA

    Early in 2020, a detailed clinical investigation of 140 hospitalized COVID-19 cases in Wuhan suggested eosinopenia together with lymphopenia as a potential indicator.

    Zhang JJ, Dong X, Cao YY, Yuan YD, Yang YB, Yan YQ, Akdis CA, Gao YD. Clinical characteristics of 140 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China. Allergy. 2020 Jul;75(7):1730-1741. doi: 10.1111/all.14238. Epub 2020 Feb 27. PMID: 32077115.

    This was confirmed a few months later by another Chinese team.

    Zhao, L., Zhang, Y.‐p., Yang, X. and Liu, X. (2021), Eosinopenia is associated with greater severity in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Allergy. https://doi.org/10.1111/all.14455

    In a study on the clinical features of 85 fatal cases of Covid 19 in Wuhan, 81.2% of the patients had very low eosinophil counts

    Yingzhen Du , Lei Tu, Pingjun Zhu , Clinical Features of 85 Fatal Cases of COVID-19 from Wuhan. A Retrospective Observational Study American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2020, 201, 1372-79

    In addition to other markers eosinopenia appeared in the majority of patients with COVID-19

    Li Q, Ding X, Xia G, Chen HG, Chen F, Geng Z, Xu L, Lei S, Pan A, Wang L, Wang Z. Eosinopenia and elevated C-reactive protein facilitate triage of COVID-19 patients in fever clinic: A retrospective case-control study. EClinicalMedicine. 2020 May 3;23:100375.

    A survey in the US confirmed these findings : eosinopenia is not unique to COVID-19, but it is more prevalent in COVID-19 than it is in influenza infection. For a cohort of 50 patients the authors found an absence of eosinophils in 88 % of the COVID-19 patients and only 16 % in the influenza group.

    Fahmina Tanni, DO; Eleonora Akker, DO Eosinopenia and COVID-19. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, August 2020, Vol. 120, 504-508

    THE DETRIMENTAL EFFECT OF EOSINOPENIA IS KNOWN SINCE YEARS

    Already in 2004 a paper reported that nearly 90% of SARS-CoV patients had eosinopenia

    Yao X., Zeng Y., Tong Y., Tang X., Yin Z. Determination and analysis of blood eosinophil in 200 severe acute respiratory syndrome patients. Lab Med. 2004;5(19):444–445

    In 2007 it was found that contrary to the dogma that eosinophils have adverse roles in inflamed lungs they dampen airway hyperresponsiveness caused by viral infections

    Stevens JM, Syndercombe-Court D, Oakervee HE, et al. Development of original donor cell leukemia after successful engraftment from a second donor. Blood. 2007;110(13):4621-4622. doi:10.1182/blood-2007-07-104240

    The eosinophil count might be a useful marker of severity. As it is routinely given in the full blood count in all patients admitted to hospital, there is no extra cost for this beneficial test.

    Holland M, Alkhalil M, Chandromouli S, Janjua A, Babores M. Eosinopenia as a marker of mortality and length of stay in patients admitted with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respirology. 2010 Jan;15(1):165-7.

    Also in 2014 eosinopenia was found to be common in people infected by the H1N1 virus. In a cohort of 198 patients, mean age 74 years, mortality was higher for patients with eosinopenia

    H. Flick, M. Drescher, J. Prattes, K. Tovilo, H.H. Kessler, K. Vander, K. Seeber, M. Palfner, R.B. Raggam, A. Avian, R. Krause, M. Hoenigl, Predictors of H1N1 influenza in the emergency department: proposition for a modified H1N1 case definition, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 2014, 20, 2.

    Blood eosinopenia is a strong predictor of 30 day mortality in patients with pneumonia.

    Carlos Echevarria, Tom Hartley, Thapas Nagarajan 30 day mortality and eosinopenia in patients with pneumonia. European Respiratory Journal Sep 2014, 44 (Suppl 58) P2550;

    CONCLUSION

    The pathophysiology for eosinopenia in COVID-19 remains unclear, but it may be multifactorial. Mechanisms may include inhibition of eosinophil egress from the bone marrow, blockade of eosinophilopoiesis, reduced expression of chemokine receptors/adhesion factors, and/or direct eosinophil apoptosis induced by type 1 interferons released during the acute infection.
    Eosinopenia develops promptly after the administration of corticosteroids. However, β-blockers apparently inhibit eosinopenia and favor an increase in the number of circulating eosinophils.

    G Zini, Abnormalities in leukocyte morphology and number. Blood and Bone Marrow Pathology (Second Edition), 2011

    Szczeklik A, Podolec Z. Central regulation of blood eosinophilia by the beta-adrenergic system in rats. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1976;50(3):328-40. PMID: 2558.

  • Reply to: Modern Explanation for Plasmodium vivax Malarial Recurrences   1 day 12 hours ago

    So perhaps it can be concluded that it seems unlikely that future omission of key original references in this whole context would easily go undetected now. Any studious avoidance of referencing appropriately, or creative referencing, would no doubt be horribly conspicuous, i.e. if pertinent citations are not there.

  • Reply to: Modern Explanation for Plasmodium vivax Malarial Recurrences   1 day 12 hours ago

    So perhaps it can be concluded that it seems unlikely that future omission of key original references in this whole context would easily go undetected now. Any studious avoidance of referencing appropriately, or creative referencing, would no doubt be horribly conspicuous, i.e. if pertinent citations are not there.

  • Reply to: Modern Explanation for Plasmodium vivax Malarial Recurrences   2 days 12 hours ago

    There is a bad background to particular non-citation deviousness that took place. It tipped a scale, actually, leading to the above blog. But as things stand, the less said about that matter, and others, the better. The skeletons need to be put to rest.