Reply to: Antibody-Mediated Protection against Plasmodium Sporozoites Begins at the Dermal Inoculation Site
In the paper by Flores-Garcia et al., it is surprising that the authors have written (in its “IMPORTANCE” portion) “Here we report studies indicating that these antibodies display a significant portion of their protective effect in the skin after injection of sporozoites and that one mechanism by which they work is by impairing sporozoite motility, thus diminishing their ability to reach blood vessels”; but this had already been shown over many years in many papers, a few of which were cited by the authors. More surprising, however, is the authors’ claim (also in “IMPORTANCE”) that “…the mechanisms by and location in which they neutralize parasites have not been fully elucidated.” But mechanisms have indeed been elucidated (See for example references 1-2). There is ample evidence that mosquitoes inject significantly fewer sporozoites into immunized mice. This has been shown both with mosquitoes feeding on the skin of the ear pinna and the skin of the abdomen, a site much more representative of the body than the ear because of the greater richness of its network of dermal blood vessels. There is also evidence of the formation of an immune complex between soluble sporozoite antigens in the saliva secreted by mosquitoes and the reaction of these sporozoite antigens with homologous host antibodies at the tip of the mosquito proboscis; this immune complex obstructs the flow of sporozoites within the saliva into the host. Why the authors omit these citations suggests that they are unaware of the relevant literature. Perhaps it might be possible to have the authors write an addendum to their paper to include these comments and the relevant citations. 1) Kebaier, Voza & Vanderberg. 2009. Kinetics of mosquito-injected Plasmodium berghei sporozoites in immunized vs. non-immunized mice. PLoS Pathog 5, e1000399 2) Vanderberg. 2014. Imaging mosquito transmission of Plasmodium sporozoites into the mammalian host: immunological implications. Parasitology International 63:150-64. Jerome Vanderberg, Professor (Retired), NYU School of Medicine email@example.com
Reply to: Importance of genetic manipulation technique in fight against malaria
Not Open Access | Epigenetic editing by CRISPR/dCas9 in Plasmodium falciparum
Reply to: Not Open Access | Epigenetic editing by CRISPR/dCas9 in Plasmodium falciparum
Although this article presents negative aspects of genetic manipulation for introducing permanent changes in the parasite genome of Plasmodium falciparum, the positive aspects of this technique are enormous if one thinks of applying it to vector mosquitoes. Manipulating anopheline females so that they lay mostly male eggs could be the first step in species eradication in Africa for An gambiae and other major vectors. This would be a radical improvement in our tools for the fight against malaria.
Reply to: Artemisia defeats schistosomiasis
Perhaps the work was overlooked rather than ignored (e.g. researchers working on schistosomiasis would not necessarily see comments on MalariaWorld that are related to schistosomiasis). Irrespective of what the case may be, dodgy goings-on certainly do take place in malarial and other fields. I.e. authors actively avoid citing other authors. This is often (but not always) in order to try and get credit for something which should, in fact, be credited to earlier authors. Rumour has it that someone or other is researching the phenomenon. So the chickens might come home to roost if they publish on the subject!
Reply to: Artemisia defeats schistosomiasis
It is frustrating to read a paper like the following:
Life cycle maintenance and drug-sensitivity assays for early drug discovery in Schistosoma mansoni. By Lombardo FC, Pasche V, Panic G, Endriss Y, Keiser in Nature Protocols. 2019 Jan 4, paper which completely ignores extraordinary results obtained by African doctors which were made public 3 years ago in www.malariaworld.org under the title “ Artemisia defeats schistosomiasis” (2565 reads) and 4 years ago under the title "Artemisia annua efficiently cures bilharzia" (4294 reads).
Results which are now published in their final form with all details in a major research paper
Munyangi J, Cornet-Vernet L, Idumbo M, Lu C, Lutgen P, Perronne C, Ngombe N, Bianga J, Mupenda B, Lalukala P, Mergeai G, Mumba D, Towler M, Weathers P. Effect of Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra tea infusions on schistosomiasis in a large clinical trial. Phytomedicine. 2018 Dec 1;51:233-240.
The paper in Nature Protocols blatantly ignores these results. “Drug discovery for schistosomiasis is still limited to a handful of academic laboratories worldwide, with only a few novel antischistosomal lead compounds being actively researched” We recommend that the authors of this paper leave for some time their laboratory bench and visit Africa to see the breakthroughs medical doctors and universities have achieved there against several tropical diseases like schistosomiasis and malaria with Artemisia afra. And recognize that the effort to develop monotherapies in Bigpharma laboratories may be vain.