Reply to: Malaria, IgE, COVID-19, and Vaccines
Indeed, the helminth-associated, potential inhibition of the immune response to vaccination against malaria has been recognized via cited reference number 33 in this publication:
The RTS,S Clinical Trials Partnership. 2014. Efficacy and safety of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine during 18 months after vaccination: a phase 3 randomized, controlled trial in children and young infants at 11 African sites. PLoS Medicine 11: e1001685.
Reply to: NOT Open Access | SnapShot: Antimalarial Drugs
I found this 2-page infographic to be OPEN ACCESS
Reply to: Chloroquine Potentiates Primaquine Activity Against Active and Latent Hepatic Plasmodia Ex vivo: Potentials and Pitfalls
A question related to this most interesting research is whether or not chloroquine somehow potentiates primaquine activity against non-circulating and extra-hepatic merozoites, such as those in human bone marrow. See "Killing of Plasmodium vivax by primaquine and tafenoquine": https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2019.08.009
Reply to: Malaria inhibits Covid
Vitamin E and linoleic acid are antagonistic.
Dam H. Interrelations between vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Bibliotheca Nutritio et Dieta. 1970 ;15:114-128.
Raederstorff D, Wyss A, Calder PC, Weber P, Eggersdorfer M. Vitamin E function and requirements in relation to PUFA. Br J Nutr. 2015;114(8):1113-1122.
Susceptibility to oxidative stress is a well-established feature of the malaria parasite. The antioxidant Vitamin E will inhibit this oxidative stress and favour the growth of Plasmodium. Nutritional manipulation by dietary means can have a profound effect on the growth of the parasite. In particular, rapid induction of vitamin E deficiency in mice by feeding highly unsaturated fatty acids (fish oil) strongly suppresses plasmodial growth.
O. A. Levander and A. L. Ager , Malarial parasites and antioxidant nutrients January, (Human nutrition and parasitic infection) , 1993, 107. pp. S95-S106
Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is known to affect inflammatory responses in different tissues, including the lung. Vitamin E occupies a leading position among the antioxidants tested against influenza virus infections in mice. This is because of its efficacy in preventing oxidative damage through its free-radical scavenging activity. During influenza virus infection, a decrease in natural antioxidant vitamin E was documented. In the presence of antioxidant deficiency, when all cell membranes are exposed and/or damaged, influenza infection proceeds with severe pathology and results in serious damage at all levels in the body.
Milka Mileva and Angel S. Galabov (October 24th 2018). Vitamin E and Influenza Virus Infection, Vitamin E in Health and Disease, Jose Antonio Morales-Gonzalez, IntechOpen, 2018, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.80954.
It appears that in elderly people higher concentrations of vitamin E are required to fight viral infections. The effects of supplementation with vitamin E were investigated on resistance to influenza infection in young and old animals. While vitamin E-supplemented young mice showed only a modest reduction in lung viral titre, vitamin E-supplemented old mice exhibited a highly significant reduction in viral lung titre.
Hayek MG, Taylor SF, Bender BS, Han SN, Meydani M, Smith DE, et al. Vitamin E supplementation decreases lung virus titers in mice infected with influenza. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1997;176:273-276
Mileva M, Bakalova R, Tancheva L, Galabov A, Ribarov S. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on lipid peroxidation in blood and lung of influenza virus infected mice. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 2002;25:1-11
Sung Nim Han and Simin Nikbin Meydani. Vitamin E and infectious diseases in the aged, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 1999, Volume 58, Issue 3, pp. 697-705
Meydani SN, Barklund MP, Liu S, Meydani M, Miller RA, Cannon JG, et al. Vitamin E supplementation enhances cell-mediated immunity in healthy elderly subjects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1990;52:557-563
Artemisia plants are rich in linoleic acid, which is beneficial against malaria, but which might interfere with the positive role of Vitamin E in viral infections.
It is important that any nutritional supplement recommended against Covid, especially for elderly, be evaluated for its benefits ans drawbacks.
Reply to: Malaria: Common Writing Errors
Someone who has malaria has a plasmodial infection. When it is Plasmodium vivax malaria resulting from a single mosquito bite, and a hypnozoite-mediated parasitaemic or clinically apparent recurrence takes place, authors sometimes refer to this type of recurrence as a "relapse infection". However, a so-called "relapse infection" is not a different infection from the primary infection. It is still the same infection (which has relapsed). So technically, "relapse infection" does not make sense. There is no such thing. Write, instead, just "relapse" (not "relapse infection"); or "relapsed infection"; or "relapsing infection". What wording is appropriate will depend on the structure of the sentence, obviously.
I have pointed this out before (elsewhere): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2018.11.006