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Anopheles

Stunning Feature of Life-shortened Aedes

January 2, 2010 - 22:24 -- Mark Benedict

I know this web site is MALARIA World. But the field of genetic control of vectors is so small that I hope you will indulge me in a blog that reaches into arbovirology and highlights the kind of technology we might anticipate against Plasmodia in Anopheles. Genetic control of vectors received another Christmas gift when a bonus remarkable phenotype due to Wolbachia infection - in addition to cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and life shortening - was reported in Cell.

Mosquito abundance and behavior in the influence area of the hydroelectric complex on the Madeira River, Western Amazon, Brazil

October 25, 2009 - 17:51 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Rafael Mesquita Bastos Cruz, Luiz Herman Soares Gil, Alexandre de Almeida e Silva, Maisa da Silva Araújo, Tony Hiroshi Katsuragawa
Reference: 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 103, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 1174-1176, doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.09.007

Malaria is currently highly prevalent and restricted to the north of Brazil, and its dynamics are severely affected by human environmental changes, such as the large dam construction recently approved by the Brazilian Government in Rondônia. We studied the mosquito fauna and behavior before hydroelectric construction. Mosquitoes were captured by human landing catches on the riversides of the Madeira River in Porto Velho, Rondônia. 

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The development and evaluation of a single step multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Anopheles annularis group mosquitoes, human host preference and Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite presence

October 25, 2009 - 17:45 -- Bart G.J. Knols
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Author(s): 
Sunita Swain, Amitav Mohanty, Namita Mahapatra, S.K. Parida, N.S. Marai, H.K. Tripathy, Santanu K. Kar, Rupenangshu K. Hazra
Reference: 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 103, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 1146-1152, doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.03.022

The Anopheles annularis group mosquitoes, subgenus Cellia Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae), includes five recognized species: An. annularis Van der Wulp, An. nivipes Theobald, An. pallidus Theobald, An. philippinensis Ludlow and An. schueffneri Stanton. From these five, the three most common species found in Orissa were considered for this study because of their remarkable vectorial and behavioral variation and the important role they play in malaria transmission. To identify and understand their role in malaria transmission we developed a single multiplex PCR-based assay.  This one-step PCR-based method constitutes a very powerful tool in large surveys of anopheline populations.

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Evidence of multiple pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto from Nigeria

October 25, 2009 - 17:39 -- Bart G.J. Knols
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Author(s): 
T.S. Awolola, O.A. Oduola, C. Strode, L.L. Koekemoer, B. Brooke, H. Ranson
Reference: 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 103, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 1139-1145, doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.08.021

 Pyrethroid insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is a major concern to malaria vector control programmes. Resistance is mainly due to target-site insensitivity arising from a single point mutation, often referred to as knockdown resistance (kdr). Metabolic-based resistance mechanisms have also been implicated in pyrethroid resistance in East Africa and are currently being investigated in West Africa. Here we report the co-occurrence of both resistance mechanisms in a population of An. gambiae s.s. from Nigeria.

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Insecticide resistance and its association with target-site mutations in natural populations of Anopheles gambiae from eastern Uganda

October 25, 2009 - 17:27 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Urvashi Ramphul, Thomas Boase, Chris Bass, Loyce M. Okedi, Martin J. Donnelly, Pie Müller
Reference: 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 103, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 1121-1126, doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.02.014

Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae threatens the success of malaria vector control programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to manage insecticide resistance successfully, it is essential to assess continuously the target mosquito population. Here, we collected baseline information on the distribution and prevalence of insecticide resistance and its association with target-site mutations in eastern Uganda.

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Distribution of pyrethroid and DDT resistance and the L1014F kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Burkina Faso (West Africa)

October 25, 2009 - 17:23 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
K.R. Dabiré, A. Diabaté, M. Namountougou, K.H. Toé, A. Ouari, P. Kengne, C. Bass, T. Baldet
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Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 103, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 1113-1120, doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.01.008

This study reports on the distribution of pyrethroid and DDT resistance and the L1014F knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from 21 localities in three different climatic zones of Burkina Faso from August to October 2006. These results have practical significance for malaria vector control programs.

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Preliminary examination of integrated vector management in a tropical rainforest area of Cameroon

October 25, 2009 - 17:09 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
G.A. Matthews, H.M. Dobson, P.B. Nkot, T.L. Wiles, M. Birchmore
Reference: 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 103, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 1098-1104, doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.03.003

In a malaria-endemic area, a pilot study examined different mosquito control interventions applied to entire villages to assess their impact on vectors, malaria incidence and the quality of life of the communities. Malaria incidence several months after treatments was not significantly different from pre-treatment levels. Blackfly adult populations were reduced for several weeks following larvicide application but recovered when treatment was halted.

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