A thorough understanding of malaria vector species composition and their bionomic characteristics is crucial to devise effective and efficient vector control interventions to reduce malaria transmission. It has been well documented in Africa that malaria interventions in the past decade have resulted in major changes in species composition from endophilic Anopheles gambiae to exophilic An. arabiensis.
Mosquito-proofing of houses using wire mesh screens is gaining greater recognition as a practical intervention for reducing exposure to malaria transmitting mosquitoes. Screening potentially protects all persons sleeping inside the house against transmission of mosquito-borne diseases indoors. The study assessed the effectiveness of house eaves screening in reducing indoor vector densities and malaria prevalence in Nyabondo, western Kenya.
Prompt diagnosis and effective malaria treatment is a key strategy in malaria control. However, the recommended diagnostic methods, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), are not supported by robust quality assurance systems in endemic areas. This study compared the performance of routine RDTs and smear microscopy with a simple molecular-based colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) at two different levels of the health care system in a malaria-endemic area of western Kenya.
Alternative long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) use for purposes other than sleeping protection from mosquitoes is widely debated as a limitation to successful malaria control efforts, yet rarely rigorously studied.
The malaria prevalence has declined in western Kenya, resulting in the risk of neurological phenotypes in older children. This study investigates the clinical profile of pediatric malaria admissions ahead of the introduction of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine.
We appreciate the thoughtful commentary provided by Hamer and Miller and are pleased that they arrived at many of the same conclusions that we did, however we would like to clarify a few points.
PfSPZ Vaccine, composed of radiation-attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites, is administered by direct venous inoculation (DVI) for maximal efficacy against malaria. A critical issue for advancing vaccines that are administered intravenously is the ability to efficiently administer them across multiple age groups. As part of a pediatric safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy trial in western Kenya, we evaluated the feasibility and tolerability of DVI, including ease of venous access, injection time, and crying during the procedure across age groups.
Naturally acquired immunity (NAI), which is characterized by protection against overt clinical disease and high parasitaemia, is acquired with age and transmission intensity. The role of NAI on the efficacy of anti-malarial drugs, including artemisinin-based combinations used as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum, has not been fully demonstrated. This study investigated the role of NAI in response to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), in symptomatic patients living in western Kenya, a high malaria transmission area.
Progress with malaria control in western Kenya has stagnated since 2007. Additional interventions to reduce the high burden of malaria in this region are urgently needed. We conducted a two-arm, community-based, cluster-randomized, controlled trial of active case detection and treatment of malaria infections in all residents mass testing and treatment (MTaT) of 10 village clusters (intervention clusters) for two consecutive years to measure differences in the incidence of clinical malaria disease and malaria infections compared with 20 control clusters where MTaT was not implemented.
Great progress has been made in malaria control during the last two decades although recent estimates suggest that this process has stagnated. Building on the optimism generated by the reductions in malaria-associated morbidity and mortality, there has been a growth in enthusiasm for malaria elimination with the eventual goal of eradication.