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western Kenya

Extensive new Anopheles cryptic species involved in human malaria transmission in western Kenya

October 1, 2020 - 15:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhong D, Hemming-Schroeder E, Wang X, Kibret S, Zhou G, Atieli H, Lee MC, Afrane YA, Githeko AK, Yan G
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Sep 30;10(1):16139

A thorough understanding of malaria vector species composition and their bionomic characteristics is crucial to devise effective and efficient vector control interventions to reduce malaria transmission. It has been well documented in Africa that malaria interventions in the past decade have resulted in major changes in species composition from endophilic Anopheles gambiae to exophilic An. arabiensis.

Evaluating effectiveness of screening house eaves as a potential intervention for reducing indoor vector densities and malaria prevalence in Nyabondo, western Kenya

September 24, 2020 - 08:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Peter Njoroge Ng’ang’a, Collins Okoyo, Charles Mbogo and Clifford Maina Mutero
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:341, 19 September 2020

Mosquito-proofing of houses using wire mesh screens is gaining greater recognition as a practical intervention for reducing exposure to malaria transmitting mosquitoes. Screening potentially protects all persons sleeping inside the house against transmission of mosquito-borne diseases indoors. The study assessed the effectiveness of house eaves screening in reducing indoor vector densities and malaria prevalence in Nyabondo, western Kenya.

Evaluation of the colorimetric malachite green loop-mediated isothermal amplification (MG-LAMP) assay for the detection of malaria species at two different health facilities in a malaria endemic area of western Kenya

September 10, 2020 - 08:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
James Gachugia, Winnie Chebore, Kephas Otieno, Caroline Wangari Ngugi, Adano Godana and Simon Kariuki
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:329, 9 September 2020

Prompt diagnosis and effective malaria treatment is a key strategy in malaria control. However, the recommended diagnostic methods, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), are not supported by robust quality assurance systems in endemic areas. This study compared the performance of routine RDTs and smear microscopy with a simple molecular-based colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) at two different levels of the health care system in a malaria-endemic area of western Kenya.

“After those nets are torn, most people use them for other purposes”: an examination of alternative bed net use in western Kenya

July 29, 2020 - 13:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ellen M. Santos, Jenna E. Coalson, Stephen Munga, Maurice Agawo, Elizabeth T. Jacobs, Yann C. Klimentidis, Mary H. Hayden and Kacey C. Ernst
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:272, 29 July 2020

Alternative long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) use for purposes other than sleeping protection from mosquitoes is widely debated as a limitation to successful malaria control efforts, yet rarely rigorously studied.

The Clinical Profile of Severe Pediatric Malaria in an Area Targeted for Routine RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccination in Western Kenya

July 16, 2020 - 08:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Akech S, Chepkirui M, Ogero M, Agweyu A, Irimu G, English M, Snow RW
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 11;71(2):372-380

The malaria prevalence has declined in western Kenya, resulting in the risk of neurological phenotypes in older children. This study investigates the clinical profile of pediatric malaria admissions ahead of the introduction of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine.

Response to Hamer and Millers' Commentary, "Why did mass test and treat have no effect on malaria prevalence in western Kenya?"

June 23, 2020 - 16:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Samuels AM, Odero NA, Desai MR, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 21:ciaa813

We appreciate the thoughtful commentary provided by Hamer and Miller and are pleased that they arrived at many of the same conclusions that we did, however we would like to clarify a few points.

NOT Open Access | Feasibility of direct venous inoculation of the radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum whole sporozoite vaccine in children and infants in Siaya, western Kenya

May 25, 2020 - 08:00 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Oneko M, Cherop YR, Steinhardt LC, et al.
Reference: 
Vaccine. 2020 May 19:S0264-410 X (20)30614-9

PfSPZ Vaccine, composed of radiation-attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites, is administered by direct venous inoculation (DVI) for maximal efficacy against malaria. A critical issue for advancing vaccines that are administered intravenously is the ability to efficiently administer them across multiple age groups. As part of a pediatric safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy trial in western Kenya, we evaluated the feasibility and tolerability of DVI, including ease of venous access, injection time, and crying during the procedure across age groups.

The role of complement immune response on artemisinin-based combination therapy in a population from malaria endemic region of Western Kenya

May 4, 2020 - 15:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Christine N. L. Wanjala, Elke Bergmann-Leitner, Hoseah M. Akala, Geoffrey Odhiambo, Bernhards R. Ogutu, Ben Andagalu, Edwin Kamau and Daniel Ochiel
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:168, 29 April 2020

Naturally acquired immunity (NAI), which is characterized by protection against overt clinical disease and high parasitaemia, is acquired with age and transmission intensity. The role of NAI on the efficacy of anti-malarial drugs, including artemisinin-based combinations used as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum, has not been fully demonstrated. This study investigated the role of NAI in response to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), in symptomatic patients living in western Kenya, a high malaria transmission area.

NOT Open Access | Impact of Intermittent Mass Testing and Treatment on Incidence of Malaria Infection in a High Transmission Area of Western Kenya

April 29, 2020 - 09:40 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Desai M, Samuels A, Odongo W, Williamson J, Odero NA, Otieno K, Shi YP, Kachur SP, Hamel MJ, Kariuki S, Lindblade KA
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Apr 27

Progress with malaria control in western Kenya has stagnated since 2007. Additional interventions to reduce the high burden of malaria in this region are urgently needed. We conducted a two-arm, community-based, cluster-randomized, controlled trial of active case detection and treatment of malaria infections in all residents mass testing and treatment (MTaT) of 10 village clusters (intervention clusters) for two consecutive years to measure differences in the incidence of clinical malaria disease and malaria infections compared with 20 control clusters where MTaT was not implemented.

Why did mass test and treat have no effect on malaria prevalence in western Kenya

April 27, 2020 - 12:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hamer DH, Miller JM
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 23. pii: ciaa477

Great progress has been made in malaria control during the last two decades although recent estimates suggest that this process has stagnated. Building on the optimism generated by the reductions in malaria-associated morbidity and mortality, there has been a growth in enthusiasm for malaria elimination with the eventual goal of eradication.

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