Colombia has officially adopted the parasite density levels of severe malaria established by the WHO (>50,000 parasites/μl). These values have been inferred from areas of high transmission in Africa and are not consistent with the dynamics of low and unstable transmission in Colombia. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the parasite density values observed in patients with severe malaria and their distribution in the different ecoepidemiological regions of Colombia.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has challenged healthcare systems around the world. Unfortunately, failure has ensued: high-income countries have succumbed to the global emergency despite highly prepared human and technological assets. There is no current consensus on pharmacological management of COVID-19, but chloroquine phosphate (CQ) has emerged as a possible therapeutical candidate.
To categorize and map, at high resolution, the risk of malaria incidence in the Pacific region, the main malaria‐endemic region of Colombia.
The indigenous population is considered a highly susceptible group to malaria because individuals usually live in areas with high exposure to Anopheles and poverty, and have limited access to health services. There is a great diversity of indigenous communities in Colombia living in malaria-endemic areas; however, the burden of infection in these populations has not been studied extensively. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Plasmodium infections in indigenous and non-indigenous communities in two malaria-endemic areas in Colombia.
Artemether–lumefantrine (AL) is the first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection in Colombia. To assess AL efficacy for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Quibdo, Choco, Colombia, we conducted a 28-day therapeutic efficacy study (TES) following the WHO guidelines. From July 2018 to February 2019, febrile patients aged 5–65 years with microscopy-confirmed P. falciparum mono-infection and asexual parasite density of 250–100,000 parasites/µL were enrolled and treated with a supervised 3-day course of AL.
The humoral immune response against Anopheles salivary glands proteins in the vertebrate host can reflect the intensity of exposure to Anopheles bites and the risk of Plasmodium infection. In Colombia, the identification of exposure biomarkers is necessary due to the several Anopheles species circulating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk of malaria infection by measuring antibody responses against salivary glands extracts from Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus and Anopheles (Nys.) darlingi and also against the gSG6-P1 peptide of Anopheles gambiae in people residing in a malaria endemic area in the Colombian Pacific coast.
Knockdown resistance (kdr) is a well-characterized target-site insecticide resistance mechanism that is associated with DDT and pyrethroid resistance. Even though insecticide resistance to pyrethroids and DDT have been reported in Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles benarrochi sensu lato (s.l.), Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles nuneztovari s.l., and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis s.l. malaria vectors in Latin America, there is a knowledge gap on the role that kdr resistance mechanisms play in this resistance. The aim of this study was to establish the role that kdr mechanisms play in pyrethroid and DDT resistance in the main malaria vectors in Colombia, in addition to previously reported metabolic resistance mechanisms, such as mixed function oxidases (MFO) and nonspecific esterases (NSE) enzyme families.