Artemether–lumefantrine (AL) is the first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection in Colombia. To assess AL efficacy for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Quibdo, Choco, Colombia, we conducted a 28-day therapeutic efficacy study (TES) following the WHO guidelines. From July 2018 to February 2019, febrile patients aged 5–65 years with microscopy-confirmed P. falciparum mono-infection and asexual parasite density of 250–100,000 parasites/µL were enrolled and treated with a supervised 3-day course of AL.
The humoral immune response against Anopheles salivary glands proteins in the vertebrate host can reflect the intensity of exposure to Anopheles bites and the risk of Plasmodium infection. In Colombia, the identification of exposure biomarkers is necessary due to the several Anopheles species circulating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk of malaria infection by measuring antibody responses against salivary glands extracts from Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus and Anopheles (Nys.) darlingi and also against the gSG6-P1 peptide of Anopheles gambiae in people residing in a malaria endemic area in the Colombian Pacific coast.
Knockdown resistance (kdr) is a well-characterized target-site insecticide resistance mechanism that is associated with DDT and pyrethroid resistance. Even though insecticide resistance to pyrethroids and DDT have been reported in Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles benarrochi sensu lato (s.l.), Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles nuneztovari s.l., and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis s.l. malaria vectors in Latin America, there is a knowledge gap on the role that kdr resistance mechanisms play in this resistance. The aim of this study was to establish the role that kdr mechanisms play in pyrethroid and DDT resistance in the main malaria vectors in Colombia, in addition to previously reported metabolic resistance mechanisms, such as mixed function oxidases (MFO) and nonspecific esterases (NSE) enzyme families.