The immune mechanisms that determine whether a Plasmodium falciparum infection would be symptomatic or asymptomatic are not fully understood. Several studies have been carried out to characterize the associations between disease outcomes and leucocyte numbers. However, the majority of these studies have been conducted in adults with acute uncomplicated malaria, despite children being the most vulnerable group.
HIV and malaria are associated with immunological perturbations and neurocognitive disorders even when asymptomatic. However, the effect of asymptomatic malaria (AM) in HIV-infected adults on neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is not well understood. This study investigated the biomarkers of systemic inflammation and neurocognition in dually-infected Nigerian adults.
Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium parasites hamper malaria control and eradication. Achieving malaria eradication requires ultrasensitive diagnostics for low parasite density infections (<100 parasites per microliter blood) that work in resource-limited settings (RLS). Sensitive point-of-care diagnostics are also lacking for nonfalciparum malaria, which is characterized by lower density infections and may require additional therapy for radical cure.
Plasmodium falciparum infections in low-transmission settings are often asymptomatic with low parasite densities despite low herd immunity. Based on studies in Zanzibar, this may be due to parasitic (nonvirulence) rather than host (immunity) factors.
Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) is one of the main strategies for protecting pregnant women, fetus, and their new-born against adverse effects of P. falciparum infection. The development of the drug resistance linked to mutations in P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase gene (pfdhfr) and P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthase gene (pfdhps), is currently threatening the IPTp-SP approach.
The prevalence of malaria in India is decreasing, but it remains a major concern for public health administration. The role of submicroscopic malaria and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia and their persistence is being explored. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Kandhamal district of Odisha (India) during May-June 2017. Blood samples were collected from 1897 individuals for screening of asymptomatic parasitemia. Samples were screened using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and examined microscopically for Plasmodium species.
In the Greater Mekong sub-region, Plasmodium vivax has become the predominant species and imposes a major challenge for regional malaria elimination. This study aimed to investigate the variations in genes potentially related to drug resistance in P. vivax populations from the China–Myanmar border area. In addition, this study also wanted to determine whether divergence existed between parasite populations associated with asymptomatic and acute infections.
One of the most important problems in controlling malaria is the limited access to effective and accurate diagnosis of malaria parasitemia. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), malaria is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of anemia and the relationship with asymptomatic submicroscopic Plasmodium infection.
Malaria in India, while decreasing, remains a serious public health problem, and the contribution of submicroscopic and asymptomatic infections to its persistence is poorly understood. We conducted community surveys and clinic studies at three sites in India differing in their eco-epidemiologies: Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Nadiad (Gujarat), and Rourkela (Odisha), during 2012-2015. A total of 6,645 subject blood samples were collected for Plasmodium diagnosis by microscopy and PCR, and an extensive clinical questionnaire completed.
Historically, the global community has focused on the control of symptomatic malaria. However, interest in asymptomatic malaria has been growing, particularly in the context of malaria elimination.