The last malaria parasite standing will display effective adaptations to selective forces. While substantial progress has been made in reducing malaria mortality, eradication will require elimination of all Plasmodium parasites, including those in asymptomatic infections. These typically chronic, low-density infections are difficult to detect, yet can persist for months.
Recent studies from different malaria-endemic regions including western Africa have now shown that Plasmodium vivax can infect red blood cells (RBCs) and cause clinical disease in Duffy-negative people, though the Duffy-negative phenotype was thought to confer complete refractoriness against blood invasion with P. vivax. The actual prevalence of P. vivax in local populations in Ghana is unknown and little information is available about the distribution of Duffy genotypes. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of P. vivax in both asymptomatic and symptomatic outpatients and the distribution of Duffy genotypes in Ghana.
The impact of different types of reactive case detection and/or treatment strategies for malaria elimination depends on high coverage and participants' adherence. However, strategies to optimise adherence are limited, particularly for people with asymptomatic or no infections. As part of a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the effect of reactive treatment in The Gambia, all residents in the compound of a diagnosed clinical malaria patient received dihydro-artemisinin-piperaquine (DP). Using a mixed method approach, we assessed which factors contribute to adherence among the contacts of malaria cases that showed no symptoms.
Transmission stemming from asymptomatic infections is increasingly being recognized as a threat to malaria elimination. In many regions, malaria transmission is seasonal. It is not well understood whether Plasmodium falciparum modulates its investment in transmission to coincide with seasonal vector abundance.
Chronic Sedentary lifestyles have been linked to increased odds of stress, elevated anxiety and diminished wellbeing, inducing cytokine production and predispose to hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. In endemic areas, Plasmodium falciparum and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections can trigger pro-inflammatory cytokine responses. However, the impact of these infections on cytokine response profiles in individuals engaged in chronic sedentary activities is unknown. This study was aimed at addressing these concerns using a predominantly sedentary population of traders in the Tamale metropolis of Ghana.
In clinical trials of therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum, there are usually some patients who fail treatment even in the absence of drug resistance. Treatment failures, which can be due to recrudescence or re-infection, are categorized as ‘clinical’ or ‘parasitological’ failures, the former indicating that symptoms have returned. Asymptomatic recrudescence has public health implications for continued malaria transmission and may be important for the spread of drug-resistant malaria. As the number of recrudescences in an individual trial is often low, it is difficult to assess how commonplace asymptomatic recrudescence is, and with what factors it is associated.
Drug resistance remains a concern for malaria control and elimination. The effect of interventions on its prevalence needs to be monitored to pre-empt further selection. We assessed the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum gene mutations associated with resistance to the antimalarial drugs: sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), chloroquine (CQ) and artemisinin combination therapy (ACTs) after the scale-up of a vector control activity that reduced transmission.
Asymptomatic malaria infections may affect red blood cell (RBC) homeostasis. Reports indicate a role for chronic hemolysis and splenomegaly, however, the underlying processes are incompletely understood. New hematology analysers provide parameters for a more comprehensive analysis of RBC hemostasis. Complete blood counts were analysed in subjects from all age groups (n = 1118) living in a malaria hyperendemic area and cytokines and iron biomarkers were also measured. Subjects were divided into age groups (<2 years, 2-4, 5-14 and ≥15 years old) and clinical categories (smear-negative healthy subjects, asymptomatic malaria and clinical malaria).
In areas of high transmission, malaria in pregnancy (MiP) primarily causes asymptomatic infections; these infections nonetheless increase the risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. In 2014, Tanzania initiated a single screening and treatment (SST) strategy for all pregnant women at their first antenatal care (ANC) visit using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for surveillance purposes. However, there is paucity of data on the effectiveness of SST in the prevention of MiP. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of asymptomatic infections among pregnant women detected by SST, which would have been missed in the absence of the policy.
Infection with P. falciparum parasites may result in a wide spectrum of symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to mild or severe. A number of factors are associated with this heterogeneous response to P. falciparum infection. In the present study, associations between sub‐microscopic asymptomatic P. falciparum with Schistosoma species and TNF (rs1800629) polymorphism were investigated.