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Epidemiological and clinical implications of asymptomatic malaria and schistosomiasis co-infections in a rural community in western Kenya

September 15, 2021 - 12:01 -- Open Access
Kamau E, Yates A, Polyak CS, et al.
BMC Infect Dis. 2021 Sep 9;21(1):937

Malaria and schistosomiasis present considerable disease burden in tropical and sub-tropical areas and severity is worsened by co-infections in areas where both diseases are endemic. Although pathogenesis of these infections separately is well studied, there is limited information on the pathogenic disease mechanisms and clinical disease outcomes in co-infections. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of malaria and schistosomiasis co-infections, and the hematologic and blood chemistry abnormalities in asymptomatic adults in a rural fishing community in western Kenya.

Identification of the asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax gametocyte reservoir under different transmission intensities

September 1, 2021 - 16:27 -- Open Access
Koepfli C, Nguitragool W, Mueller I, et al.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Aug 27;15(8):e0009672

Understanding epidemiological variables affecting gametocyte carriage and density is essential to design interventions that most effectively reduce malaria human-to-mosquito transmission.

Tracking severe malaria disease

August 25, 2021 - 16:00 -- Open Access
Taylor T, Slutsker L
Science. 2021 Aug 20;373(6557):855-856

Female Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria sporozoites to humans in the context of a blood meal. In malaria-endemic areas, most of the ensuing infections are asymptomatic. Some, however, progress to an uncomplicated illness (fever, headache, body aches, and pains).

Not Open Access | Inflammatory cytokine responses in children with asymptomatic malaria infection living in rural, semi-urban and urban areas in south-eastern Gabon

August 10, 2021 - 18:01 -- NOT Open Access
Mbani Mpega Ntigui CN, Oyegue-Liabagui SL, Kouna LC, Imboumy KR, Tsafack Tegomo NP, Okouga AP, Ontoua S, Lekana-Douki JB
Clin Exp Immunol. 2021 Aug 7

Cytokines are soluble mediators of the immune response and their evolution influences the disease outcome. Gaining knowledge on cytokines has become important since they can constitute biomarkers allowing the diagnosis of malaria and preventing severe forms of the disease. Here, we investigated ten cytokines and their circulating levels in asymptomatic Gabonese children with Plasmodium falciparum infection living in urban, semi-urban and rural areas.

NOT Open Access | Mixed Plasmodium Malariae Infections Were Underdetected in a Malaria Endemic Area in the Amazon Region, Brazil

August 10, 2021 - 17:38 -- NOT Open Access
Cunha MG, Santos CS, Raiol M, Costa SPT, Ventura AMR, Póvoa MM, Ribeiro-Dos-Santos Â
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 9:tpmd210296

Plasmodium malariae infections are often asymptomatic and long-lasting. Mixed infections are often underdetected in areas where P. malariae, P. vivax, and P. falciparum are coendemic.

Clustering of subpatent infections in households with asymptomatic rapid diagnostic test-positive cases in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea independent of travel to regions of higher malaria endemicity: a cross-sectional study

July 14, 2021 - 11:13 -- Open Access
Dianna E. B. Hergott, Jennifer E. Balkus, Sean C. Murphy, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:313, 12 July 2021

Prevalence of falciparum malaria on Bioko Island remains high despite sustained, intensive control. Progress may be hindered by high proportions of subpatent infections that are not detected by rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) but contribute to onward transmission, and by imported infections. Better understanding of the relationship between subpatent infections and RDT-detected infections, and whether this relationship is different from imported versus locally acquired infections, is imperative to better understand the sources of infection and mechanisms of transmission to tailor more effective interventions.

NOT Open Access | Asymptomatic malaria infection prevailing risks for human health and malaria elimination

July 6, 2021 - 14:54 -- NOT Open Access
Prusty D, Gupta N, Upadhyay A, Dar A, Naik B, Kumar N, Prajapati VK
Infect Genet Evol. 2021 Jun 30:104987

There has been a consistent rise in malaria cases in the last few years. The existing malaria control measures are challenged by insecticide resistance in the mosquito vector, drug résistance in parasite populations, and asymptomatic malaria (ASM) in healthy individuals. The absence of apparent malaria symptoms and the presence of low parasitemia makes ASM a hidden reservoir for malaria transmission and an impediment in malaria elimination efforts.

NOT Open Access | Sizing the reservoirs of malaria transmission: the contribution of school-aged children

June 23, 2021 - 13:55 -- NOT Open Access
Mayor A, Bassat Q
Lancet Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 16:S1473-3099(21)00130-4

Peaceful coexistence with the infected host, commonly not causing clinical symptoms, is a frequent but poorly understood effect for many human pathogens, including Plasmodium falciparum.

Reactive, self-administered malaria treatment against asymptomatic malaria infection: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial in The Gambia

June 9, 2021 - 07:47 -- Open Access
Joseph Okebe, Edgard Dabira, Umberto D’Alessandro, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:253, 7 June 2021

Selectively targeting and treating malaria-infected individuals may further decrease parasite carriage in low-burden settings. Using a trans-disciplinary approach, a reactive treatment strategy to reduce Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in participating communities was co-developed and tested.

NOT Open Access | Asymptomatic falciparum and Non-falciparum Malarial Parasitemia in Adult Volunteers with and without HIV-1 Coinfection in a Cohort Study in Western Kenya

June 9, 2021 - 07:29 -- NOT Open Access
Kifude C, Stiffler D, Stewart VA, et al.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jun 7:tpmd210012

Asymptomatic malarial parasitemia represents the largest reservoir of infection and transmission, and the impact of coinfection with HIV-1 on this reservoir remains incompletely described. Accordingly, we sought to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic malarial parasitemia in Kombewa, Western Kenya, a region that is endemic for both malaria and HIV-1. A total of 1,762 dried blood spots were collected from asymptomatic adults in a cross-sectional study.


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