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PCR

Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Incorporating Piperonyl Butoxide Reduce the Risk of Malaria in Children in Western Kenya: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

June 16, 2021 - 09:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Minakawa N, Kongere JO, Sonye GO, Lutiali PA, Awuor B, Kawada H, Isozumi R, Futami K
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jun 14:tpmd201069

Malaria vectors have acquired an enzyme that metabolizes pyrethroids. To tackle this problem, we evaluated long-lasting insecticidal nets incorporating piperonyl butoxide (PBO-LLINs) with a community-based cluster randomized control trial in western Kenya. The primary endpoints were anopheline density and Plasmodium falciparum polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive prevalence (PCRpfPR) of children aged 7 months to 10 years. Four clusters were randomly selected for each of the treatment and control arms (eight clusters in total) from 12 clusters, and PBO-LLINs and standard LLINs were distributed in February 2011 to 982 and 1,028 houses for treatment and control arms, respectively.

The Story of a Ship Journey, Malaria, and the HBB Gene IVS-II-745 Mutation: Circassian Immigration to Cyprus

June 9, 2021 - 14:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ergoren MC, Temel SG, Mocan G, Dundar M
Reference: 
Glob Med Genet. 2021 Jun;8(2):69-71

During 19th century, the Circassians were secluded from their lands and forced to migrate to Ottoman Empire properties. Approximately 2,346 Circassians were exiled from Istanbul to Cyprus Island. During the deportation journey, many of Circassian passed away in consequence of malaria and unknown reasons. Overall, 1,351 survivor Circassians managed to reach the island, however, many of them had faced with endemic malaria again in Cyprus. An autosomal recessive hematological disorder thalassemia was the second endemic health condition after malaria, whereas thalassemia carriers show resistance to malaria infections.

Accuracy of malaria diagnostic tests performed on non-invasively collected samples: a systematic review and meta-analysis

June 9, 2021 - 14:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Danwang C, Noubiap JJ, Souopgui J, Gaudart J, Yombi JC, Robert A
Reference: 
BMJ Glob Health. 2021 Jun;6(6):e005634

During the last decade, many studies have assessed the performance of malaria tests on non-invasively collected specimens, but no systematic review has hitherto estimated the overall performance of these tests. We report here the first meta-analysis estimating the diagnostic performance of malaria diagnostic tests performed on saliva, urine, faeces, skin odour (‘sniff and tell’) and hair, using either microscopy or PCR on blood sample as reference test.

Getting to zero: micro-foci of malaria in the Solomon Islands requires stratified control

June 9, 2021 - 07:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tanya L. Russell, Lynn Grignard, Alan Apairamo, Nathan Kama, Albino Bobogare, Chris Drakeley and Thomas R. Burkot
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:248, 5 June 2021

The Solomon Islands has made significant progress in the control of malaria through vector control, access and use of improved diagnostics and therapeutic drugs. As transmission is reduced there is a need to understand variations in transmission risk at the provincial and village levels to stratify control methods.

High incidence of asymptomatic cases during an outbreak of Plasmodium malariae in a remote village of Malaysian Borneo

June 9, 2021 - 07:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Binti Naserrudin NA, Binti Abdul Aziz EI, Aljet E, Mangunji G, Tojo B, Jeffree MS, Culleton R, Ahmed K
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Jun 3;15(6):e0009450

An outbreak of Plasmodium malariae occurred in Sonsogon Paliu village in the remote area of Ulu Bengkoka sub-district of Kota Marudu, Northern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo from July through August 2019. This was the first outbreak of malaria in this village since 2014. On 11th July 2019 the Kota Kinabalu Public Health Laboratory notified the Kota Marudu District Health Office of a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) positive case of P. malariae. This index case was a male from Sulawesi, Indonesia working for a logging company operating in Sonsogon Paliu. During the resulting outbreak, a total of 14 symptomatic cases were detected.

Validation of a novel FRET real-time PCR assay for simultaneous quantitative detection and discrimination of human Plasmodium parasites

June 8, 2021 - 11:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Schneider R, Lamien-Meda A, Auer H, Wiedermann-Schmidt U, Chiodini PL, Walochnik J
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Jun 4;16(6):e0252887

Increasing numbers of travelers returning from endemic areas, migrants, and refugees have led to a significant rise in the number of imported malaria cases in non-endemic countries. Real- time PCR serves as an excellent diagnostic tool, especially in regions where experience in microscopy is limited. A novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based real-time PCR (FRET-qPCR) was developed and evaluated using 56 reference samples of the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Service (UK NEQAS) for molecular detection of malaria, including P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi.

Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum populations in three malaria transmission settings in Madagascar

June 5, 2021 - 06:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fanomezantsoa Ralinoro, Tovonahary Angelo Rakotomanga, Rianasoambolanoro Rakotosaona, Danielle A. Doll Rakoto, Didier Menard, Victor Jeannoda and Arsene Ratsimbasoa
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:239, 27 May 2021

Assessment of the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum parasites from various malaria transmission settings could help to define tailored local strategies for malaria control and elimination. Such assessments are currently scarce in Madagascar. The study presented here aimed to bridge this gap by investigating the genetic diversity of P. falciparum populations in three epidemiological strata (Equatorial, Tropical and Fringes) in Madagascar.

NOT Open Access | Transmission of malaria from donors to solid organ transplant recipients: A case report and literature review

June 1, 2021 - 12:59 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rosso F, Agudelo Rojas OL, Suarez Gil CC, Lopez Vargas JA, Gómez-Mesa JE, Carrillo DC, Meza Ramirez L, Caicedo Rusca LA
Reference: 
Transpl Infect Dis. 2021 May 31:e13660

Malaria is a febrile and potentially fatal infection. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes and less frequently can be contracted through blood transfusions, sharing contaminated needles and syringes, mother-to-child transmission, or after solid organ transplantation (SOT). Posttransplant malaria has rarely been reported in the literature, even in endemic areas. We report the cases of three solid organ recipients in which Plasmodium vivax infection was documented during postsurgical evaluation 30 days after transplant surgery.

Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum in Nigeria: insights from microsatellite loci analysis

May 26, 2021 - 15:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fehintola V. Ajogbasile, Adeyemi T. Kayode, Christian T. Happi, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:236, 26 May 2021

Malaria remains a public health burden especially in Nigeria. To develop new malaria control and elimination strategies or refine existing ones, understanding parasite population diversity and transmission patterns is crucial.

NOT Open Access | Individual, household and neighborhood risk factors for malaria in the Democratic Republic of the Congo support new approaches to programmatic intervention

May 26, 2021 - 14:32 -- NOT Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Carrel M, Kim S, Parr JB, et al.
Reference: 
Health Place. 2021 May 18;70:102581

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) remains one of the countries most impacted by malaria despite decades of control efforts, including multiple mass insecticide treated net (ITN) distribution campaigns. The multi-scalar and complex nature of malaria necessitates an understanding of malaria risk factors over time and at multiple levels (e.g., individual, household, community). Surveillance of households in both rural and urban settings over time, coupled with detailed behavioral and geographic data, enables the detection of seasonal trends in malaria prevalence and malaria-associated behaviors as well as the assessment of how the local environments within and surrounding an individual's household impact malaria outcomes.

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