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PCR

Prevalence of sickle cell disorders and malaria infection in children aged 1–12 years in the Volta Region, Ghana: a community-based study

November 24, 2020 - 14:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mavis Oppong, Helena Lamptey, Eric Kyei-Baafour, Belinda Aculley, Ebenezer Addo Ofori, Bernard Tornyigah, Margaret Kweku and Michael F. Ofori
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:426, 23 November 2020

Alterations in the structure of haemoglobin (Hb) are usually brought about by point mutations affecting one or, in some cases, two codons encoding amino acids of the globin chains. One in three Ghanaians are said to have sickle cell disorders, whereas malaria continues to be one of the leading causes of mortality among children. This study determined the prevalence of sickle cell disorders and malaria infection among children aged 1–12 years in the Volta Region.

Analysis of initial laboratory diagnosis of malaria and its accuracy compared with re-testing from 2013 to 2018 in Yunnan Province, China

November 14, 2020 - 16:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ying Dong, Yan Deng, Yanchun Xu, Mengni Chen, Chun Wei, Canglin Zhang, Xianghua Mao and Jingbo Xue
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:409, 12 November 2020

According to China’s Malaria Eradication Action Plan, malaria cases diagnosed and reported by health authorities at the county level must be further re-confirmed by provincial laboratories. The Yunnan Province Malaria Diagnostic Reference Laboratory (YPMDRL) began the synchronous implementation of microscopic examinations and nested polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) testing to re-test the malaria cases initially diagnosed by county-level laboratories and to evaluate the consistency of Plasmodium species identified between by YPMDRL and by the county-level laboratories from 2013 to 2018 in Yunnan Province.

High prevalence and extended deletions in Plasmodium falciparum hrp2/3 genomic loci in Ethiopia

November 10, 2020 - 13:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Golassa L, Messele A, Amambua-Ngwa A, Swedberg G
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Nov 5;15(11):e0241807

Deletions in Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein 2(pfhrp2) gene threaten the usefulness of the most widely used HRP2-based malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) that cross react with its structural homologue, PfHRP3. Parasites with deleted pfhrp2/3 genes remain undetected and untreated due to 'false-negative' RDT results. As Ethiopia recently launched malaria elimination by 2030 in certain selected areas, the availability of RDTs and the scale of their use have rapidly increased in recent years.

NOT Open Access | Point-of-care tests for malaria: speeding up the diagnostics at the bedside and challenges in malaria cases detection

November 4, 2020 - 15:54 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rei Yan SL, Wakasuqui F, Wrenger C
Reference: 
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020 Nov;98(3):115122

Malaria remains as one of the major public health problems worldwide. About 228 million cases occurred in 2018 only, with Africa bearing about 93% of the cases. Asymptomatic population carrying the various forms of the parasite Plasmodium in endemic areas plays an important role in the spread of the disease. To tackle this battle, more sensitive and precise detection kits for malaria are crucial to better control the number of new malaria cases.

First report of Anopheles (Cellia) multicolor during a study of tolerance to salinity of Anopheles arabiensis larvae in Nouakchott, Mauritania

October 21, 2020 - 08:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ould Lemrabott MA, Le Goff G, Kengne P, Ndiaye O, Costantini C, Mint Lekweiry K, Ould Ahmedou Salem MS, Robert V, Basco L, Simard F, Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary A
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Oct 16;13(1):522

Anopheles multicolor is known to be present in the arid areas of Africa north of the Sahara Desert, especially in oases. To date, its presence in Mauritania has not been reported. Here, we present the first record of its presence in Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania. The larvae of An. multicolor, together with those of An. arabiensis, the major malaria vector in the city, were found thriving in highly saline surface water collections.

Genotyping complex structural variation at the malaria-associated human glycophorin locus using a PCR-based strategy

September 8, 2020 - 12:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Algady W, Weyell E, Mateja D, Garcia A, Courtin D, Hollox EJ
Reference: 
Ann Hum Genet. 2020 Sep 8

Structural variation in the human genome can affect risk of disease. An example is a complex structural variant of the human glycophorin gene cluster, called DUP4, which is associated with a clinically significant level of protection against severe malaria. The human glycophorin gene cluster harbours at least 23 distinct structural variants, and accurate genotyping of this complex structural variation remains a challenge.

Summary of discordant results between rapid diagnosis tests, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction for detecting Plasmodium mixed infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

July 30, 2020 - 14:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kotepui M, Kotepui KU, De Jesus Milanez G, Masangkay FR
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 29; 10(1):12765

Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used to detect malaria parasites among patients who suspected malaria infections in malaria-endemic areas where microscopy is unavailable. Nevertheless, little is known about the performance of RDTs in detecting Plasmodium mixed infections. The present study aimed to evaluate the discordant results between RDTs and microscopy/polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in detecting Plasmodium mixed infections.

Systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy of Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) methods compared to microscopy, PCR, and rapid diagnostic tests, for malaria diagnosis

July 14, 2020 - 15:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Picot S, Cucherat M, Bienvenu AL
Reference: 
Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 10:S1201-9712(20)30551-8

Diagnosis is a challenging issue in the way to malaria elimination. LAMP could be an alternative to conventional methods. Then, it is of interest to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of LAMP for malaria compared to microscopy, PCR, and RDTs.

Therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Chewaka District, Ethiopia

July 14, 2020 - 09:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abdulhakim Abamecha, Daniel Yilma, Wondimagegn Addisu, Hassan El-Abid, Achim Ibenthal, Harald Noedl, Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Mohieddine Moumni and Alemseged Abdissa
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:240, 10 July 2020

The efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in south-western Ethiopia is poorly documented. Regular monitoring of drug efficacy is an important tool for supporting national treatment policies and practice. This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of AL for the treatment of P. falciparum malaria in Ethiopia.

PCR correction strategies for malaria drug trials: updates and clarifications

January 20, 2020 - 15:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Felger I, Snounou G, Hastings I, Moehrle JJ, Beck HP
Reference: 
Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Jan; 20(1):e20-e25

Malaria drug trials conducted in endemic areas face a major challenge in their analysis because it is difficult to establish whether parasitaemia in blood samples collected after treatment indicate drug failure or a new infection acquired after treatment. It is therefore vital to reliably distinguish drug failures from new infections in order to obtain accurate estimates of drug failure rates.

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