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Evaluating performance of multiplex real time PCR for the diagnosis of malaria at elimination targeted low transmission settings of Ethiopia

January 19, 2022 - 20:40 -- Open Access
Mahlet Belachew, Mistire Wolde, Desalegn Nega, Bokretsion Gidey, Legessie Negash, Ashenafi Assefa, Geremew Tasew, Adugna Woyessa and Adugna Abera
Malaria Journal 2022 21:9, 6 January 2022

Malaria incidence has declined in Ethiopia in the past 10 years. Current malaria diagnostic tests, including light microscopy and rapid antigen-detecting diagnostic tests (RDTs) cannot reliably detect low-density infections. Studies have shown that nucleic acid amplification tests are highly sensitive and specific in detecting malaria infection. This study took place with the aim of evaluating the performance of multiplex real time PCR for the diagnosis of malaria using patient samples collected from health facilities located at malaria elimination targeted low transmission settings in Ethiopia.

Neglected malaria parasites in hard-to-reach areas of Odisha, India: implications in elimination programme

January 12, 2022 - 23:06 -- Open Access
Madhusmita Bal, Ramakanta Rana, Arundhuti Das, Hemant Kumar Khuntia, Nilam Somalkar, Niranjan Sahoo, Jyoti Ghosal, Sanghamitra Pati, Ambarish Dutta and Manoranjan Ranjit
Malaria Journal 2021 20:482, 23 December 2021

Information on the foci of Plasmodium species infections is essential for any country heading towards elimination. Odisha, one of the malaria-endemic states of India is targeting elimination of malaria by 2030. To support decision-making regarding targeted intervention, the distribution of Plasmodium species infections was investigated in hard-to-reach areas where a special malaria elimination drive, namely Durgama Anchalare Malaria Nirakaran (DAMaN) began in 2017.

Population genetics of Anopheles arabiensis, the primary malaria vector in the Republic of Sudan

January 5, 2022 - 23:05 -- Open Access
Mashair Sir El Khatim Mustafa, Zairi Jaal, Sumia Abu Kashawa and Siti Azizah Mohd Nor
Malaria Journal 2021 20:469, 19 December 2021

Anopheles arabiensis is a member of Anopheles gambiae complex and the main malaria vector in Sudan. There is insufficient population genetics data available on An. arabiensis for an understanding of vector population structure and genetics, which are important for the malaria vector control programmes in this country. The objective of this investigation is to study the population structure, gene flow and isolation by distance among An. arabiensis populations for developing control strategies.

High prevalence of malaria in a non-endemic setting among febrile episodes in travellers and migrants coming from endemic areas: a retrospective analysis of a 2013–2018 cohort

December 17, 2021 - 21:20 -- Open Access
Alejandro Garcia-Ruiz de Morales, Covadonga Morcate, Elena Isaba-Ares, Ramon Perez-Tanoira and Jose A. Perez-Molina
Malaria Journal 2021 20:449, 27 November 2021

The study aimed to analyse the likelihood of imported malaria in people with a suggestive clinical picture and its distinctive characteristics in a hospital in the south of Madrid, Spain.

Genetic diversity of plasmodium falciparum isolates in Minna, North Central Nigeria inferred by PCR genotyping of Merozoite surface protein 1 and 2

November 25, 2021 - 12:59 -- Open Access
Hadijah UY, Innocent OCJ, Abdulkadir A, Abolarinwa SO, Samuel ES, Chidiebere OA
Infect Genet Evol. 2021 Nov 17:105143

North Central Nigeria is one region in Nigeria with a significant incidence of malaria caused majorly by Plasmodium falciparum. This study utilizes the msp1 and msp2 genes of P. falciparum to examine its diversity and multiplicity of infection (MOI). Blood samples were collected from 247 children across selected healthcare facilities in Minna, from infants and children aged 6 months to 17 years.

A citizen science-based survey of avian mortality focusing on haemosporidian infections in wild passerine birds

November 18, 2021 - 10:29 -- Open Access
Tanja Himmel, Josef Harl, Julia Matt and Herbert Weissenböck
Malaria Journal 2021 20:417, 23 October 2021

Haemosporidioses are common in birds and their manifestations range from subclinical infections to severe disease, depending on the involved parasite and bird species. Clinical haemosporidioses are often observed in non-adapted zoo or aviary birds, whereas in wild birds, particularly passerines, haemosporidian infections frequently seem to be asymptomatic. However, a recent study from Austria showed pathogenic haemosporidian infections in common blackbirds due to high parasite burdens of Plasmodium matutinum LINN1, a common parasite in this bird species, suggesting that virulent infections also occur in natural hosts. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to explore whether and to what extent other native bird species are possibly affected by pathogenic haemosporidian lineages, contributing to avian morbidity.

Detection of high frequency of MAD20 allelic variants of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 gene from Adama and its surroundings, Oromia, Ethiopia

October 9, 2021 - 09:58 -- Open Access
Temesgen File, Tsegaye Chekol, Gezahegn Solomon, Hunduma Dinka and Lemu Golassa
Malaria Journal 2021 20:385, 27 September 2021

One of the major challenges in developing an effective vaccine against asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum is genetic polymorphism within parasite population. Understanding the genetic polymorphism like block 2 region of merozoite surface protein-1 (msp-1) gene of P. falciparum enlighten mechanisms underlining disease pathology, identification of the parasite clone profile from the isolates, transmission intensity and potential deficiencies of the ongoing malaria control and elimination efforts in the locality. Detailed understanding of local genetic polymorphism is an input to pave the way for better management, control and elimination of malaria. The aim of this study was to detect the most frequent allelic variant of the msp-1 gene of P. falciparum clinical isolates from selected health facilities in Adama town and its surroundings, Oromia, Ethiopia.

Performance of rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and PCR for malaria diagnosis in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

October 9, 2021 - 09:56 -- Open Access
Daniel Getacher Feleke, Yonas Alemu and Nebiyou Yemanebirhane
Malaria Journal 2021 20:384, 27 September 2021

Rapid accurate diagnosis followed by effective treatment is very important for malaria control. Light microscopy remains the “golden standard” method for malaria diagnosis. Diagnostic test method must have sufficient level of accuracy for detecting malaria parasites. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), microscopy, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the malaria diagnosis in Ethiopia.

Evaluation of the Sysmex XN-31 automated analyser for blood donor malaria screening at Malawi Blood Transfusion Services

September 30, 2021 - 12:55 -- Open Access
M'baya B, Mfune T, Samon A, Hwandih T, Münster M
Vox Sang. 2021 Sep 23

Balancing blood supply safety and sufficiency is challenging in malaria-endemic countries where the risk of transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM) is ever-present. In support of reducing this risk, our study aimed at evaluating the performance of the Sysmex XN-31 analyser in blood donor malaria screening, as compared with current practice in Malawi.

A comparison of PCR and ELISA methods to detect different stages of Plasmodium vivax in Anopheles arabiensis

September 25, 2021 - 11:41 -- Open Access
Hendershot AL, Esayas E, Sutcliffe AC, Irish SR, Gadisa E, Tadesse FG, Lobo NF
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Sep 15;14(1):473

In characterizing malaria epidemiology, measuring mosquito infectiousness informs the entomological inoculation rate, an important metric of malaria transmission. PCR-based methods have been touted as more sensitive than the current “gold-standard” circumsporozoite (CSP) ELISA. Wider application of PCR-based methods has been limited by lack of specificity for the infectious sporozoite stage. We compared a PCR method for detecting the parasite’s mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome oxidase I (COX-I) gene with ELISA for detecting circumsporozoite protein for identification of different life stages of the parasite during development within a mosquito.


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