The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over three billion people are at risk of acquiring malaria, a parasitic infection that produces more than 200 million new infections and nearly half a million deaths each year. Expanding the access to early diagnosis and treatment is one of the most effective ways to prevent disease complications, reduce patient mortality, and curb the community transmission.
Malaria reactive case detection is the testing and, if positive, treatment of close contacts of index cases. It is included in national malaria control programmes of countries in the Greater Mekong Subregion to accelerate malaria elimination. Yet the value of reactive case detection in the control and elimination of malaria remains controversial because of the low yield, limited evidence for impact, and high demands on resources.
The use of venom fractions from the Iranian cobra could be useful adjunct treatments of malaria with chloroquine. A metabolomic investigation with 1HNMR spectroscopy was conducted on an effective fraction tested earlier using Plasmodium berghei as an experimental murine model.
Vietnam achieved outstanding success against malaria in the last few decades. The mortality and morbidity of malaria in Vietnam have decreased remarkably in recent years, but malaria is still a major public health concern in the country, particularly in the Central Highlands region. In this study, molecular analyses of malaria parasites in the Central Highlands were performed to understand the population structure and genetic diversity of the parasites circulating in the region.
In northwestern Kenya, Turkana County has been historically considered unsuitable for stable malaria transmission because of its unfavorable climate and predominantly semi-nomadic population; consequently, it is overlooked during malaria control planning. However, the area is changing, with substantial development, an upsurge in travel associated with resource extraction, and more populated settlements forming. Recently, numerous malaria outbreaks have highlighted the need to characterize malaria transmission and its associated risk factors in the region to inform control strategies.
Animal movements, especially avian migration, can be a mechanism for the large-scale dispersal and geographic range expansion of parasites. The host-parasite relationships among birds during migration have yet to be fully explored. We characterized the haemosporidian parasite lineages in passerines during spring migration on the Texas coast of the Gulf of Mexico, and identified associations among wintering origin (US, Central America, South America) and foraging height (canopy, understory, ground) and infection status.
Sensitive monitoring of Plasmodium infective mosquitoes in low malaria transmission settings is of high priority for disease control. Early detection of insecticide resistance at low frequencies is also key for vector monitoring nowadays, when new insecticides are launched to control vector populations.
Recently, Gansané and colleagues published an article on inadequate efficacy of two different forms of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in Burkina Faso. The development of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to different ACT partner drugs at levels that could affect the efficacy of two ACT would both be startling and a cause for great concern. In reviewing the available data collected since 2008 on ACT efficacy in Burkina Faso, the analysis shows that the reported efficacy of the tested ACT varies greatly.
The emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination. The interconnectedness of parasite populations may be essential to monitor the spread of resistance. Combining a published barcoding system of geographically restricted single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), mainly mitochondria of P. falciparum with SNPs in the K13 artemisinin resistance marker, could elucidate the parasite population structure and provide insight regarding the spread of drug resistance.
Naturally acquired immunity to malaria is incompletely understood. We used controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) to study the impact of past exposure to malaria in Kenyan adults in relation to infection with a non-Kenyan parasite strain.