Microscopy is the gold standard for malaria epidemiology, but laboratory and point-of-care (POC) tests detecting parasite antigen, DNA, and human antibodies against malaria have expanded this capacity. The island nation of Haiti is endemic for Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria, though at a low national prevalence and heterogenous geospatial distribution. In 2015 and 2016, serosurveys were performed of children (ages 6–7 years) sampled in schools in Saut d’Eau commune (n = 1,230) and Grand Anse department (n = 1,664) of Haiti.
The Plasmodium falciparum parasite is the only human malaria that produces the histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 (HRP2/3) antigens. Currently, HRP2/3 are widely used in malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), but several global reports have recently emerged showing genetic deletion of one or both of these antigens in parasites. Deletion of these antigens could pose a major concern for P. falciparum diagnosis in Haiti which currently uses RDTs based solely on the detection of the HRP2/3 antigens.