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Analysis of false-negative rapid diagnostic tests for symptomatic malaria in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

March 24, 2021 - 15:08 -- Open Access
Parr JB, Kieto E, Kalonji A, et al.
Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 22;11(1):6495

The majority of Plasmodium falciparum malaria diagnoses in Africa are made using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) that detect histidine-rich protein 2. Increasing reports of false-negative RDT results due to parasites with deletions of the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes (pfhrp2/3) raise concern about existing malaria diagnostic strategies. We previously identified pfhrp2-negative parasites among asymptomatic children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but their impact on diagnosis of symptomatic malaria is unknown.

NOT Open Access | Prevalence of Cardiovascular Complications in Malaria: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

March 17, 2021 - 17:03 -- NOT Open Access
Holm AE, Gomes LC, Farias Marinho CR, Silvestre OM, Vestergaard LS, Biering-Sørensen T, Brainin P
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Mar 15:tpmd201414

Recent studies have suggested that malaria may affect the cardiovascular system. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular complications in symptomatic malaria patients. We searched databases such as Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science (January 1950-April 2020) for studies reporting on cardiovascular complications in adults and children with malaria.

Magneto-optical diagnosis of symptomatic malaria in Papua New Guinea

February 15, 2021 - 15:32 -- Open Access
Arndt L, Koleala T, Karl S, et al.
Nat Commun. 2021 Feb 12;12(1):969

Improved methods for malaria diagnosis are urgently needed. Here, we evaluate a novel method named rotating-crystal magneto-optical detection (RMOD) in 956 suspected malaria patients in Papua New Guinea. RMOD tests can be conducted within minutes and at low cost. We systematically evaluate the capability of RMOD to detect infections by directly comparing it with expert light microscopy, rapid diagnostic tests and polymerase chain reaction on capillary blood samples.

Malaria parasitaemia and mRDT diagnostic performances among symptomatic individuals in selected health care facilities across Ghana

February 3, 2021 - 14:09 -- Open Access
Abuaku B, Amoah LE, Peprah NY, Asamoah A, Amoako EO, Donu D, Adu GA, Malm KL
BMC Public Health. 2021 Jan 28;21(1):239

Parasitological diagnosis generates data to assist malaria-endemic countries determine their status within the malaria elimination continuum and also inform the deployment of proven interventions to yield maximum impact. This study determined prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and mRDT performances among febrile patients in selected health care facilities across Ghana.

Plasmodium cynomolgi Co-infections among Symptomatic Malaria Patients, Thailand

February 2, 2021 - 16:48 -- Open Access
Putaporntip C, Kuamsab N, Pattanawong U, Yanmanee S, Seethamchai S, Jongwutiwes S
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Feb;27(2):590-593

Among 1,180 symptomatic malaria patients, 9 (0.76%) infected with Plasmodium cynomolgi were co-infected with P. vivax (n = 7), P. falciparum (n = 1), or P. vivax and P. knowlesi (n = 1). Patients were from Tak, Chanthaburi, Ubon Ratchathani, Yala, and Narathiwat Provinces, suggesting P. cynomolgi is widespread in this country.

Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage in symptomatic patients shows significant association with genetically diverse infections, anaemia, and asexual stage density

January 13, 2021 - 09:59 -- Open Access
Paul Sondo, Biebo Bihoun, Halidou Tinto, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:31, 7 January 2021

Multi-genotype malaria infections are frequent in endemic area, and people commonly harbour several genetically distinct Plasmodium falciparum variants. The influence of genetic multiplicity and whether some specific genetic variants are more or less likely to invest into gametocyte production is not clearly understood. This study explored host and parasite-related risk factors for gametocyte carriage, and the extent to which some specific P. falciparum genetic variants are associated with gametocyte carriage.

Cost-Effectiveness of PBO versus Conventional Long-Lasting Insecticidal Bed Nets in Preventing Symptomatic Malaria in Nigeria: Results of a Pragmatic Randomized Trial

December 23, 2020 - 08:31 -- Open Access
Shepard DS, Odumah JU, Awolola ST
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Dec 21

Insecticide treated nets (ITNs) have been the major tool in halving malaria's burden since 2000, but pyrethroid insecticide resistance threatens their ongoing effectiveness. In 2017, the WHO concluded that long-lasting ITNs (LLINs) with a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), provided additional public health benefit over conventional (pyrethroid-only) LLINs alone in areas of moderate insecticide resistance and endorsed them as a new class of vector control products. We performed an economic appraisal of PBO nets compared with conventional LLINs in 2019 US$ from prevention and health systems perspectives (including treatment cost offsets).

Not Open Access | Hypnozoites in Plasmodium: Do Parasites Parallel Plants

December 2, 2020 - 08:30 -- NOT Open Access
Merrick CJ
Trends Parasitol. 2020 Nov 27:S1471-4922(20)30299-3

The phenomenon of relapsing malaria has been recognised for centuries. It is caused in humans by the parasite species Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale, which can arrest growth at an early, asymptomatic stage as hypnozoites inside liver cells. These dormant parasites can remain quiescent for months or years, then reactivate causing symptomatic malaria.

Comparison of leucocyte profiles between healthy children and those with asymptomatic and symptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections

October 13, 2020 - 12:39 -- Open Access
Diana Ahu Prah, Linda Eva Amoah, Matthew P. Gibbins, Yaw Bediako, Aubrey J. Cunnington, Gordon A. Awandare and Julius Clemence R. Hafalla
Malaria Journal 2020 19:364, 9 October 2020

The immune mechanisms that determine whether a Plasmodium falciparum infection would be symptomatic or asymptomatic are not fully understood. Several studies have been carried out to characterize the associations between disease outcomes and leucocyte numbers. However, the majority of these studies have been conducted in adults with acute uncomplicated malaria, despite children being the most vulnerable group.

Ultrasensitive CRISPR-based diagnostic for field-applicable detection of Plasmodium species in symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria

September 23, 2020 - 09:25 -- Open Access
Lee RA, Puig H, Nguyen PQ, Angenent-Mari NM, Donghia NM, McGee JP, Dvorin JD, Klapperich CM, Pollock NR, Collins JJ
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Sep 21:202010196

Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium parasites hamper malaria control and eradication. Achieving malaria eradication requires ultrasensitive diagnostics for low parasite density infections (<100 parasites per microliter blood) that work in resource-limited settings (RLS). Sensitive point-of-care diagnostics are also lacking for nonfalciparum malaria, which is characterized by lower density infections and may require additional therapy for radical cure.


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