The evolution of malaria infection has necessitated the development of highly sensitive diagnostic assays, as well as the use of dried blood spots (DBS) as a potential source of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) yield for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. This study identified the different Plasmodium species in malaria-positive patients, and the anti-malarial drug resistance profile for Plasmodium falciparum using DBS samples collected from patients attending Kisoro Hospital in Kisoro district, Southwestern Uganda.
Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) has a central immune domain that includes short regions of repeating amino acid sequences. This immunodynamic region is an epitope of B cells that can elicit an immune response in human and laboratory animals. The aim of the present study was to express the recombinant PvCSP-VK210 antigen and evaluate it for assaying antibodies obtained during human P. vivax infection by Western blotting and indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay).
China launched the National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP) in 2010 and set the goal that all health facilities should be able to diagnose malaria. Additionally, hospitals at all levels could treat malaria by 2015. To provide a reference for the control of imported malaria, a study was conducted on the distribution of malaria patients seeking care in different types of health facilities.
Asymptomatic malaria (ASM) constitutes a reservoir of malaria parasites that sustain transmission and threaten elimination efforts. Studies have also shown a significant relation between insulin resistance and malaria infection. However, data on the clinical effects of ASM and its patterns of carriage among adult malaria patients is limited.
Despite the advances in diagnosis and treatment, malaria has still not been eradicated. Metabolic interactions between the host and Plasmodium may present novel targets for malaria control, but such interactions are yet to be deciphered. An exploration of metabolic interactions between humans and two Plasmodium species by high-resolution metabolomics may provide fundamental insights that can aid the development of a new strategy for the control of malaria.
Malaria is no longer a common cause of febrile illness in many regions of the tropics. In part, this success is a result of improved access to accurate diagnosis and effective anti-malarial treatment, including in many hard-to-reach rural areas. However, in these settings, management of other causes of febrile illness remains challenging. Health systems are often weak and other than malaria rapid tests no other diagnostics are available.
A total dose of chloroquine of 25 mg/kg is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to treat malaria by Plasmodium vivax. In several endemic areas, including the Brazilian Amazon basin, anti-malarial drugs are dispensed in small plastic bags at a dosing regimen based on age. This practice can lead to suboptimal dosing of the drug, which can impact treatment outcomes. The aim of the present study was to estimate the extent of sub-dosing of chloroquine in children and adolescents with vivax malaria using an age-based dose regimen, in addition to investigating the influence of age on the plasma concentrations of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine.
Mefloquine shows a high capacity to bind plasma proteins, which influences the amount of drug in erythrocytes. The study investigated the association of lipids levels with plasma concentrations of mefloquine and carboxy-mefloquine in 85 Brazilian patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria.
Malaria-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (MA-ARDS) is an understudied complication of malaria and is characterized by pulmonary inflammation and disruption of the alveolar-capillary membrane. Its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Since endothelial activation plays an important role in other malarial complications, the expression of two endothelial activation markers, von Willebrand factor (VWF) and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2), was investigated in the lungs of patients with MA-ARDS.
Rhoptries are the large, paired, secretory organelles located at the apical tip of the malaria merozoite that are considered important for parasite invasion processes. Plasmodium vivax rhoptry proteins have been shown to induce humoral immunity during natural infections. Therefore, these proteins may be potential novel vaccine candidates. However, there is a lack of data on the duration of antibody and memory B cell (MBC) responses. Here, the longitudinal analysis of antibody and MBC responses to the P. vivax rhoptry proteins PvRALP1-Ecto and PvRhopH2 were monitored and analysed in individuals to determine their persistence.