The Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) cysteine-rich protective antigen (PfCyRPA) has emerged as a promising blood-stage candidate antigen for inclusion into a broadly cross-reactive malaria vaccine. This highly conserved protein among various geographical strains plays a key role in the red blood cell invasion process by P. falciparum merozoites, and antibodies against PfCyRPA can efficiently prevent the entry of the malaria parasites into red blood cells.
Antibodies can be produced as polyclonal (pAb) or monoclonal (mAb) liquid formulations with limited shelf-life. For pAbs, unlike mAbs, only little is known about excipients and lyophilization affecting antibody stability upon reconstitution. We used a model pAb directed against Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) pyridoxal 5′-phosphate synthase 2 (Pdx2) to systemically study effects of bulking agents (amino acids, phosphate buffers, salt solutions), sugar(alcohols), surfactants and protein additions (bovine serum albumin, BSA) in liquid pAb formulations (isolated or in combinations) on the activity to detect the antigen in Pf extracts by Western blots.
Plasmodium falciparum malaria continues to evade control efforts, utilizing highly specialized sexual-stages to transmit infection between the human host and mosquito vector. In a vaccination model, antibodies directed to sexual-stage antigens, when ingested in the mosquito blood meal, can inhibit parasite growth in the midgut and consequently arrest transmission. Despite multiple datasets for the Plasmodium sexual-stage transcriptome and proteome, there have been no rational screens to identify candidate antigens for transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) development.
Rhoptries are the large, paired, secretory organelles located at the apical tip of the malaria merozoite that are considered important for parasite invasion processes. Plasmodium vivax rhoptry proteins have been shown to induce humoral immunity during natural infections. Therefore, these proteins may be potential novel vaccine candidates. However, there is a lack of data on the duration of antibody and memory B cell (MBC) responses. Here, the longitudinal analysis of antibody and MBC responses to the P. vivax rhoptry proteins PvRALP1-Ecto and PvRhopH2 were monitored and analysed in individuals to determine their persistence.