Several studies that aim to enhance the understanding of malaria transmission and persistence in urban settings failed to address its underlining complexity. This study aims at doing that by applying qualitative and participatory-based system analysis and mapping to elicit the system’s emergent properties.
Rhoptries are the large, paired, secretory organelles located at the apical tip of the malaria merozoite that are considered important for parasite invasion processes. Plasmodium vivax rhoptry proteins have been shown to induce humoral immunity during natural infections. Therefore, these proteins may be potential novel vaccine candidates. However, there is a lack of data on the duration of antibody and memory B cell (MBC) responses. Here, the longitudinal analysis of antibody and MBC responses to the P. vivax rhoptry proteins PvRALP1-Ecto and PvRhopH2 were monitored and analysed in individuals to determine their persistence.