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united states

Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2017

March 23, 2021 - 14:54 -- Open Access
Mace KE, Lucchi NW, Tan KR
MMWR Surveill Summ. 2021 Mar 19;70(2):1-35

Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, nosocomial exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to provide information on its occurrence (e.g., temporal, geographic, and demographic), guide prevention and treatment recommendations for travelers and patients, and facilitate rapid transmission control measures if locally acquired cases are identified.

Mosquito-borne parasites in the Great Plains: searching for vectors of nematodes and avian malaria parasites

November 14, 2020 - 16:35 -- Open Access
Noden BH, Bradt DL, Sanders JD
Acta Trop. 2020 Nov 4:105735

Vector-borne diseases in the United States have recently increased as a result of the changing nature of vectors, hosts, reservoirs, parasite/pathogens, and the ecological and environmental conditions. While most focus has been on mosquito-borne pathogens affecting humans, little is known regarding parasites of companion animal, livestock and wildlife and their potential mosquito hosts in the United States. This study assessed the prevalence of mature infections of Dirofilaria immitis and avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida) within urban mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in Oklahoma.

Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine Prescribing Patterns by Provider Specialty Following Initial Reports of Potential Benefit for COVID-19 Treatment - United States, January-June 2020

September 8, 2020 - 11:39 -- Open Access
Bull-Otterson L, Gray EB, Budnitz DS, Strosnider HM, Schieber LZ, Courtney J, García MC, Brooks JT, Mac Kenzie WR, Gundlapalli AV
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Sep 4;69(35):1210-1215

Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, primarily used to treat autoimmune diseases and to prevent and treat malaria, received national attention in early March 2020, as potential treatment and prophylaxis for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1). On March 20, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine sulfate in the Strategic National Stockpile to be used by licensed health care providers to treat patients hospitalized with COVID-19 when the providers determine the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the patient.

Repurposing the open access malaria box reveals compounds with activity against Tritrichomonas foetus trophozoites

August 4, 2020 - 15:33 -- Open Access
Martin KA, Jesudoss Chelladurai JRJ, Bader C, Carreiro E, Long K, Thompson K, Brewer MT
International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance Volume 13, August 2020, Pages 89-93

The protozoan parasite Tritrichomonas foetus causes early embryonic death in cattle which results in severe economic loss. In the United States, there are no drugs are approved for treatment of this pathogen. In this study, we evaluated in vitro anti-protozoal effects of compounds from an open access chemical library against T. foetus trophozoites. An initial high-throughput screen identified 16 compounds of interest.

Barriers to malaria prevention among immigrant travelers in the United States who visit friends and relatives in sub-Saharan Africa: A cross-sectional, multi-setting survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practices

March 18, 2020 - 14:24 -- Open Access
Volkman HR, Walz EJ, Stauffer WM, et al.
PLoS One. 2020 Mar 12;15(3):e0229565

Despite achievements in the reduction of malaria globally, imported malaria cases to the United States by returning international travelers continue to increase. Immigrants to the United States from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) who then travel back to their homelands to visit friends and relatives (VFRs) experience a disproportionate burden of malaria illness. Various studies have explored barriers to malaria prevention among VFRs and non-VFRs–travelers to the same destinations with other purpose for travel–but few employed robust epidemiologic study designs or performed comparative analyses of these two groups. To better quantify the key barriers that VFRs face to implement effective malaria prevention measures, we conducted a comprehensive community-based, cross-sectional, survey to identify differences in malaria prevention knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among VFRs and others traveling to Africa and describe the differences between VFRs and other types of international travelers.

NOT Open Access | Treatment of Severe Malaria in the United States

February 17, 2020 - 12:22 -- NOT Open Access
John CC
Ann Intern Med. 2020 Feb 4;172(3):224-225

The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) shares Krey and Travassos' (1) concerns about treatment of severe malaria in the United States.

Guidance for Using Tafenoquine for Prevention and Antirelapse Therapy for Malaria - United States, 2019

November 30, 2019 - 20:08 -- Open Access
Haston JC, Hwang J, Tan KR.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Nov 22;68(46):1062-1068.

This report summarizes the published efficacy and safety evidence for the recommended doses for both indications and provides guidance for the use of tafenoquine in the United States. A more comprehensive review of the literature on tafenoquine along with the biologic rationale for its use has been published elsewhere (10).

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