Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, nosocomial exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to provide information on its occurrence (e.g., temporal, geographic, and demographic), guide prevention and treatment recommendations for travelers and patients, and facilitate rapid transmission control measures if locally acquired cases are identified.
Vector-borne diseases in the United States have recently increased as a result of the changing nature of vectors, hosts, reservoirs, parasite/pathogens, and the ecological and environmental conditions. While most focus has been on mosquito-borne pathogens affecting humans, little is known regarding parasites of companion animal, livestock and wildlife and their potential mosquito hosts in the United States. This study assessed the prevalence of mature infections of Dirofilaria immitis and avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida) within urban mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in Oklahoma.
Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, primarily used to treat autoimmune diseases and to prevent and treat malaria, received national attention in early March 2020, as potential treatment and prophylaxis for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1). On March 20, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine sulfate in the Strategic National Stockpile to be used by licensed health care providers to treat patients hospitalized with COVID-19 when the providers determine the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the patient.
The protozoan parasite Tritrichomonas foetus causes early embryonic death in cattle which results in severe economic loss. In the United States, there are no drugs are approved for treatment of this pathogen. In this study, we evaluated in vitro anti-protozoal effects of compounds from an open access chemical library against T. foetus trophozoites. An initial high-throughput screen identified 16 compounds of interest.
Despite achievements in the reduction of malaria globally, imported malaria cases to the United States by returning international travelers continue to increase. Immigrants to the United States from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) who then travel back to their homelands to visit friends and relatives (VFRs) experience a disproportionate burden of malaria illness. Various studies have explored barriers to malaria prevention among VFRs and non-VFRs–travelers to the same destinations with other purpose for travel–but few employed robust epidemiologic study designs or performed comparative analyses of these two groups. To better quantify the key barriers that VFRs face to implement effective malaria prevention measures, we conducted a comprehensive community-based, cross-sectional, survey to identify differences in malaria prevention knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among VFRs and others traveling to Africa and describe the differences between VFRs and other types of international travelers.
The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) shares Krey and Travassos' (1) concerns about treatment of severe malaria in the United States.
This report summarizes the published efficacy and safety evidence for the recommended doses for both indications and provides guidance for the use of tafenoquine in the United States. A more comprehensive review of the literature on tafenoquine along with the biologic rationale for its use has been published elsewhere (10).