There is great concern regarding the rapid emergence and spread of drug-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the most severe form of human malaria. Parasite populations resistant to some or all the currently available antimalarial treatments are present in different world regions. Considering the need for novel and integrated approaches to control malaria, combinations of drugs were tested on P. falciparum. The primary focus was on doxycycline, an antibiotic that specifically targets the apicoplast of the parasite.
Conjugation of organometallic complexes to known bioactive organic frameworks is a proven strategy revered for devising new drug molecules with novel modes of action. Herein, we present the in vitro antimalarial and antiproliferative investigation of ferrocenyl α‐aminocresol conjugates assembled by amalgamation of the organometallic ferrocene unit and the α‐aminocresol scaffold.
Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle and represents a veterinary health problem of great economic significance. In order to identify novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of neosporosis, the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) Malaria Box, a unique collection of anti-malarial compounds, were screened against N. caninum tachyzoites, and the most efficient compounds were characterized in more detail.
The regulation of human Arf1 GTPase activity by ArfGEFs that stimulate GDP/GTP exchange and ArfGAPs that mediate GTP hydrolysis has attracted attention for the discovery of Arf1 inhibitors as potential anti-cancer agents. The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum encodes a Sec7 domain-containing protein - presumably an ArfGEF - and two putative ArfGAPs, as well as an Arf1 homologue (PfArf1) that is essential for blood-stage parasite viability.
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Balamuthia mandrillaris, is an under reported pathogenic free-living amoeba that causes Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis (BAE) and cutaneous skin infections. Although cutaneous infections are not typically lethal, BAE with or without cutaneous involvement usually is fatal. This is due to lack of drugs that are efficacious and that can cross the blood-brain barrier. We aimed to discover new leads for drug discovery by screening the open source MMV Malaria and MMV Pathogen boxes (800 compounds total).
The Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) cysteine-rich protective antigen (PfCyRPA) has emerged as a promising blood-stage candidate antigen for inclusion into a broadly cross-reactive malaria vaccine. This highly conserved protein among various geographical strains plays a key role in the red blood cell invasion process by P. falciparum merozoites, and antibodies against PfCyRPA can efficiently prevent the entry of the malaria parasites into red blood cells.
The epidemiological control of malaria has been hampered by the appearance of parasite resistance to anti-malarial drugs and by the resistance of mosquito vectors to control measures. This has also been associated with weak transmission control, mostly due to poor control of asymptomatic patients associated with host-vector transmission. This highlights the importance of studying the parasite’s sexual forms (gametocytes) which are involved in this phase of the parasite’s life-cycle. Some African and Asian strains of Plasmodium falciparum have been fully characterized regarding sexual forms’ production; however, few Latin-American strains have been so characterized. This study was aimed at characterizing the Colombian FCB2 strain as a gametocyte producer able to infect mosquitoes.
Plasmodium vivax malaria is characterized by repeated episodes of blood stage infection (relapses) resulting from activation of dormant stages in the liver, so-called hypnozoites. Transition of hypnozoites into developing schizonts has never been observed. A barrier for studying this has been the lack of a system in which to monitor growth of liver stages.
Management of uncomplicated malaria worldwide is threatened by the emergence in Asia of Plasmodium falciparum carrying variants of the pfk13 locus and exhibiting reduced susceptibility to artemisinin. Mutations in two other genes, ubp1 and ap2μ, are associated with artemisinin resistance in rodent malaria and with clinical failure of combination therapy in African malaria patients. Transgenic P. falciparum clones, each carrying orthologues of mutations in pfap2μ and pfubp1 associated with artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium chabaudi, were derived by Cas9 gene editing.