The Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) cysteine-rich protective antigen (PfCyRPA) has emerged as a promising blood-stage candidate antigen for inclusion into a broadly cross-reactive malaria vaccine. This highly conserved protein among various geographical strains plays a key role in the red blood cell invasion process by P. falciparum merozoites, and antibodies against PfCyRPA can efficiently prevent the entry of the malaria parasites into red blood cells.
The epidemiological control of malaria has been hampered by the appearance of parasite resistance to anti-malarial drugs and by the resistance of mosquito vectors to control measures. This has also been associated with weak transmission control, mostly due to poor control of asymptomatic patients associated with host-vector transmission. This highlights the importance of studying the parasite’s sexual forms (gametocytes) which are involved in this phase of the parasite’s life-cycle. Some African and Asian strains of Plasmodium falciparum have been fully characterized regarding sexual forms’ production; however, few Latin-American strains have been so characterized. This study was aimed at characterizing the Colombian FCB2 strain as a gametocyte producer able to infect mosquitoes.
Plasmodium vivax malaria is characterized by repeated episodes of blood stage infection (relapses) resulting from activation of dormant stages in the liver, so-called hypnozoites. Transition of hypnozoites into developing schizonts has never been observed. A barrier for studying this has been the lack of a system in which to monitor growth of liver stages.
Management of uncomplicated malaria worldwide is threatened by the emergence in Asia of Plasmodium falciparum carrying variants of the pfk13 locus and exhibiting reduced susceptibility to artemisinin. Mutations in two other genes, ubp1 and ap2μ, are associated with artemisinin resistance in rodent malaria and with clinical failure of combination therapy in African malaria patients. Transgenic P. falciparum clones, each carrying orthologues of mutations in pfap2μ and pfubp1 associated with artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium chabaudi, were derived by Cas9 gene editing.
Malaria extensively leads to mortality and morbidity in endemic regions, and the emergence of drug resistant parasites is alarming. Plant derived synthetic pharmaceutical compounds are found to be a foremost research to obtain diverse range of potent leads. Amongst them, the chalcone scaffold is a functional template for drug discovery. The present study involves synthesis of ten chalcones with various substitution pattern in rings A and B and assessment of their anti-malarial efficacy against chloroquine sensitive and chloroquine resistant strains as well as of their cytotoxicity and effect on haemozoin production.
Artemisinins are effective against a variety of parasites and provide the first line of treatment for malaria. Laboratory studies have identified several mechanisms for artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum, including mutations in Kelch13 that are associated with delayed clearance in some clinical isolates, although other mechanisms are likely involved.
Tamoxifen is an oestrogen receptor modulator that is widely used for the treatment of early stage breast cancer and reduction of recurrences. Tamoxifen is also used as a powerful research tool for controlling gene expression in the context of the Cre/loxP site-specific recombination system in conditional mutant mice.
This work aimed includes performing the sclerotia chemical profile and evaluates their biological effects on mutagenesis, oxidative stress, cancer, and malaria. A chemical profile was determined by ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) analysis dereplicating norditerpenoid dilactone, sclerolide, and other compounds.