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in vitro

Vaccination with virosomally formulated recombinant CyRPA elicits protective antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum parasites in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models

February 11, 2020 - 16:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Marco Tamborrini, Julia Hauser, Anja Schäfer, Mario Amacker, Paola Favuzza, Kwak Kyungtak, Sylvain Fleury, Gerd Pluschke
Reference: 
NPJ Vaccines. 2020; 5:9

The Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) cysteine-rich protective antigen (PfCyRPA) has emerged as a promising blood-stage candidate antigen for inclusion into a broadly cross-reactive malaria vaccine. This highly conserved protein among various geographical strains plays a key role in the red blood cell invasion process by P. falciparum merozoites, and antibodies against PfCyRPA can efficiently prevent the entry of the malaria parasites into red blood cells.

Sexual forms obtained in a continuous in vitro cultured Colombian strain of Plasmodium falciparum (FCB2)

February 10, 2020 - 16:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Monica Ararat-Sarria, Cesar Camilo Prado, Milena Camargo, Laura Tatiana Ospina, Paola Andrea Camargo, Hernando Curtidor and Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:57, 3 February 2020

The epidemiological control of malaria has been hampered by the appearance of parasite resistance to anti-malarial drugs and by the resistance of mosquito vectors to control measures. This has also been associated with weak transmission control, mostly due to poor control of asymptomatic patients associated with host-vector transmission. This highlights the importance of studying the parasite’s sexual forms (gametocytes) which are involved in this phase of the parasite’s life-cycle. Some African and Asian strains of Plasmodium falciparum have been fully characterized regarding sexual forms’ production; however, few Latin-American strains have been so characterized. This study was aimed at characterizing the Colombian FCB2 strain as a gametocyte producer able to infect mosquitoes.

A dual fluorescent Plasmodium cynomolgi reporter line reveals in vitro malaria hypnozoite reactivation

January 14, 2020 - 12:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Voorberg-van der Wel AM, Zeeman AM, Kocken CHM, et al.
Reference: 
Communications Biology, 2020 Jan 3; 3:7

Plasmodium vivax malaria is characterized by repeated episodes of blood stage infection (relapses) resulting from activation of dormant stages in the liver, so-called hypnozoites. Transition of hypnozoites into developing schizonts has never been observed. A barrier for studying this has been the lack of a system in which to monitor growth of liver stages.

NOT Open Access | Modification of pfap2μ and pfubp1 Markedly Reduces Ring-Stage Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to Artemisinin In Vitro

December 23, 2019 - 16:02 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Henrici RC, van Schalkwyk DA, Sutherland CJ
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Dec 20;64(1). pii: e01542-19

Management of uncomplicated malaria worldwide is threatened by the emergence in Asia of Plasmodium falciparum carrying variants of the pfk13 locus and exhibiting reduced susceptibility to artemisinin. Mutations in two other genes, ubp1 and ap2μ, are associated with artemisinin resistance in rodent malaria and with clinical failure of combination therapy in African malaria patients. Transgenic P. falciparum clones, each carrying orthologues of mutations in pfap2μ and pfubp1 associated with artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium chabaudi, were derived by Cas9 gene editing.

In vitro anti-malarial efficacy of chalcones: cytotoxicity profile, mechanism of action and their effect on erythrocytes

December 17, 2019 - 16:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Shweta Sinha, Daniela I. Batovska, Bikash Medhi, B. D. Radotra, Ashish Bhalla, Nadezhda Markova and Rakesh Sehgal
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:421, 16 December 2019

Malaria extensively leads to mortality and morbidity in endemic regions, and the emergence of drug resistant parasites is alarming. Plant derived synthetic pharmaceutical compounds are found to be a foremost research to obtain diverse range of potent leads. Amongst them, the chalcone scaffold is a functional template for drug discovery. The present study involves synthesis of ten chalcones with various substitution pattern in rings A and B and assessment of their anti-malarial efficacy against chloroquine sensitive and chloroquine resistant strains as well as of their cytotoxicity and effect on haemozoin production.

Not Open Access | Evolution of resistance in vitro reveals mechanisms of artemisinin activity in Toxoplasma gondii

December 10, 2019 - 08:43 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rosenberg A, Luth MR, Winzeler EA, Behnke M, Sibley LD
Reference: 
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Dec 5. pii: 201914732

Artemisinins are effective against a variety of parasites and provide the first line of treatment for malaria. Laboratory studies have identified several mechanisms for artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum, including mutations in Kelch13 that are associated with delayed clearance in some clinical isolates, although other mechanisms are likely involved.

Tamoxifen activity against Plasmodium in vitro and in mice

December 3, 2019 - 15:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ada Weinstock, Julio Gallego-Delgado, Cláudia Gomes, Julian Sherman, Cyrus Nikain, Sandra Gonzalez, Edward Fisher and Ana Rodriguez
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:378, 27 November 2019

Tamoxifen is an oestrogen receptor modulator that is widely used for the treatment of early stage breast cancer and reduction of recurrences. Tamoxifen is also used as a powerful research tool for controlling gene expression in the context of the Cre/loxP site-specific recombination system in conditional mutant mice.

Not Open Access | Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum (White Mold): Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Antimalarial Effects In Vivo and In Vitro

November 30, 2019 - 20:04 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Pressete CG, Giannini LSV, de Paula DAC, do Carmo MAV, Assis DM, Santos MFC, Machado JDC, Marques MJ, Soares MG, Azevedo L
Reference: 
J Food Sci. 2019 Nov 21

This work aimed includes performing the sclerotia chemical profile and evaluates their biological effects on mutagenesis, oxidative stress, cancer, and malaria. A chemical profile was determined by ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) analysis dereplicating norditerpenoid dilactone, sclerolide, and other compounds.

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