Reactive case detection (RACD) and foci investigation are key strategies in malaria elimination and prevention of its re-establishment. They are a key part of surveillance that has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be considered as a core intervention and as one of the three pillars of the Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016–2030.
Reactive Case Detection
Reactive case detection (RCD) is a commonly used strategy for malaria surveillance and response in elimination settings. Many approaches to RCD assume detectable infections are clustered within and around homes of passively detected cases (index households), which has been evaluated in a number of settings with disparate results.
Reactive case detection (RACD) is a widely practiced malaria elimination intervention whereby close contacts of index cases receive malaria testing to inform treatment and other interventions. However, the optimal diagnostic and operational approaches for this resource-intensive strategy are not clear.
Since 2012, the Zanzibar Malaria Elimination Program has been implementing reactive case detection (RACD). Health facility (HF) staff send individual malaria case notifications by using mobile phones, triggering a review of HF records and malaria testing and treatment at the household level by a district malaria surveillance officer. We assessed the completeness and timeliness of this system, from case notification to household-level response. We reviewed two years (2015–2016) of primary register information in 40 randomly selected HFs on Zanzibar’s two islands Unguja and Pemba and database records of case notifications from all registered HFs for the period 2013–16.