The emergence of insecticide resistance is a major threat to malaria control programmes in Africa, with many different factors contributing to insecticide resistance in its vectors, Anopheles mosquitoes. CYP6M2 has previously been recognized as an important candidate in cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification in Anopheles. As it has been implicated in resistance against pyrethroids, organochlorines and carbamates, its broad metabolic activity makes it a potential agent in insecticide cross-resistance. Currently, allelic variation within the Cyp6m2 gene remains unknown.
The Anopheles gambiae complex consists of multiple morphologically indistinguishable mosquito species including the most important vectors of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in sub-Saharan Africa. Nine cryptic species have been described so far within the complex. The ecological, immunological and reproductive differences among these species will critically impact population responses to disease control strategies and environmental changes. Here, we examine whole-genome sequencing data from a longitudinal study of putative A. coluzzii in western Burkina Faso. Surprisingly, many specimens are genetically divergent from A. coluzzii and all other Anopheles species and represent a new taxon, here designated Anopheles TENGRELA (AT).
Malaria persists as a huge medical and economic burden. Although the number of cases and death rates have reduced in recent years, novel interventions are a necessity if such gains are to be maintained. Alternative methods to target mosquito vector populations that involve the release of large numbers genetically modified mosquitoes are in development. However, their successful introduction will require innovative strategies to bulk-up mosquito numbers and improve mass rearing protocols for Anopheles mosquitoes.
The increase in molecular tools for the genetic engineering of insect pests and disease vectors, such as Anopheles mosquitoes that transmit malaria, has led to an unprecedented investigation of the genomic landscape of these organisms. The understanding of genome variability in wild mosquito populations is of primary importance for vector control strategies. This is particularly the case for gene drive systems, which look to introduce genetic traits into a population by targeting specific genomic regions. Gene drive targets with functional or structural constraints are highly desirable as they are less likely to tolerate mutations that prevent targeting by the gene drive and consequent failure of the technology.
The sibling species of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and Anopheles coluzzii co-exist in many parts of West Africa and are thought to have recently diverged through a process of ecological speciation with gene flow. Divergent larval ecological adaptations, resulting in Genotype-by-Environment (G × E) interactions, have been proposed as important drivers of speciation in these species. In West Africa, An. coluzzii tends to be associated with permanent man-made larval habitats such as irrigated rice fields, which are typically more eutrophic and mineral and ammonia-rich than the temporary rain pools exploited by An. gambiae (s.s.)
During their life cycles, microbes infecting mosquitoes encounter components of the mosquito anti-microbial innate immune defenses. Many of these immune responses also mediate susceptibility to malaria parasite infection. In West Africa, the primary malaria vectors are Anopheles coluzzii and A. gambiae sensu stricto, which is subdivided into the Bamako and Savanna sub-taxa. Here, we performed whole genome comparisons of the three taxa as well as genotyping of 333 putatively functional SNPs located in 58 immune signaling genes.
The SEMOS gold mine in Sadiola, southwestern Mali, has been implementing a malaria vector control programme for 15 y using indoor residual house spraying and sporadic larval control. Periodic screening of the vector populations have been carried out over the years to provide information to the control programme, mainly on vector species present and their insecticide resistance status. The data from five entomological surveys, carried out in 2006, 2011, 2014, 2016 and 2018, are presented.
Mosquito control remains a central pillar of efforts to reduce malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa. However, insecticide resistance is entrenched in malaria vector populations, and countries with a high malaria burden face a daunting challenge to sustain malaria control with a limited set of surveillance and intervention tools.
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) constitute the primary means of bacterial recognition in insects. Recent work in the model organism Drosophila has revealed the mechanisms by which the complement of PGRPs refine the sensitivity of different tissues to bacterial elicitors, permitting the persistence of commensal bacteria in the gut whilst maintaining vigilance against bacterial infection.