Tanzanian adult male volunteers were immunized by direct venous inoculation with radiation-attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (PfSPZ Vaccine) and protective efficacy assessed by homologous controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses were analyzed longitudinally using a Pf protein microarray covering 91% of the proteome, providing first insights into naturally acquired and PfSPZ Vaccine-induced whole parasite antibody profiles in malaria pre-exposed Africans.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe complication of malaria that remains largely unstudied. We aim to describe the development of ARDS associated with severe P. falciparum malaria, its management and impact on clinical outcome.
Malaria transmission has recently fallen in many parts of Africa, but systematic descriptions of infection and disease across all age groups are rare. Here, an epidemiological investigation of parasite prevalence, the incidence of fevers associated with infection, severe hospitalized disease and mortality among children older than 6 months and adults on the Kenyan coast is presented.
Symptomatic malaria is predominantly a disease of childhood in areas of higher transmission (i.e. much of sub-Saharan Africa). Most cases of severe malaria occur in children less than 5 years of age. In these regions both malaria and sepsis are major causes of childhood death, yet the clinical distinction between the two is difficult, particularly if there is no obvious focus of infection. Furthermore, severe malaria predisposes to bacterial infections, particularly with Salmonella sp, so a very sick child may have both.
No abstract available
Despite appreciable immunogenicity in malaria-naive populations, many candidate malaria vaccines are considerably less immunogenic in malaria-exposed populations. This could reflect induction of immune regulatory mechanisms involving Human Leukocyte Antigen G (HLA-G), regulatory T (Treg), and regulatory B (Breg) cells. Here, we addressed the question whether there is correlation between these immune regulatory pathways and both plasmablast frequencies and vaccine-specific IgG concentrations.
A long-held assumption has been that nearly all malaria deaths in high-transmission areas are of children younger than 5 years and pregnant women. Most global malaria mortality estimates incorporate this assumption in their calculations. In 2010, the Indian Million Death Study, which assigns cause of death by verbal autopsy (VA), challenged the reigning perception, producing a U-shaped mortality age curve, with rates rising after age 45 years in areas of India with substantial malaria transmission.
- The diagnosis of malaria should always be considered in travelers returning from an endemic area and presenting with fever or a history of fever, either isolated or combined with other general, digestive, and/or respiratory symptoms, even if appropriate chemoprophylaxis was used.
- Outpatient management of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria may be implemented if precise clinical and biological criteria are met and if medical follow-up is possible.
Approximately 6% of children hospitalised with severe falciparum malaria in Africa are also bacteremic. It is therefore recommended that all children with severe malaria should receive broad spectrum antibiotics in addition to parenteral artesunate. Empirical antibiotics are not recommended currently for adults with severe malaria.
Asymptomatic carriage of Plasmodium falciparum is widespread in adults and children living in malaria-endemic countries. This study identified the prevalence of malaria parasites and the corresponding levels of naturally acquired anti-parasite antibody levels in afebrile adults living in two communities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.