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Not Open Access | Safety and efficacy of a three-dose regimen of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite vaccine in adults during an intense malaria transmission season in Mali: a randomised, controlled phase 1 trial

November 25, 2021 - 12:35 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sissoko MS, Healy SA, Duffy PE, et al.
Reference: 
Lancet Infect Dis. 2021 Nov 18:S1473-3099(21)00332-7

WHO recently approved a partially effective vaccine that reduces clinical malaria in children, but increased vaccine activity is required to pursue malaria elimination. A phase 1 clinical trial was done in Mali, west Africa, to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of a three-dose regimen of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) Vaccine (a metabolically active, non-replicating, whole malaria sporozoite vaccine) against homologous controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) and natural P falciparum infection.

Rethinking the economic costs of hospitalization for malaria: accounting for the comorbidities of malaria patients in western Kenya

November 20, 2021 - 13:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Caroline Watts, Harrysone Atieli, Jason Alacapa, Ming-Chieh Lee, Guofa Zhou, Andrew Githeko, Guiyun Yan and Virginia Wiseman
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:429, 30 October 2021

Malaria causes significant mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa, especially among children under five years of age and places a huge economic burden on individuals and health systems. While this burden has been assessed previously, few studies have explored how malaria comorbidities affect inpatient costs. This study in a malaria endemic area in Western Kenya, assessed the total treatment costs per malaria episode including comorbidities in children and adults.

Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Co-administered Ruxolitinib and Artemether-Lumefantrine in Healthy Adults

November 3, 2021 - 20:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chughlay MF, Barnes KI, Chalon S, et al.
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Oct 25:AAC0158421

Despite repeated malaria infection, individuals living in malaria endemic areas remain vulnerable to re-infection. The Janus kinase (JAK1/2) inhibitor ruxolitinib could potentially disrupt the parasite-induced dysfunctional immune response when administered with anti-malarial therapy. This randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, single center phase 1 trial investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of ruxolitinib and the approved antimalarial artemether-lumefantrine in combination.

The prevalence and density of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections among children and adults in three communities of western Kenya

September 28, 2021 - 09:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Christina Salgado, George Ayodo, Tuan M. Tran, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:371, 17 September 2021

Further reductions in malaria incidence as more countries approach malaria elimination require the identification and treatment of asymptomatic individuals who carry mosquito-infective Plasmodium gametocytes that are responsible for furthering malaria transmission. Assessing the relationship between total parasitaemia and gametocytaemia in field surveys can provide insight as to whether detection of low-density, asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections with sensitive molecular methods can adequately detect the majority of infected individuals who are potentially capable of onward transmission.

B Cell Receptor Repertoire Analysis in Malaria-Naive and Malaria-Experienced Individuals Reveals Unique Characteristics of Atypical Memory B Cells

September 23, 2021 - 11:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Braddom AE, Bol S, Gonzales SJ, Reyes RA, Musinguzi K, Nankya F, Ssewanyana I, Greenhouse B, Bunnik EM
Reference: 
mSphere. 2021 Sep 15:e0072621

Malaria, caused by parasites of the Plasmodium genus, is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality globally. Chronic Plasmodium falciparum exposure affects the B cell compartment, leading to the accumulation of atypical memory B cells (atMBCs). IgM-positive (IgM+) and IgG+ atMBCs have not been compared in-depth in the context of malaria, nor is it known if atMBCs in malaria-experienced individuals are different from phenotypically similar B cells in individuals with no known history of Plasmodium exposure.

Sub-national disparities in accessing anti-malarial drug treatment in eastern Indonesia

August 17, 2021 - 15:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ipa M, Laksono AD, Astuti EP, Prasetyowati H, Pradani FY, Hendri J, Ruliansyah A, Surendra H, Elyazar IRF
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2021 Aug 13;21(1):1548

Poor access to health care providers was among the contributing factors to less prompt and ineffective malaria treatment. This limitation could cause severe diseases in remote areas. This study examined the sub-national disparities and predictors in accessing anti-malarial drug treatment among adults in Eastern Indonesia.

Community knowledge, attitudes and practices towards malaria in Ha-Lambani, Limpopo Province, South Africa: a cross-sectional household survey

April 21, 2021 - 14:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mukhethwa Munzhedzi, Elizabeth T. Rogawski McQuade, Jennifer L. Guler, Piper E. Shifflett, Sara Krivacsy, Rebecca Dillingham and Pascal O. Bessong
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:188, 17 April 2021

Malaria remains a global health concern and is endemic in Limpopo, Mpumalanga and KwaZulu Natal Provinces of South Africa, which aims to eliminate malaria by 2025. Community engagement plays a significant role in improving the acceptability and effectiveness of programmes aimed at reducing malaria transmission. The success of such intervention efforts depends on the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the community, and understanding the KAP of community residents may support malaria control efforts in the locality. In this context, a cross-sectional household survey to assess community KAP on malaria transmission and prevention in the Ha-Lambani village, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province was conducted.

Accelerated phase Ia/b evaluation of the malaria vaccine candidate PfAMA1 DiCo demonstrates broadening of humoral immune responses

April 20, 2021 - 15:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Remarque EJ, Faber BW, Rodriguez Garcia R, Oostermeijer H, Sirima SB, Nebie Ouedraogo I, Kara L, Launay O, Houard S, Leroy O, Kocken CHM
Reference: 
NPJ Vaccines. 2021 Apr 14;6(1):55

Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1) is a candidate malaria vaccine antigen expressed on merozoites and sporozoites. PfAMA1's polymorphic nature impacts vaccine-induced protection. To address polymorphism, three Diversity Covering (DiCo) protein sequences were designed and tested in a staggered phase Ia/b trial.

Epidemiology of Malaria in East Nusa Tenggara Province in Indonesia: Protocol for a Cross-sectional Study

April 14, 2021 - 08:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Guntur RD, Kingsley J, Islam FMA
Reference: 
JMIR Res Protoc. 2021 Apr 9;10(4):e23545

Malaria is a global pandemic that results in approximately 228 million cases globally; 3.5% of these cases are in Southeast Asian countries, including Indonesia. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) initiative, Indonesia is in the process of achieving malaria-free zone status by 2030. However, the eastern part of Indonesia, including the East Nusa Tenggara Province (ENTP), still has a disproportionately high rate of malaria.

Are malaria transmission-blocking vaccines acceptable to high burden communities? Results from a mixed methods study in Bo, Sierra Leone

April 14, 2021 - 08:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kaci D. McCoy, Caroline T. Weldon, Rashid Ansumana, Joseph M. Lamin, David A. Stenger, Sadie J. Ryan, Kevin Bardosh, Kathryn H. Jacobsen and Rhoel R. Dinglasan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:183, 13 April 2021

Malaria transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) could help break the cycle of malaria transmission by conferring community rather than individual protection. When introducing new intervention strategies, uptake is dependent on acceptability, not just efficacy. In this exploratory study on acceptability of TBVs in Sierra Leone, it was hypothesized that TBVs would be largely acceptable to adults and health workers in areas with relatively few ongoing malaria interventions, and that (i) knowledge of malaria and vaccines, (ii) health behaviours associated with malaria and vaccines, and (iii) attitudes towards different vaccines types could lead to greater TBV acceptability.

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