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adults

Mechanisms and targets of Fcgamma-receptor mediated immunity to malaria sporozoites

March 23, 2021 - 14:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Feng G, Wines BD, Beeson JG, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2021 Mar 19;12(1):1742

A highly protective vaccine will greatly facilitate achieving and sustaining malaria elimination. Understanding mechanisms of antibody-mediated immunity is crucial for developing vaccines with high efficacy. Here, we identify key roles in humoral immunity for Fcγ-receptor (FcγR) interactions and opsonic phagocytosis of sporozoites. We identify a major role for neutrophils in mediating phagocytic clearance of sporozoites in peripheral blood, whereas monocytes contribute a minor role.

A human monoclonal antibody blocks malaria transmission and defines a highly conserved neutralizing epitope on gametes

March 23, 2021 - 14:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Coelho CH, Tang WK, Duffy PE, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2021 Mar 19;12(1):1750

Malaria elimination requires tools that interrupt parasite transmission. Here, we characterize B cell receptor responses among Malian adults vaccinated against the first domain of the cysteine-rich 230 kDa gamete surface protein Pfs230, a key protein in sexual stage development of P. falciparum parasites.

NOT Open Access | Increase of Dose Associated With Decrease in Protection Against Controlled Human Malaria Infection by PfSPZ Vaccine in Tanzanian Adults

January 5, 2021 - 15:38 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Jongo SA, Church LWP, Hoffman SL, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 31;71(11):2849-2857

A vaccine would be an ideal tool for reducing malaria’s impact. PfSPZ Vaccine (radiation attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum [Pf] sporozoites [SPZ]) has been well tolerated and safe in >1526 malaria-naive and experienced 6-month to 65-year-olds in the United States, Europe, and Africa. When vaccine efficacy (VE) of 5 doses of 2.7 × 105 PfSPZ of PfSPZ Vaccine was assessed in adults against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) in the United States and Tanzania and intense field transmission of heterogeneous Pf in Mali, Tanzanians had the lowest VE (20%).

NOT Open Access | Adults Are Not Big Children: What Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings Tell Us About Differences in Pediatric and Adult Cerebral Malaria

December 16, 2020 - 10:51 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
John CC
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 16:ciaa1659

Historically, research studies of infections in children have lagged behind those in adults. There are many reasons for this, including the smaller population of children, resulting in smaller numbers for research studies; a reluctance to subject children to the procedures required and the potential harms from new interventions; and a lack of financial incentive with the smaller market for drugs for pediatric conditions.

Concomitant Bacteremia in Adults With Severe Falciparum Malaria

December 8, 2020 - 11:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Phu NH, Day NPJ, Tuan PQ, Mai NTH, Chau TTH, Van Chuong L, Vinh H, Loc PP, Sinh DX, Hoa NTT, Waller DJ, Wain J, Jeyapant A, Watson JA, Farrar JJ, Hien TT, Parry CM, White NJ
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 3;71(9):e465-e470

Approximately 6% of children hospitalized with severe falciparum malaria in Africa are also bacteremic. It is therefore recommended that all children with severe malaria should receive broad-spectrum antibiotics in addition to parenteral artesunate. Empirical antibiotics are not recommended currently for adults with severe malaria.

Red blood cell homeostasis in children and adults with and without asymptomatic malaria infection in Burkina Faso

December 3, 2020 - 12:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kaboré B, Post A, Berendsen MLT, Diallo S, Lompo P, Derra K, Rouamba E, Jacobs J, Tinto H, de Mast Q, van der Ven AJ
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Nov 30;15(11):e0242507

Asymptomatic malaria infections may affect red blood cell (RBC) homeostasis. Reports indicate a role for chronic hemolysis and splenomegaly, however, the underlying processes are incompletely understood. New hematology analysers provide parameters for a more comprehensive analysis of RBC hemostasis. Complete blood counts were analysed in subjects from all age groups (n = 1118) living in a malaria hyperendemic area and cytokines and iron biomarkers were also measured. Subjects were divided into age groups (<2 years, 2-4, 5-14 and ≥15 years old) and clinical categories (smear-negative healthy subjects, asymptomatic malaria and clinical malaria).

Increased malaria parasitaemia among adults living with HIV who have discontinued cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Kitgum district, Uganda

November 12, 2020 - 15:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Orishaba P, Kalyango JN, Nankabirwa JI, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Nov 11;15(11):e0240838

Although WHO recommends cotrimoxazole (CTX) discontinuation among HIV patients who have undergone immune recovery and are living in areas of low prevalence of malaria, some countries including Uganda recommend CTX discontinuation despite having a high malaria burden. We estimated the prevalence and factors associated with malaria parasitaemia among adults living with HIV attending hospital outpatient clinic before and after discontinuation of CTX prophylaxis.

NOT Open Access | What is the burden of malaria in the DRC

October 20, 2020 - 16:09 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Deutsch-Feldman M, Parr JB, Keeler C, Brazeau NF, Goel V, Emch M, Edwards JK, Kashamuka M, Tshefu AK, Meshnick SR
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 15:jiaa650

Despite evidence that older children and adolescents bear the highest burden of malaria, large malaria surveys focus on younger children.

Antimalarial antibody repertoire defined by plasma IG proteomics and single B cell IG sequencing

October 14, 2020 - 12:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Coelho CH, Nadakal ST, Duffy PE, et al.
Reference: 
JCI Insight. 2020 Oct 13:143471

Plasma antimalarial antibody can mediate anti-parasite immunity but has not previously been characterized at the molecular level. Here, we develop an innovative strategy to characterize humoral responses by integrating profiles of plasma immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies with those expressed on B cells as part of BcR. We applied this strategy to define plasma IG and determine variable V gene usage after vaccination with the Plasmodium falciparum zygote antigen Pfs25.

High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infections in adults, Ashanti Region, Ghana, 2018

October 13, 2020 - 12:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Melina Heinemann, Richard O. Phillips, Christof D. Vinnemeier, Christina C. Rolling, Egbert Tannich and Thierry Rolling
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:366, 12 October 2020

Ghana is among the high-burden countries for malaria infections and recently reported a notable increase in malaria cases. While asymptomatic parasitaemia is increasingly recognized as a hurdle for malaria elimination, studies on asymptomatic malaria are scarce, and usually focus on children and on non-falciparum species. The present study aims to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and non-falciparum infections in Ghanaian adults in the Ashanti region during the high transmission season.

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