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adults

Antimalarial antibody repertoire defined by plasma IG proteomics and single B cell IG sequencing

October 14, 2020 - 12:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Coelho CH, Nadakal ST, Duffy PE, et al.
Reference: 
JCI Insight. 2020 Oct 13:143471

Plasma antimalarial antibody can mediate anti-parasite immunity but has not previously been characterized at the molecular level. Here, we develop an innovative strategy to characterize humoral responses by integrating profiles of plasma immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies with those expressed on B cells as part of BcR. We applied this strategy to define plasma IG and determine variable V gene usage after vaccination with the Plasmodium falciparum zygote antigen Pfs25.

High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infections in adults, Ashanti Region, Ghana, 2018

October 13, 2020 - 12:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Melina Heinemann, Richard O. Phillips, Christof D. Vinnemeier, Christina C. Rolling, Egbert Tannich and Thierry Rolling
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:366, 12 October 2020

Ghana is among the high-burden countries for malaria infections and recently reported a notable increase in malaria cases. While asymptomatic parasitaemia is increasingly recognized as a hurdle for malaria elimination, studies on asymptomatic malaria are scarce, and usually focus on children and on non-falciparum species. The present study aims to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and non-falciparum infections in Ghanaian adults in the Ashanti region during the high transmission season.

NOT Open Access | Asymptomatic Malaria Co-infection of HIV-infected Adults in Nigeria. Prevalence of and Impact on Cognition, Mood and Biomarkers of Systemic Inflammation

October 7, 2020 - 15:43 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bharti AR, McCutchan JA, Umlauf A, Okwuegbuna OK, Letendre S, Cherner M, Burdo T, Jumare J, Williams K, Blattner W, Royal W
Reference: 
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2020 Oct 1

HIV and malaria are associated with immunological perturbations and neurocognitive disorders even when asymptomatic. However, the effect of asymptomatic malaria (AM) in HIV-infected adults on neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is not well understood. This study investigated the biomarkers of systemic inflammation and neurocognition in dually-infected Nigerian adults.

Time for pragmatic, prospective clinical trials to determine the role of empirical antibacterial therapy in critically ill adults hospitalised with malaria

October 6, 2020 - 12:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hanson J, Nyein PP, Aung NM, Kyi MM
Reference: 
Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 2:S1201-9712(20)32188-3

Children with severe falciparum malaria in malaria-endemic regions are predisposed to developing life-threatening bacterial co-infection. International guidelines therefore recommend empirical broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy in these children. Few studies have examined co-infection in adults, although it has been believed to be relatively rare; anti-bacterial therapy is therefore not routinely recommended in adults.

NOT Open Access | Treating Severe Malaria

October 1, 2020 - 15:44 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Berman JD
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 30:ciaa887

In “Concomitant bacteremia in adults with severe falciparum malaria” in this issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases, 9 of 845 Southeast Asian adults with severe malaria (1%) had bacteremia upon admission, but 4 of those 9 patients (44%) died compared with 108 of 836 (13%) nonbacteremic patients.

Chemoprophylaxis Vaccination: Phase I Study to Explore Stage-specific Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum in US Adults

September 15, 2020 - 10:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Healy SA, Murphy SC, Duffy PE, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 12;71(6):1481-1490

Chemoprophylaxis vaccination with sporozoites (CVac) with chloroquine induces protection against a homologous Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) challenge, but whether blood-stage parasite exposure is required for protection remains unclear. Chloroquine suppresses and clears blood-stage parasitemia, while other antimalarial drugs, such as primaquine, act against liver-stage parasites. Here, we evaluated CVac regimens using primaquine and/or chloroquine as the partner drug to discern whether blood-stage parasite exposure impacts protection against homologous controlled human malaria infection.

Implementation of a malaria sentinel surveillance system in Togo: a pilot study

September 10, 2020 - 08:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Anne Thomas, Tchaa A. Bakai, Tinah Atcha-Oubou, Tchassama Tchadjobo and Nicolas Voirin
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:330, 9 September 2020

In Togo, the National Malaria Control Programme, in collaboration with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, has implemented a pilot study for malaria sentinel surveillance since 2017, which consists of collecting information in real time and analysing this information for decision-making. The first 20 months of malaria morbidity and mortality trends, and malaria case management in health facilities included in the surveillance were assessed.

Physiological and morphological correlates of blood parasite infection in urban and non-urban house sparrow populations

August 22, 2020 - 14:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bichet C, Brischoux F, Ribout C, Parenteau C, Meillère A, Angelier F
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Aug 19;15(8):e0237170

In the last decade, house sparrow populations have shown a general decline, especially in cities. Avian malaria has been recently suggested as one of the potential causes of this decline, and its detrimental effects could be exacerbated in urban habitats. It was initially thought that avian malaria parasites would not have large negative effects on wild birds because of their long co-evolution with their hosts.

Proteome-wide analysis of a malaria vaccine study reveals personalized humoral immune profiles in Tanzanian adults

July 15, 2020 - 14:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Camponovo F, Campo JJ, Penny MA, et al.
Reference: 
Elife. 2020 Jul 14; 9:e53080

Tanzanian adult male volunteers were immunized by direct venous inoculation with radiation-attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (PfSPZ Vaccine) and protective efficacy assessed by homologous controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses were analyzed longitudinally using a Pf protein microarray covering 91% of the proteome, providing first insights into naturally acquired and PfSPZ Vaccine-induced whole parasite antibody profiles in malaria pre-exposed Africans.

Descriptive Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in adults with imported severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria: A 10 year-study in a Portuguese tertiary care hospital

July 13, 2020 - 16:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Graça L, Abreu IG, Santos AS, Graça L, Dias PF, Santos ML
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(7): e0235437

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe complication of malaria that remains largely unstudied. We aim to describe the development of ARDS associated with severe P. falciparum malaria, its management and impact on clinical outcome.

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