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infections

Prevalence and clinical impact of malaria infections detected with a highly sensitive HRP2 rapid diagnostic test in Beninese pregnant women

May 25, 2020 - 08:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Valérie Briand, Gilles Cottrell, Nadine Fievet, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:188, 24 May 2020

While sub-microscopic malarial infections are frequent and potentially deleterious during pregnancy, routine molecular detection is still not feasible. This study aimed to assess the performance of a Histidine Rich Protein 2 (HRP2)-based ultrasensitive rapid diagnostic test (uRDT, Alere Malaria Ag Pf) for the detection of infections of low parasite density in pregnant women.

Testing possible causes of gametocyte reduction in temporally out-of-synch malaria infections

January 15, 2020 - 14:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mary L. Westwood, Aidan J. O’Donnell, Petra Schneider, Gregory F. Albery, Kimberley F. Prior and Sarah E. Reece
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:17, 14 January 2020

The intraerythrocytic development cycle (IDC) of the rodent malaria Plasmodium chabaudi is coordinated with host circadian rhythms. When this coordination is disrupted, parasites suffer a 50% reduction in both asexual stages and sexual stage gametocytes over the acute phase of infection. Reduced gametocyte density may not simply follow from a loss of asexuals because investment into gametocytes (“conversion rate”) is a plastic trait; furthermore, the densities of both asexuals and gametocytes are highly dynamic during infection. Hence, the reasons for the reduction of gametocytes in infections that are out-of-synch with host circadian rhythms remain unclear. Here, two explanations are tested: first, whether out-of-synch parasites reduce their conversion rate to prioritize asexual replication via reproductive restraint; second, whether out-of-synch gametocytes experience elevated clearance by the host’s circadian immune responses.

The use of ultrasensitive quantitative-PCR to assess the impact of primaquine on asymptomatic relapse of Plasmodium vivax infections: a randomized, controlled trial in Lao PDR

January 7, 2020 - 14:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Koukeo Phommasone, Frank van Leth, Mayfong Mayxay, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:4, 3 January 2020

Trials to assess the efficacy of the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria with 8-aminoquinolines require that most post-treatment relapses are identified, but there is no consensus on the optimal duration of follow-up in either symptomatic or asymptomatic vivax malaria. The efficacy of a 14-day course of primaquine on the cumulative incidence of recurrent asymptomatic P. vivax infections detected by ultrasensitive quantitative PCR (uPCR) as a primary endpoint was assessed.

The probability of a sequential Plasmodium vivax infection following asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections in Myanmar, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos

January 6, 2020 - 16:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lorenz von Seidlein, Pimnara Peerawaranun, Arjen M. Dondorp, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:449, 30 December 2019

Adding 8-aminoquinoline to the treatment of falciparum, in addition to vivax malaria, in locations where infections with both species are prevalent could prevent vivax reactivation. The potential risk of haemolysis under a universal radical cure policy using 8-aminoquinoline needs to be weighed against the benefit of preventing repeated vivax episodes. Estimating the frequency of sequential Plasmodium vivax infections following either falciparum or vivax malaria episodes is needed for such an assessment.

High cases of submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections in a suburban population of Lagos, Nigeria

December 30, 2019 - 14:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Florence A. Umunnakwe, Emmanuel T. Idowu, Olusola Ajibaye, Blessed Etoketim, Samuel Akindele, Aminat O. Shokunbi, Olubunmi A. Otubanjo, Gordon A. Awandare, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa and Kolapo M. Oyebola
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:433,19 December 2019

Asymptomatic malaria parasites are significant sources of infections for onward malaria transmission. Conventional tools for malaria diagnosis such as microscopy and rapid diagnostic test kits (RDT) have relatively low sensitivity, hence the need for alternative tools for active screening of such low-density infections.

Description of Plasmodium falciparum infections in central Gabon demonstrating high parasite densities among symptomatic adolescents and adults

November 26, 2019 - 14:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rella Zoleko Manego, Erik Koehne, Andrea Kreidenweiss, Brice Nzigou Mombo, Bayode Romeo Adegbite, Lia Betty Dimessa Mbadinga, Malik Akinosho, Julian Matthewman, Ayola Akim Adegnika, Michael Ramharter and Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:371, 21 November 2019

Malaria remains a public health issue, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa with special features of seriousness in young children and pregnant women. Adolescents and adults are reported to have acquired a semi-immune status and, therefore, present with low parasitaemia. Children are understood to present with a much higher parasitaemia and severe malaria. It is a concern that effective malaria control programmes targeting young children may lead to a delay in the acquisition of acquired immunity and, therefore, causing a shift in the epidemiology of malaria. Prevalence and parasitaemia were explored in adolescents and adults with Plasmodium falciparum infections compared to young children in the area of Lambaréné, Gabon as an indicator for semi-immunity.

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