Recent results of high-altitude windborne mosquito migration raised questions about the viability of these mosquitoes despite ample evidence that many insect species, including other dipterans, have been known to migrate regularly over tens or hundreds of kilometers on high-altitude winds and retain their viability. To address these concerns, we subjected wild Anopheles gambiae s.l.
Anopheles sinensis is the most widely distributed species which mainly transmit the Plasmodium vivax malaria in China. Transgenic techniques have been successfully established in many other mosquitoes, but not previously reported in An. sinensis. In this study, the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3‐EGFP afm] and the piggyBac helper plasmid phspBac were coinjected into preblastoderm eggs of An. sinensis, and the progenies were screened for eye EGFP fluorescence using a fluorescence microscope.
Documenting isolation is notoriously difficult for species with vast polymorphic populations. High proportions of shared variation impede estimation of connectivity, even despite leveraging information from many genetic markers. We overcome these impediments by combining classical analysis of neutral variation with assays of the structure of selected variation, demonstrated using populations of the principal African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Accurate estimation of mosquito migration is crucial for efforts to combat malaria.