Remote rural riverine villages account for most of the reported malaria cases in the Peruvian Amazon. As transmission decreases due to intensive standard control efforts, malaria strategies in these villages will need to be more focused and adapted to local epidemiology.
The Peruvian Ministry of Health reports a near absence of malaria cases in the Amazon region during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the rapid increase in SARS-CoV-2 infections has overwhelmed the Peruvian health system, leading to national panic and closure of public medical facilities, casting doubt on how accurately malaria cases' numbers reflect reality.
Malaria is highly heterogeneous; its changing malaria micro-epidemiology needs to be addressed to support malaria elimination efforts at the regional level.
Case management is one of the principal strategies for malaria control. This study aimed to estimate the economic costs of uncomplicated malaria case management and explore the influence of health-seeking behaviours on those costs.
During April–June 2014 in a malaria-endemic rural community close to the city of Iquitos in Peru, we detected evidence of Guaroa virus (GROV) infection in 14 febrile persons, of whom 6 also had evidence of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Cases were discovered through a long-term febrile illness surveillance network at local participating health facilities.
Serological tools for the accurate detection of recent malaria exposure are needed to guide and monitor malaria control efforts. IgG responses against P. vivax and P. falciparum merozoite surface protein-10 (MSP10) were measured as a potential way to identify recent malaria exposure in the Peruvian Amazon.
Despite efforts made over decades by the Peruvian government to eliminate malaria, Plasmodium vivax remains a challenge for public health decision-makers in the country. The uneven distribution of its incidence, plus its complex pattern of dispersion, has made ineffective control measures based on global information that lack the necessary detail to understand transmission fully. In this sense, population genetic tools can complement current surveillance. This study describes the genetic diversity and population structure from September 2012 to March 2015 in three geographically distant settlements, Cahuide (CAH), Lupuna (LUP) and Santa Emilia (STE), located in the Peruvian Amazon.